C++ Tutorial Index

C++ Tutorial C++ History C++ Installation C++ First Program C++ cin and cout C++ Data type C++ Variable C++ operator C++ Keywords

C++ Control Statements

C++ If C++ Nested if C++ If-else C++ If-else-if C++ Switch C++ Break C++ Continue C++ Goto C++ For loop C++ While loop C++ Do while loop

C++ Functions

C++ Call by Value C++ Call by Reference C++ Recursion Function C++ Inline function C++ Friend function

C++ Arrays

Single dimension array Two dimension array

C++ Strings

C++ Strings

C++ Inheritance

C++ Inheritance Single level Inheritance Multilevel Inheritance Multiple Inheritance Hierarchical Inheritance Hybrid Inheritance

C++ Polymorphism

C++ Polymorphism C++ Overloading C++ Overriding C++ Virtual Function

C++ Pointers

C++ Pointers C++ this pointer

C++ Exception Handling

C++ Exception Handling

C++ Constructors

C++ Constructors Default Constructor Parameterize Constructor Copy constructor Constructor Overloading Destructor

C++ File Handling

C++ File Handling C++ Writing to file C++ Reading file C++ Close file

Miscellaneous

C Vs C++ C++ Comments C++ Data Abstraction C++ Identifier C++ Memory Management C++ Storage Classes C++ Void Pointer C++ Array To Function C++ Expressions C++ Features C++ Interfaces C++ Encapsulation std::min in C++ External merge sort in C++ Remove duplicates from sorted array in C++ Precision of floating point numbers Using these functions floor(), ceil(), trunc(), round() and setprecision() in C++ C++ References C++ Friend Functions C++ Mutable keyword Unary Operators in C++ Initialize Array of objects with parameterized constructors in C++ Differences between #define & const in C/C++ C++ Program to Implement Shell Sort C++ Program to Implement Merge Sort Storage Classes in C Vector resize() in C++ Passing by Reference Vs. Passing by the pointer in C++ Free vs delete() in C++ goto statement in C and C++ C++ program to read string using cin.getline() C++ String Concatenation Heap Sort in C++ Swap numbers in C++ Input Iterators in C++ Fibonacci Series in C++ C ++ Program: Alphabet Triangle and Number Triangle C++ Program: Matrix Multiplication C++ Program to Print Fibonacci Triangle Stack in C++ Maps in C++ Queue in C++ C++ Bitset C++ Algorithms Priority Queue in C++ C++ Multimap C++ Deque Function Pointer in C++ Sizeof() Operators in C++ C++ array of Pointers free() Vs delete in C Timsort Implementation Using C++ CPP Templates C++ Aggregation C++ Enumeration C++ Math Functions C++ Object Class C++ Queue Initialize Vector in C++ Vector in C++ C++ STL Components Function overloading in C++ C++ Maximum Index Problem C++ find missing in the second array C++ Program to find the product array puzzle C++ Program To Find Largest Subarray With 0 Sum C++ Program To Move All Zeros To The End Of The Array C++ Program to find the element that occurs once C++ Program to find the largest number formed from an array Constructor Vs Destructor C++ Namespaces C++ OOPs Concept C++ Static C++ Structs C++ Try-Catch C++ User Defined Exceptions C++ Virtual Destructor C++ vs C# Malloc() and new in C++ Palindrome Number Program in C++ Snake Code in C++ Splitting a string in C++ Structure Vs Class in C++ Virtual Function Vs Pure Virtual Function C++ Bidirectional Iterators C++ Forward Iterators C++ Iterators C++ Output Iterators C++ Range-based For Loop Converting string into integer in C++ LCM Program in C++ Type conversion in C++ Add two numbers using the function in C++ Advantage and disadvantage friend function C++ Armstrong Number Program in C++ ATM machine program in C++ using functions Binary to Decimal in C++ Bit Manipulation in C++ C++ Constructor C++ Dijkstra Algorithm Using the Priority Queue C++ int into String C++ Signal Handling Decimal to Binary in C++ Decimal to Hexadecimal in C++ Decimal to Octal in C++ Factorial Program in C++ Function in C++ Hexadecimal to Decimal in C++ Octal to Decimal in C++ Reverse a Number in C++ Structure Vs Class in C++ C++ Forward Iterators C++ Output Iterators C++ Prime number program Char Array to String in C++ Constructor Overloading in C++ Default arguments in C++ Different Ways to Compare Strings in C++ Dynamic Binding in C++ Program to convert infix to postfix expression in C++ SET Data Structure in C++ Upcasting and Downcasting in C++ Reverse an Array in C++ Fast Input and Output in C++ Delete Operator in C++ Copy elision in C++ C++ Date and Time C++ Bitwise XOR Operator Array of sets in C++ Binary Operator Overloading in C++ Binary Search in C++ Implementing the sets without C++ STL containers Scope Resolution Operator in C++ Smart pointers in C++ Types of polymorphism in C++ Exception Handling in C++ vs Java Const Keyword in C++ Type Casting in C++ Static keyword in C++ vs Java Inheritance in C++ vs Java How to concatenate two strings in C++ Programs to Print Pyramid Patterns in C++ swap() function in C++ Structure of C++ Program Stringstream in C++ and its applications rand() and srand() in C / C++ C++ Ternary Operator C++ Scope of Variables While Loop Examples in C++ Star pattern in C++ using For Loops For Loop Examples in C++ Do-While Loop Examples in C++ Top 5 IDEs for C++ That You Should Try Once Assertions in C/C++ C++ Convert Int to String Continue in C++ While loop Diamond Pattern in C++ using For Loop How to Reverse a String in C++ using Do-While Loop How to Reverse a String in C++ using For Loop How to Reverse a String in C++ using While Loop Infinite loop in C++ Loops in C++ Returning Multiple Values from a Function using Tuple and Pair in C++ wcscpy(), wcslen(), wcscmp() Functions in C++ Auto keyword in C++ C++ 11 vs C++ 14 vs C++ 17 C++ STL (Standard Template Library) Differences Between C Structures and C++ Structures Divide by Zero Exception in C++ Dynamic Constructor in C++ Dynamic Memory Allocation in C++ Find the Size of Array in C/C++ without using sizeof() function Floating Point Operations and Associativity in C, C++ and Java Hello World Program in C++ How to create a table in C++ How to Setup Environment for C++ Programming on Mac Implementation of a Falling Matrix in C++ Message Passing in C++ Pointer to Object in C++ Templates in C++ vs Generics in Java Ways to Copy a Vector in C++ What does Buffer Flush mean in C++ sort() function in C++ Structure Sorting (By Multiple Rules) in C++ Similarities between C++ and Java std::distance in C++ Array program in C++ C++ Tricks for Competitive Programming Desired Capabilities in Selenium Web Driver in C++ Socket Programming in C++ Template Specialization in C++ Classes and Objects in C++ Convex hull Algorithm in C++ DES in C++ C++ vardiac() function Difference between Two Sets in C++ Difference between Exit and Return Structured Binding in C++ Differences between Local and Global Variable Bitwise Operator vs Logical Operator Difference between OOP and POP in C++ Fork in C++ Functors in C++ How to call a void function in C++ How to create a directory or folder in C/C++ How to create a library in C++ How to create a stack in C++ How to create the Processes with Fork in C++ How to Handle Divide by Zero Exception in C++ Lambda Expression in C++ Pattern programs in C++ Roadmap to C++ Programming Substring in C++ Virtual base class in C++ Bits stdc++.h in C++ Top 14 Best Free C++ IDE (Editor & Compiler) for Windows in 2022 Bitmasking in C++ Auto Keyword in C++ Features of OOPS in C++ Hospital Management Project in C++ How to Declare Unordered Sets in C++ How to Sort an Array in C++ Include Guards in C++ Iostream in C++ Method overriding in C++ How to run program in turbo c++ How to Use Getline in C++ Leap Year Program in C++ Naming Convention in C++ New Operator in C++ Nullptr in C++ Object Slicing in C++ Principles of Object-Oriented Programming in C++ Processing strings using std string stream in C++ Pure Virtual Function in C++ With Example Program Random Number Generator in C++ Singleton Design Pattern in C++ Size_t Data Type in C++ Skyline Problem in C++ System() function in C++ Web Development in C++ Data Hiding in C++ Difference between exit() and _Exit() in C++ Hashing in C++ Object in C++ Sum of all Elements between k1’th and k2’th Smallest Elements Virtual class in C++ Vector Size in C++ Top best IDEs for C/C++ Developers in 2022 Tensorflow in C++ Sliding Window Technique in C++ Reverse String Word-Wise in C++ Returning a Function Pointer from a Function in C/C++ RTTI in C++ Pthreads or POSIX Threads in C++ Reserved Keywords in C++ Passing a Vector to a function in C++ 10 Best C and C++ Books for Beginners & Advanced Programmers Add two numbers represented by two arrays in C++ Array of Object in C++ C++ Program For FCFS Containership in C++ Counting Frequencies of Array Elements in C++ Decltype type Specifier in C++ Dynamic _Cast in C++ Difference between int main() and int main(void) in C/C++ Depth First Search Program to Traverse a Graph in C++ Features and Use Of Pointers in C/C++ Fread Function in C++ Programming Fscanf Function in The C++ Functions in C++ With Types and Examples Gmtime Function in C/C++ How is Multiset Implemented in C++ How to Build a Program in C++ How to Declare a 2d Array Dynamically in C++ inheritance Program in C++ int Max and int Min in C/C++ is It Fine to Write Void Main Or Main in C/C++ How to create a button in C++ abs() function in C++ Compile Time Polymorphism in C++ Division in C++ Factorial of a Number in C++ using while Loop Multiset in C++ 4 Pillars of OOPs Approach in C++ Backtracking Time Complexity in C++ C++ Global Variable C++ Pipe Tutorial Observer Design Pattern in C++ Private Inheritance in C++ Pthread in C++ Parameters SDL library in C++ with Examples Pointers in C++ Abstract Factory Design Pattern in C++

Bitmasking in C++

Bitmasking is a technique that is used to access a particular bit within the data bytes. When you apply the iterative approach, this phenomenon is used. A bitmask is described as a mask of an N-bit sequence used to encrypt a particular portion of our collection. These mask components can be fixed or cannot be restored. To create or toggle the bits, there are bitwise operators. These operators are employed to activate the off bit or its opposite.

You must have the Ubuntu file configured and active to use C++ programmes under Linux execution. The user also must be familiar with the C++ programming language. Source code for C++ is written.The text editor is used to create the C++ source codes. Use the Ubuntu terminal for the execution process.

A bitmask is a straightforward mask that consists of an n-bit sequence. It encodes the collection's subset. The mask's "ith" bit is set, and the element "I" is present in that subset. There is a possibility of finding a 2N cover that corresponds to a subset of the set of features holding the nth byte.

The purpose of bit masking

Different values are stored in the same set of integers during the bit masking process. Consider a set, for instance, where s = 1, 2, 5, 8, 6, and 7. Any bitmask 010110 can be used to represent the set of "2, 5, 7."

The following are the operations that bitmaps carry out:

Toggle the "ith" bit

To do this, consider the value "x". We can use the operation x|=xi to set a bit. After performing the bitwise operation, we shift 'a' left bit by bit.

Remove the "ith" bit.

A bit that has already been set by the user or default must exist to unset the bit. In this way, it is simple to reset that specific bit. Therefore, we employ the operators x&= (x I for that.

Modify a little

In this procedure, we apply the operator x=xi.

In plain English, setting a bit entails setting it to 1. Suppose the i-th bit is 0, otherwise to 0. Additionally, if it already equals 1, leave it alone. If the i-th bit is 1, the bit clearance should clear it to 0. If it already has a value of 0, don't modify it; leave it alone. Whenever a bit needs to be toggled, if the i-th bit is 1, convert it to 0. If it is already 0, you must alter it back to 1 once more.

Illustration of bit masking

Here, we attempt to describe bit masking's operation using its most fundamental idea. All three-bit masking operations that were previously discussed in this tutorial are used in this example.

Let's begin by reading from and writing to the file using the input and output streams.

#include<iostream>

To make the source code more comprehensible and orderly, we first jumped to the main programme. Additionally, it will help those who are new to programming comprehend the subject better. The entire mechanism of this programme is user interactive. This requires user participation in the whole system's operation. The user is prompted for the number on which operations are to be applied as the first step in the main programme. A variable is pre-set to accept the user-provided value before the question.

int main ()
{
      Int num,ch;
Cout<<”enter a number:” ;
Cin>>num;
      While (1)
      {
Cout<<”your choices are:\n 1.SET MASK\n 2.UNSET/CLEAR MASK\n 
3.TOGGLE BIT\n”<<endl;
Cout<<”enter your choice: “;
Cin>>ch;
           Switch(ch)
          { 
                 Case 1 :set_mask (num);
Break;
                 Case 2 :unset_mask (num);
Break;
                 Case 3 :toggle_bit(num);
Break;
Default:cout<<”invalid choice”<<endl;
Break;
           }
}

Numerous operations are performed on the entered number, including the use of a while loop. Every time the programme is run, the availability of numbers is guaranteed by this loop. When a number is entered, the system gives the user three choices: toggling the value, setting a bitmask, and clearing a bitmask. Finally, a person is prompted to choose one of them. We need logic that will only select the first option the user enters to move through all of these procedures. At that time, all operations are stopped.

This is when a switch statement is used. The user's selection is saved in a variable after being entered, and a switch statement is then run on that variable. A function call for each option is contained on each line of the switch statement. The system will run the specific programme for whichever choice the user chooses. With each switch statement option, a break statement is used. Because after completing one choice, you must automatically halt the software from running until you ask it to do so.

Now think about the first possibility; the first function is concerned with setting a mask. It includes the variable needed to store the user-inputted number. To supply the value before and after the bit value, this number will be subjected to an arithmetic operation.

X|x<<I ;
#include <iostream>
Using namespace std;
Void set_mask(int x)
{
      Int I;
Cout<< “which position do you want to set?”;
Cin>>I;
Cout<<”before” <<x<<endl;
X|=x<<I;
Cout<<”after” <<x<<endl;
  }
  Void unset_mask(int x)
  {
        Int I;
Cout<<”enter the position you want to clear: “;
Cin>>I;
Cout<<”before clearing: “<<x<<endl;
        X&=~(x<<i);
Cout<<”after clearing:” <<x<<endl;
   }

The value is processed once more when all the procedures have been completed, and then the value is shown.

The next option is to reset the newly created or existing mask. Additionally, this will erase the bit's first and second-most essential values.

X&=~(x<<i);

To help the user understand the notion, we have broken down each function into its own section. Additionally, this will give the bitmask's initial and subsequent values.

X^=x<<I;
Void toggle_bit(int x)
{
        Int I;
Cout<<”which bit do you want to toggle?”;
Cin>>I;
Cout<<”before toggle:”<<x<<endl;
        X^=x<<I;
Cout<<”after toggle:”<<x<<endl;
}

Save the code in the file after you've finished writing it, then save the file with the extension “. c." We require a "g++" compiler to compile the code before we can run it. The file's name is "bit. C."

Bitmasking in C++ Bitmasking in C++

When the code is executed, the control is in the main programme when you choose a function. Then, in accordance with the process, a call to a specific function is made, and control is transferred to that function. For instance, as seen in the image, we enter the number first, followed by the option.

Line-by-line, we shall choose all three possibilities. To set the bitmask, we have first determined the first option. When the execution of the function is complete, a bit before and after the current bit is printed at random.

Bitmasking in C++

The choices are again shown. We now wish to remove the setting for "3." Again, the value is shown before and after clearing.

Bitmasking in C++

Select the toggle option at the end of the choice list when you see it again. Enter the bit that needs to be switched. The values of the preceding and subsequent toggles will be shown.

Bitmasking in C++

If you keep entering option values, this process will continue. To shut off the computer, press "Ctrl + C."

The iteration procedures benefit from the bit masking technique. We've provided a succinct illustration to demonstrate how to set, unset, and toggle the mask. The example can also be modified to fit the requirements of our programme. We hope that this information may aid in your comprehension of the bit masking process.