C++ Tutorial Index

C++ Tutorial C++ History C++ Installation C++ First Program C++ cin and cout C++ Data type C++ Variable C++ operator C++ Keywords

C++ Control Statements

C++ If C++ Nested if C++ If-else C++ If-else-if C++ Switch C++ Break C++ Continue C++ Goto C++ For loop C++ While loop C++ Do while loop

C++ Functions

C++ Call by Value C++ Call by Reference C++ Recursion Function C++ Inline function C++ Friend function

C++ Arrays

Single dimension array Two dimension array

C++ Strings

C++ Strings

C++ Inheritance

C++ Inheritance Single level Inheritance Multilevel Inheritance Multiple Inheritance Hierarchical Inheritance Hybrid Inheritance

C++ Polymorphism

C++ Polymorphism C++ Overloading C++ Overriding C++ Virtual Function

C++ Pointers

C++ Pointers C++ this pointer

C++ Exception Handling

C++ Exception Handling

C++ Constructors

C++ Constructors Default Constructor Parameterize Constructor Copy constructor Constructor Overloading Destructor

C++ File Handling

C++ File Handling C++ Writing to file C++ Reading file C++ Close file

Miscellaneous

C Vs C++ C++ Comments C++ Data Abstraction C++ Identifier C++ Memory Management C++ Storage Classes C++ Void Pointer C++ Array To Function C++ Expressions C++ Features C++ Interfaces C++ Encapsulation std::min in C++ External merge sort in C++ Remove duplicates from sorted array in C++ Precision of floating point numbers Using these functions floor(), ceil(), trunc(), round() and setprecision() in C++ C++ References C++ Friend Functions C++ Mutable keyword Unary Operators in C++ Initialize Array of objects with parameterized constructors in C++ Differences between #define & const in C/C++ C++ Program to Implement Shell Sort C++ Program to Implement Merge Sort Storage Classes in C Vector resize() in C++ Passing by Reference Vs. Passing by the pointer in C++ Free vs delete() in C++ goto statement in C and C++ C++ program to read string using cin.getline() C++ String Concatenation Heap Sort in C++ Swap numbers in C++ Input Iterators in C++ Fibonacci Series in C++ C ++ Program: Alphabet Triangle and Number Triangle C++ Program: Matrix Multiplication C++ Program to Print Fibonacci Triangle Stack in C++ Maps in C++ Queue in C++ C++ Bitset C++ Algorithms Priority Queue in C++ C++ Multimap C++ Deque Function Pointer in C++ Sizeof() Operators in C++ C++ array of Pointers free() Vs delete in C Timsort Implementation Using C++ CPP Templates C++ Aggregation C++ Enumeration C++ Math Functions C++ Object Class C++ Queue Initialize Vector in C++ Vector in C++ C++ STL Components Function overloading in C++ C++ Maximum Index Problem C++ find missing in the second array C++ Program to find the product array puzzle C++ Program To Find Largest Subarray With 0 Sum C++ Program To Move All Zeros To The End Of The Array C++ Program to find the element that occurs once C++ Program to find the largest number formed from an array Constructor Vs Destructor C++ Namespaces C++ OOPs Concept C++ Static C++ Structs C++ Try-Catch C++ User Defined Exceptions C++ Virtual Destructor C++ vs C# Malloc() and new in C++ Palindrome Number Program in C++ Snake Code in C++ Splitting a string in C++ Structure Vs Class in C++ Virtual Function Vs Pure Virtual Function C++ Bidirectional Iterators C++ Forward Iterators C++ Iterators C++ Output Iterators C++ Range-based For Loop Converting string into integer in C++ LCM Program in C++ Type conversion in C++ Add two numbers using the function in C++ Advantage and disadvantage friend function C++ Armstrong Number Program in C++ ATM machine program in C++ using functions Binary to Decimal in C++ Bit Manipulation in C++ C++ Constructor C++ Dijkstra Algorithm Using the Priority Queue C++ int into String C++ Signal Handling Decimal to Binary in C++ Decimal to Hexadecimal in C++ Decimal to Octal in C++ Factorial Program in C++ Function in C++ Hexadecimal to Decimal in C++ Octal to Decimal in C++ Reverse a Number in C++ Structure Vs Class in C++ C++ Forward Iterators C++ Output Iterators C++ Prime number program Char Array to String in C++ Constructor Overloading in C++ Default arguments in C++ Different Ways to Compare Strings in C++ Dynamic Binding in C++ Program to convert infix to postfix expression in C++ SET Data Structure in C++ Upcasting and Downcasting in C++ Reverse an Array in C++ Fast Input and Output in C++ Delete Operator in C++ Copy elision in C++ C++ Date and Time C++ Bitwise XOR Operator Array of sets in C++ Binary Operator Overloading in C++ Binary Search in C++ Implementing the sets without C++ STL containers Scope Resolution Operator in C++ Smart pointers in C++ Types of polymorphism in C++ Exception Handling in C++ vs Java Const Keyword in C++ Type Casting in C++ Static keyword in C++ vs Java Inheritance in C++ vs Java How to concatenate two strings in C++ Programs to Print Pyramid Patterns in C++ swap() function in C++ Structure of C++ Program Stringstream in C++ and its applications rand() and srand() in C / C++ C++ Ternary Operator C++ Scope of Variables While Loop Examples in C++ Star pattern in C++ using For Loops For Loop Examples in C++ Do-While Loop Examples in C++ Top 5 IDEs for C++ That You Should Try Once Assertions in C/C++ C++ Convert Int to String Continue in C++ While loop Diamond Pattern in C++ using For Loop How to Reverse a String in C++ using Do-While Loop How to Reverse a String in C++ using For Loop How to Reverse a String in C++ using While Loop Infinite loop in C++ Loops in C++

C++ Algorithms

There are plenty of programming paradigms that are closely associated with the implementations of code and simulate them into a proper functional one. This is done with the help of some important functions which are present in a workbook called the library.

There are various types of functions present in the C++ Algorithms Library. Let us straightway look at the categories.

Min/Max:

        Function        Description
minReturn smallest element in the range
maxReturn the largest element in the range
minmaxReturn smallest and largest element
min_elementReturns smallest element
max_elementReturns largest element
minmax_elementReturns both(smallest and largest)

Merge:

        Function       Description
mergemerges two elements in sorted order
includesSearches inclusion of another range in sorted range
inplace_mergeReturns two consecutive merged range
set_unionReturn union of two sorted ranges
set_intersectionReturns intersecting sorted ranges
set_differenceReturn the difference of two ranges
set_symmetric_differenceReturns symmetric sorted difference

Sorting:

         Function         Description
sortSorts all the elements in a range
is_sortedChecks whether elements are sorted
is_sorted_untilChecks range till range of sorting
nth_elementCheck nth sorts of elements in range
partial_sortSorts range elements partially
partial_sort_copyCopies the sorted elements in range
stable_sortMaintains specific equivalent order while sorting elements in the range

The above functions are immensely used while programming. Since there are hundreds of such functions present in the STL library, we'll be discussing some of them using a coding example.

Simplest sorting algorithm: Bubble Sort

Code:

 #include<bits/stdc++.h>
 using namespace std; 
 int main() 
 { 
 #include<bits/stdc++.h>
 using namespace std;
 int main ()
 {
    int i, j,temp,pass=0;
    int a[10] = {1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8};
    cout <<"Input list: \n";
    for(i = 0; i<10; i++) {
       cout <<a[i]<<"\t";
    }
 cout<<endl;
 for(i = 0; i<10; i++) {
    for(j = i+1; j<10; j++)
    {
       if(a[j] < a[i]) {
          temp = a[i];
          a[i] = a[j];
          a[j] = temp;
       }
    }
    pass++;
 }
 cout <<"Elements after sorting: \n";
 for(i = 0; i<10; i++) {
    cout <<a[i]<<"\t";
 }
 cout<<"\nNumber of passes taken: "<<pass<<endl;
 return 0;
 } 

Output:

C++ Algorithms

Explanation:

The above code is a simple depiction of a sorting technique popularly known as Bubble Sort. Bubble sort works on the following algorithm:

 START
 Step 1:
  For i = 0 to N-1
 repeat Step 2
 Step 2:
 For J = i + 1 to N – I
 Repeat
 Step 3: if A[J] > A[i]
 Swap A[J] and A[i]
 [first loop ends]
 [second loop ends]
 END 

The first loop is started from the 0th element and the next loop is iterated from an adjacent element. In the inner loop, we compare each associated element and swap them if they are found not in order. Additionally, at the end of each iteration performed by the outer loop, the heaviest or the greatest element is bubbled up at the end.

The comparison is done using passes. Passes are nothing but the swapped value that occurs while iterating through each element. In this case, 3 passes are occurring to sort the given items. With each pass the largest element is shifted last i.e. after the first pass, the largest element is shifted last. In second pass, the largest item is shifted at 2nd last position, and so on.

Min/Max Algorithm

Minmax function example:

#include<bits/stdc++.h>

using namespace std;

int main ()

{

  auto values = minmax({100,222,324,401,500});

  cout << "Minimum and Maximum values are: ";

  cout << values.first << ' ' << values.second << endl;

  return 0;

}

Output:

C++ Algorithms

Explanation:

The above code is a simple depiction of the minmax function discussed earlier. It is present in the <algorithm> header file thus using <bits/stdc++> imports all the necessary files required. In the above code, we have defined a variable 'value' which stores all the elements given. These elements are passed as an argument to minmax function and the result is displayed on the console in the form of a minimum and maximum values.

Searching Algorithm:

Binary Search:

 #include<bits/stdc++.h>
 using namespace std;
 int binarySearch(int array[], int x, int low, int high)
 {
   while (low <= high) {
     int mid = low + (high - low) / 2;
     if (array[mid] == x)
       return mid;
     if (array[mid] < x)
       low = mid + 1;
     else
       high = mid - 1;
  }
   return -1;
 }
 int main() {
   int array[] = {5,6,8,1,9,4,10};
   int x;
   cin>>x;
   int n = sizeof(array) / sizeof(array[0]);
   int result = binarySearch(array, x, 0, n - 1);
   if (result == -1)
     cout<<"Not found";
   else
     cout<<"Element is found at index: "<<result;
 } 

Output:

C++ Algorithms

Explanation:

Binary search works on the concept of following algorithm:

 START
 Step1: x is compared to middle element.
 Step 2: Return the middle element if x matches.
 Step 3: If x is greater than middle element, it is shifted right.
 Step 4: Else x (if smaller than mid-element) is shifted left.
 END 

The binary search algorithm is typically used to find an element present in a huge data-set. It can be compared to a search of a contact in the telephone directory where the directory is divided into two equal parts and the range in which the proximity of getting element is maximum, the range yet again divided to reduce time in traversing through each element present.



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