C++ Tutorial Index

C++ Tutorial C++ History C++ Installation C++ First Program C++ cin and cout C++ Data type C++ Variable C++ operator C++ Keywords

C++ Control Statements

C++ If C++ Nested if C++ If-else C++ If-else-if C++ Switch C++ Break C++ Continue C++ Goto C++ For loop C++ While loop C++ Do while loop

C++ Functions

C++ Call by Value C++ Call by Reference C++ Recursion Function C++ Inline function C++ Friend function

C++ Arrays

Single dimension array Two dimension array

C++ Strings

C++ Strings

C++ Inheritance

C++ Inheritance Single level Inheritance Multilevel Inheritance Multiple Inheritance Hierarchical Inheritance Hybrid Inheritance

C++ Polymorphism

C++ Polymorphism C++ Overloading C++ Overriding C++ Virtual Function

C++ Pointers

C++ Pointers C++ this pointer

C++ Exception Handling

C++ Exception Handling

C++ Constructors

C++ Constructors Default Constructor Parameterize Constructor Copy constructor Constructor Overloading Destructor

C++ File Handling

C++ File Handling C++ Writing to file C++ Reading file C++ Close file

Miscellaneous

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Passing by the pointer in C++ Free vs delete() in C++ goto statement in C and C++ C++ program to read string using cin.getline() C++ String Concatenation Heap Sort in C++ Swap numbers in C++ Input Iterators in C++ Fibonacci Series in C++ C ++ Program: Alphabet Triangle and Number Triangle C++ Program: Matrix Multiplication C++ Program to Print Fibonacci Triangle Stack in C++ Maps in C++ Queue in C++ C++ Bitset C++ Algorithms Priority Queue in C++ C++ Multimap C++ Deque Function Pointer in C++ Sizeof() Operators in C++ C++ array of Pointers free() Vs delete in C Timsort Implementation Using C++ CPP Templates C++ Aggregation C++ Enumeration C++ Math Functions C++ Object Class C++ Queue Initialize Vector in C++ Vector in C++ C++ STL Components Function overloading in C++ C++ Maximum Index Problem C++ find missing in the second array C++ Program to find the product array puzzle C++ Program To Find Largest Subarray With 0 Sum C++ Program To Move All Zeros To The End Of The Array C++ Program to find the element that occurs once C++ Program to find the largest number formed from an array Constructor Vs Destructor C++ Namespaces C++ OOPs Concept C++ Static C++ Structs C++ Try-Catch C++ User Defined Exceptions C++ Virtual Destructor C++ vs C# Malloc() and new in C++ Palindrome Number Program in C++ Snake Code in C++ Splitting a string in C++ Structure Vs Class in C++ Virtual Function Vs Pure Virtual Function C++ Bidirectional Iterators C++ Forward Iterators C++ Iterators C++ Output Iterators C++ Range-based For Loop Converting string into integer in C++ LCM Program in C++ Type conversion in C++ Add two numbers using the function in C++ Advantage and disadvantage friend function C++ Armstrong Number Program in C++ ATM machine program in C++ using functions Binary to Decimal in C++ Bit Manipulation in C++ C++ Constructor C++ Dijkstra Algorithm Using the Priority Queue C++ int into String C++ Signal Handling Decimal to Binary in C++ Decimal to Hexadecimal in C++ Decimal to Octal in C++ Factorial Program in C++ Function in C++ Hexadecimal to Decimal in C++ Octal to Decimal in C++ Reverse a Number in C++ Structure Vs Class in C++ C++ Forward Iterators C++ Output Iterators C++ Prime number program Char Array to String in C++ Constructor Overloading in C++ Default arguments in C++ Different Ways to Compare Strings in C++ Dynamic Binding in C++ Program to convert infix to postfix expression in C++ SET Data Structure in C++ Upcasting and Downcasting in C++ Reverse an Array in C++ Fast Input and Output in C++ Delete Operator in C++ Copy elision in C++ C++ Date and Time C++ Bitwise XOR Operator Array of sets in C++ Binary Operator Overloading in C++ Binary Search in C++ Implementing the sets without C++ STL containers Scope Resolution Operator in C++ Smart pointers in C++ Types of polymorphism in C++ Exception Handling in C++ vs Java Const Keyword in C++ Type Casting in C++ Static keyword in C++ vs Java Inheritance in C++ vs Java How to concatenate two strings in C++ Programs to Print Pyramid Patterns in C++ swap() function in C++ Structure of C++ Program Stringstream in C++ and its applications rand() and srand() in C / C++ C++ Ternary Operator C++ Scope of Variables While Loop Examples in C++ Star pattern in C++ using For Loops For Loop Examples in C++ Do-While Loop Examples in C++ Top 5 IDEs for C++ That You Should Try Once Assertions in C/C++ C++ Convert Int to String Continue in C++ While loop Diamond Pattern in C++ using For Loop How to Reverse a String in C++ using Do-While Loop How to Reverse a String in C++ using For Loop How to Reverse a String in C++ using While Loop Infinite loop in C++ Loops in C++ Returning Multiple Values from a Function using Tuple and Pair in C++ wcscpy(), wcslen(), wcscmp() Functions in C++ Auto keyword in C++ C++ 11 vs C++ 14 vs C++ 17 C++ STL (Standard Template Library) Differences Between C Structures and C++ Structures Divide by Zero Exception in C++ Dynamic Constructor in C++ Dynamic Memory Allocation in C++ Find the Size of Array in C/C++ without using sizeof() function Floating Point Operations and Associativity in C, C++ and Java Hello World Program in C++ How to create a table in C++ How to Setup Environment for C++ Programming on Mac Implementation of a Falling Matrix in C++ Message Passing in C++ Pointer to Object in C++ Templates in C++ vs Generics in Java Ways to Copy a Vector in C++ What does Buffer Flush mean in C++ sort() function in C++ Structure Sorting (By Multiple Rules) in C++ Similarities between C++ and Java std::distance in C++ Array program in C++ C++ Tricks for Competitive Programming Desired Capabilities in Selenium Web Driver in C++ Socket Programming in C++ Template Specialization in C++ Classes and Objects in C++ Convex hull Algorithm in C++ DES in C++ C++ vardiac() function Difference between Two Sets in C++ Difference between Exit and Return Structured Binding in C++ Differences between Local and Global Variable Bitwise Operator vs Logical Operator Difference between OOP and POP in C++ Fork in C++ Functors in C++ How to call a void function in C++ How to create a directory or folder in C/C++ How to create a library in C++ How to create a stack in C++ How to create the Processes with Fork in C++ How to Handle Divide by Zero Exception in C++ Lambda Expression in C++ Pattern programs in C++ Roadmap to C++ Programming Substring in C++ Virtual base class in C++ Bits stdc++.h in C++ Top 14 Best Free C++ IDE (Editor & Compiler) for Windows in 2022 Bitmasking in C++ Auto Keyword in C++ Features of OOPS in C++ Hospital Management Project in C++ How to Declare Unordered Sets in C++ How to Sort an Array in C++ Include Guards in C++ Iostream in C++ Method overriding in C++ How to run program in turbo c++ How to Use Getline in C++ Leap Year Program in C++ Naming Convention in C++ New Operator in C++ Nullptr in C++ Object Slicing in C++ Principles of Object-Oriented Programming in C++ Processing strings using std string stream in C++ Pure Virtual Function in C++ With Example Program Random Number Generator in C++ Singleton Design Pattern in C++ Size_t Data Type in C++ Skyline Problem in C++ System() function in C++ Web Development in C++ Data Hiding in C++ Difference between exit() and _Exit() in C++ Hashing in C++ Object in C++ Sum of all Elements between k1’th and k2’th Smallest Elements Virtual class in C++ Vector Size in C++ Top best IDEs for C/C++ Developers in 2022 Tensorflow in C++ Sliding Window Technique in C++ Reverse String Word-Wise in C++ Returning a Function Pointer from a Function in C/C++ RTTI in C++ Pthreads or POSIX Threads in C++ Reserved Keywords in C++ Passing a Vector to a function in C++ 10 Best C and C++ Books for Beginners & Advanced Programmers Add two numbers represented by two arrays in C++ Array of Object in C++ C++ Program For FCFS Containership in C++ Counting Frequencies of Array Elements in C++ Decltype type Specifier in C++ Dynamic _Cast in C++ Difference between int main() and int main(void) in C/C++ Depth First Search Program to Traverse a Graph in C++ Features and Use Of Pointers in C/C++ Fread Function in C++ Programming Fscanf Function in The C++ Functions in C++ With Types and Examples Gmtime Function in C/C++ How is Multiset Implemented in C++ How to Build a Program in C++ How to Declare a 2d Array Dynamically in C++ inheritance Program in C++ int Max and int Min in C/C++ is It Fine to Write Void Main Or Main in C/C++ How to create a button in C++ abs() function in C++ Compile Time Polymorphism in C++ Division in C++ Factorial of a Number in C++ using while Loop Multiset in C++ 4 Pillars of OOPs Approach in C++ Backtracking Time Complexity in C++ C++ Global Variable C++ Pipe Tutorial Observer Design Pattern in C++ Private Inheritance in C++ Pthread in C++ Parameters SDL library in C++ with Examples Pointers in C++ Abstract Factory Design Pattern in C++ Ascending order in C++ How the value is passed in C++ Call by Pointer in C++ Constexpr in C++ Deadlock in C++ Design Patterns in C++ Factory Method for Designing Pattern in C++ How to calculate size of string in C++ Name Mangling and extern in C++ Preventing Object Copy in C++ Program that produces different results in C and C++ Quick Sort in C++ Single Handling in C++ Type difference of Character literals in C VS C++ Use of Inheritance in C++ User-defined literals in C++ Vector methods in C++ Void * in C and C++ Zombie and Orphan Process in C++ Isprint() in C++ List and Vector in C++ List iterators in C++ Merging Two Vectors in C++ Sleep function in C++ Stoi function in C++ String erase() in C++ String Trim in C++ When should we write own Assignment operator in C++ C++ tcp client server example C++ tcp server example Early Binding and Late Binding in C++ Factory Design Pattern in C++ Fisher-Yates shuffle algorithm in C++ For Auto in C++ Group anagrams in C++ How to convert binary string to int in C++ How to convert string to float in C++ How to remove space from string in C++ How to use pair in C++ How to use the string find() in C++ Dynamic Casting in C++ 2D Vector Initialization in C++ C++ GUI Visual Studio C++ IPC C++ Macro Function Example C++ Permutation Overloading Stream Insertion in C++ Overloading array Index operator in C++ Operators that cannot be overloaded in C++ Operator overloading in C++ isprint() function in c++ Is_trivial function in C++ Is assignment operator Inherited in C++ div() function in C++ Default Assignment Operator and References in C++ Copy Constructor vs Assignment Operator in C++ Conversion Operator in C++ Array sum in C++ STL C++ Define Macro C++ Design C++ Factory Pattern TCP Client Server Example in C++ Convert String to Uppercase in C++ exit() and _Exit() in C and C++ Initializer list in C++ Iterator invalidation in C++ Lower bound in C++ Modulus of Two float numbers or double number Pass by value in C++ Set insert function in C++ Std partition_point in C++ Unary Operator Overloading in C++ Using Default Arguments with Virtual Functions Virtual Functions and Runtime Polymorphism What is endl in C++ What is Unary Operator Overloading in C++ Which operators cannot be overloaded in C++ C++ Program to Divide the String Into N equal Parts Gray Code to Binary Code in C++ How to get the value of pi in C++ Multimap value_comp() function in C++ Vector of Vectors in C++ Naïve Bayes Algorithm in C++ Minimum Cost Path Problem in C++ 10 C++ Programming Tricks You Should Know btowc() function in C++ forward_list::cend() in C++ Unordered_multimap max_load_factor() function in C++ Cpp_int in c++ Dynamic Objects in C++ FLOCK() FUNCTION IN C++ Generate Random Double Numbers in C++ How to Assign Infinity to a Number in C++ Jump statements in C++ Multipath inheritance in C++ Out of Range Exception in C++ Size of Class in C++ Size of string in C++ std::binary_negate in c++ Thread_local in C++ Tokenizing a String in C++ Ancestors of a Node in Binary Search Tree C++ program for Double to String Conversion C++ Program to Demonstrate Use of Formatting Flags on Float Output Clamp in C++ K-Dimensional Tree in C++ Mutable Lambda in C++ Power Set in C++ Program to Find Sum of Geometric Progression Std::Back_inserter in C++ Strpbrk() function in C++ Size of int in C++ TYPES OF MANIPULATORS IN C++ Double colon in C++ How to sort vector in C++ How to use Setprecision in C++ How to write a Vector in C++ Insertion in Splay Tree in C++ Merge Sort Algorithm in C++ Printing a Character using ASCII value in C++ Regex in C++ Size of Data Types in C++ Abstract Factory Design Pattern in C++

Inheritance Program in C++

What is Inheritance?

Inheritance is the ability of a class to inherit traits and properties from another class. One of the most crucial aspects of Object-Oriented Programming is inheritance.

The ability or process of inheritance allows using properties of one class to other class. The class whose properties are utilized is referred to as the "base class" or "parent class," and the class that uses them is known as the "derived class" or "child class." The derived class is now referred to as having inherited properties from the base class.

When we say that a derived class inherits the base class, we mean that it does so while maintaining all of the base class's properties and having the option to add new features of its own. There will be no impact on the base class from these new features in the derived class. The specialized class for the base class is the derived class.

Subclass or Derived Class: A class that receives properties from another class is referred to as a subclass or derived class.

Super Class: A subclass's base class or superclass is the class from which its properties are inherited.

Inheritance Programs example in C++

Simple Inheritance Programs

1. Program:

#include <iostream>
using namespace std;
class Fine
{
public: void display()
{
cout<<"This display is located inside the first-class section." << endl;
}
};
class good: public Fine
{
public: void show()
{
cout<<"This programme belongs to the second class, which is derived from the parent class." << endl;
}
};
int main()
{
Fine x;
x.display();
//x.show();
good y;
y.display();
y.show();
}

Explanation:

  • In above code, we created two classes named Fine and Good. The good class is what we deduced from the fine.
  • We have two functions: one in the base class and one in the derived class.
  • We have declared our objects in the main method for both the parent class and the child class.
  • We attempted to access both the base and derived class methods with the child class object, and both attempts were completely successful.
  • However, as seen in the second result, if we attempt to access a variable or method from a derived class through an object from the base class, we encounter an error.
  • It is clear because derived class methods and variables cannot be accessed by base class objects but vice versa.

Program Output:

Inheritance Program in C++

Multiple inheritance example.

2. Program:

#include <iostream>


using namespace std;


// base class 1


class data_science


{


public:


    void data_science_Marks()


    {


        cout << "The score for data science is 93."<<endl;


    }


}; 


// base class 2


class Programming


{


public: 


    void Programming_Marks()


    {


        cout << "The score for Programming is 87."<<endl;


    }


}; 


// derived class


class output: public data_science, public Programming


{


public:


    void show_Marks()


    {


        // accessing the member functions 


        // of the base classes


       data_science_Marks();


        Programming_Marks();


    }


}; 


int main()


{


    // create an object of the derived class


    output result;
    
    // call displayMarks() function of the derived class 


    result.show_Marks();  


    return 0;


}

Explanation:

  • First, we created 1st Base class named data_science.
  • 1st Base class consists of a public function, "data_science_Marks," which has void data type.
  • After that, we created the 2nd Base class, which name is Programming.
  • 2nd Base class consists of a public function, "Programming_Marks," which has void data type.
  • Then we created a Derived class whose name is "output," and this class inherits "data_science” and “Programming” classes in Public mode.
  • This "output" class consists of the Public member function “show_Marks," which has a void data type.
  • The member functions "data_science_Marks" and "Programming_Marks" of the base classes "data_science" and "Programming," respectively, are accessed by the function "show Marks."
  • In the main() function, the Object "result" is created of the "output" Class.
  • The function “show_Marks" is called by the object "result".

Program Output:

Inheritance Program in C++

Multilevel Inheritance example.

3. Program:

#include <iostream>
using namespace std;
class Animal
{
public:
Animal ()
{
cout << "This is an Animal" << endl;
}
};
class Reptiles: public Animal
{
public:
Reptiles()
{
cout<<"Reptiles are a class of vertebrates"<<endl;
}
};
class Snake: public Reptiles{
public:
Snake()
{
cout<<"In reptiles, snakes are common."<<endl;
}
};
int main ()
{
Snake obj;
return 0;
}

Explanation:

  • First, we created a Base class whose name is Animal.
  • The base class consists of a Public function Animal(). This function will print a message on the screen "This is an animal".
  • Then we created a derived class named Reptiles, and this class inherits the "Animal” class in public mode.
  • This “Reptiles" class consists of the public member function “Reptiles”. This function will print a message on the screen "Reptiles are a class of vertebrates”.
  • Then we created 2nd derived class, which name is Snake, and this class inherits the "Reptiles" class in public mode.
  • This “Snake" class consists of the public member function "Snake”. This function will print a message on the screen "In reptiles, snakes are common.”.

Program Output:

Inheritance Program in C++

Multiple inheritance example to get the sum of numbers.

4. Program:

#include<iostream>
using namespace std;


	class A // 1st base class
	{
protected:
    int Aint;


public:
    void set_Aint(int x)
    {
        Aint = x;
    }
};


class B // 2nd base class
{
protected:
    int Bint;


public:
    void set_Bint(int x)
    {
        Bint = x;
    }
};


class C // 3rd base class
{
protected:
    int Cint;


public:
    void set_Cint(int x)
    {
        Cint = x;
    }
};
class Derived : public A, public B, public C
{
    public: 
        void show(){
            cout << "The value of 1st Base is " << Aint<<endl;
            cout << "The value of 2nd Base is " << Bint<<endl;
            cout << "The value of 3rd Base is " << Cint<<endl;
            cout << "The sum of these values is " << Aint + Bint + Cint << endl;
        }
};
int main()
{
    Derived david;
    david.set_Aint(55);
    david.set_Bint(50);
    david.set_Cint(75);
    david.show();
    
    return 0;
}

Explanation:

  • First, we developed a class called "A" that contains the protected data member integer "Aint".
  • Afterward, a public function called "set Aint" is part of the "A" class. The value of the data member "Aint" will be set by this function.
  • Then, a "B" class was made, which is composed of the protected data member integer "Bint".
  • "set Bint" is a public function that is part of the "B" class. The "Bint" data member will have its value set by this function.
  • A protected data member integer, "Cint," was then established as part of the "C" class.
  • Afterward, a public function called "set Cint" is part of the "C" class. The "Cint" data member will have its value set by this function.
  • Then, in public mode, we built a class called "Derived" that inherits from classes "A," "B," and "C."
  • Then the "Derived" class consists of the public member function "show".
  • Then "show" will first print the values of "Aint," "Bint," and "Cint" separately before printing the sum of all three values.
  • It is obvious that class "Derived" inherits from classes "A," "B," and "C." This is an illustration of multiple inheritances.
  • The "Derived" data type object "david" is then constructed.
  • Then the object "david" calls the function "set Aint" and passes the value "55" to it.
  • The object "david" then calls the function "set Bint," passing the value "50" along with it.
  • After that, the object "david" calls the function "set Cint" and passes the parameter "75" to it.
  • The object "David" then makes a call to the function "show."

Program Output:

Inheritance Program in C++

C++ Program of Hierarchal inheritance.

5. Program:

#include <iostream>


using namespace std;


// base class


class measurement


{


public:


    int length = 9;


    int breadth = 8;


};


// derived class 1


class circumference: public measurement


{


public:


    // print_circumference() function of the derived class 1


    // to print the circumference


    void print_circumference()


    {


        // calculating the perimeter using the 


        // dimensions in the base class.


        cout << "The calculated circumference is: " << 2 * (length + breadth) << endl;


    }


};


// derived class 2


class area: public measurement


{


public:


    // print_area() function of the derived class 2


    // to print the circumference


    void print_area()


    {


        // calculating the area using the 


        // measurement in the base class.


        cout << "The calculated area is: " << (length * breadth) << endl;


    }


};


int main()


{


    // object of the derived class 1


    circumference output1;


    // object of the derived class 2


    area output2;


    // call print_circumference() function of the derived class 1


    output1.print_circumference();


    // call print_area() function of the derived class 2


    output2.print_area();


    return 0;


}

Explanation:

  • First, we created 1st Base class, with name measurement.
  • 1st Base class consists of public data members with integers "length" and "breadth".
  • Then, we created 1st derived class with name "circumference," which inherits the "measurement" class in Public mode.
  • This "circumference" class consists of the Public member function "print_circumference()," which has a void data type.
  • This function will print the calculated circumference of the data member “length” and “breadth”.
  • Then, we created 2nd derived class, with the name "area," and this class inherits the "measurement" class in Public mode.
  • This "area" class consists of the Public member function "print_area()," which has a void data type.
  • This function will print the calculated area of the data member “length” and “breadth”.
  • In the main() function, Object “output1” of the derived class 1st is created, which has a "circumference" data type.
  • Then Object “output2” of the derived class 2nd  is created, which has the "area" data type.
  • The function "print_circumference()" is called by the object "output1".
  • The function "print_area()" is called by the object "output2".

Program Output:

Inheritance Program in C++

C++ program of Hybrid inheritance.

6. Program:

#include <iostream>  


using namespace std;  


class Books // indicates class A  


{  


public:  


Books()  


    {  


cout<< "This is a Book"<<endl;  


    }  


};  


class Programming: public Books // indicates class B derived from class A


{  


public:  


Programming()  


    {  


cout<< "This is a Programming Book"<<endl;  


    }  


};  


class Data_science  // indicates class C


{  


public:  


Data_science()  


    {  


cout<< "This is a Data Science Book"<<endl;  


    }  


};  


class oops: public Programming, public Data_science


 // indicates class D derived from class B and class C


{  


public:  


oops()  


    {  


cout<< "oops is the part of programming"<<endl;  


    }    


};  


int main() {  


    oops x;  


    return 0;  


}  

Explanation:

  • First, we created 1st class, which name is Books.
  • 1st class consists of a public function, "Books". This function will print the message of the book.
  • Then, we created 2nd class, which name is Programming, and this class inherits the "Books" class in Public mode. This indicates that the class "Programming" is derived from the class "Books".
  • Class "Programming" consist of a Public function, "Programming()," and this function will print a message, "This is a Programming Book".
  • Then, we created 3rd class whose name is Data_science.
  • 3rd class consists of a public function, "Data_science()". This function will print the message "This is a Data Science Book".
  • Then we created a 4th class whose name is oops, and this class inherits the "Programming" and "Data_science" classes in Public mode. This indicates that class “oops” is derived from class “Programming” and “Data_science”.
  • Class "oops" consist of a Public function "oops()," and this function will print a message "oops is the part of programming".

Program Output:

Inheritance Program in C++

C++ Program to demonstrate the Ambiguity Resolution in Inheritance.

7. Program:

#include<iostream>
using namespace std;


class A // 1st Base class
{
    public:
        void saket(){
            cout<<"You are looking good"<<endl;
        }
};


class B // 2nd Base class
{
    public:
        void saket()
        {
            cout << "You are intelligent" << endl;
        }
};




class Derived : public A, public B
{
   int x;
   public:
    void saket(){
        B :: saket();
    }
};


int main()
{
  // Ambibuity 
  
     A Aobj;
     B Bobj;
     Aobj.saket();
     Bobj.saket();
     Derived y;
     y.saket();


    return 0;
}

Explanation:

  • We have created a “A” class which consists of public member function “saket”. The function “saket” will print “You are looking good”
  • We have created a “B” class which consists of public member function “saket”. The function “saket” will print “You are intelligent”
  • We have created a "Derived" class that inherits "A" and "B" classes. The "Derived" class consists of public member function "saket”.
  • As a result of the usage of a scope resolution operator to inform the compiler which function to execute in the absence of ambiguity, the function "saket" will execute the "saket" function of the "B" class.
  • The "A" data type object "Aobj" is created.
  • The "B" data type object "Bobj" is created.
  • The object "Aobj" calls the function "saket".
  • The object "Bobj" calls the function "saket".
  • The "Derived" data type is used to generate the object "y."
  • The object "y" calls the function "saket."
  • The most important thing to take away from this is that the "saket" function of the "B" class will be invoked when the object "y" calls the function "saket," as we stated it using the scope resolution operator "::" to eliminate ambiguity.

Program Output:

Inheritance Program in C++