C++ Tutorial Index

C++ Tutorial C++ History C++ Installation C++ First Program C++ cin and cout C++ Data type C++ Variable C++ operator C++ Keywords

C++ Control Statements

C++ If C++ Nested if C++ If-else C++ If-else-if C++ Switch C++ Break C++ Continue C++ Goto C++ For loop C++ While loop C++ Do while loop

C++ Functions

C++ Call by Value C++ Call by Reference C++ Recursion Function C++ Inline function C++ Friend function

C++ Arrays

Single dimension array Two dimension array

C++ Strings

C++ Strings

C++ Inheritance

C++ Inheritance Single level Inheritance Multilevel Inheritance Multiple Inheritance Hierarchical Inheritance Hybrid Inheritance

C++ Polymorphism

C++ Polymorphism C++ Overloading C++ Overriding C++ Virtual Function

C++ Pointers

C++ Pointers C++ this pointer

C++ Exception Handling

C++ Exception Handling

C++ Constructors

C++ Constructors Default Constructor Parameterize Constructor Copy constructor Constructor Overloading Destructor

C++ File Handling

C++ File Handling C++ Writing to file C++ Reading file C++ Close file

Miscellaneous

C Vs C++ C++ Comments C++ Data Abstraction C++ Identifier C++ Memory Management C++ Storage Classes C++ Void Pointer C++ Array To Function C++ Expressions C++ Features C++ Interfaces C++ Encapsulation std::min in C++ External merge sort in C++ Remove duplicates from sorted array in C++ Precision of floating point numbers Using these functions floor(), ceil(), trunc(), round() and setprecision() in C++ C++ References C++ Friend Functions C++ Mutable keyword Unary Operators in C++ Initialize Array of objects with parameterized constructors in C++ Differences between #define & const in C/C++ C++ Program to Implement Shell Sort C++ Program to Implement Merge Sort Storage Classes in C Vector resize() in C++ Passing by Reference Vs. Passing by the pointer in C++ Free vs delete() in C++ goto statement in C and C++ C++ program to read string using cin.getline() C++ String Concatenation Heap Sort in C++ Swap numbers in C++ Input Iterators in C++ Fibonacci Series in C++ C ++ Program: Alphabet Triangle and Number Triangle C++ Program: Matrix Multiplication C++ Program to Print Fibonacci Triangle Stack in C++ Maps in C++ Queue in C++ C++ Bitset C++ Algorithms Priority Queue in C++ C++ Multimap C++ Deque Function Pointer in C++ Sizeof() Operators in C++ C++ array of Pointers free() Vs delete in C Timsort Implementation Using C++ CPP Templates C++ Aggregation C++ Enumeration C++ Math Functions C++ Object Class C++ Queue Initialize Vector in C++ Vector in C++ C++ STL Components Function overloading in C++ C++ Maximum Index Problem C++ find missing in the second array C++ Program to find the product array puzzle C++ Program To Find Largest Subarray With 0 Sum C++ Program To Move All Zeros To The End Of The Array C++ Program to find the element that occurs once C++ Program to find the largest number formed from an array Constructor Vs Destructor C++ Namespaces C++ OOPs Concept C++ Static C++ Structs C++ Try-Catch C++ User Defined Exceptions C++ Virtual Destructor C++ vs C# Malloc() and new in C++ Palindrome Number Program in C++ Snake Code in C++ Splitting a string in C++ Structure Vs Class in C++ Virtual Function Vs Pure Virtual Function C++ Bidirectional Iterators C++ Forward Iterators C++ Iterators C++ Output Iterators C++ Range-based For Loop Converting string into integer in C++ LCM Program in C++ Type conversion in C++ Add two numbers using the function in C++ Advantage and disadvantage friend function C++ Armstrong Number Program in C++ ATM machine program in C++ using functions Binary to Decimal in C++ Bit Manipulation in C++ C++ Constructor C++ Dijkstra Algorithm Using the Priority Queue C++ int into String C++ Signal Handling Decimal to Binary in C++ Decimal to Hexadecimal in C++ Decimal to Octal in C++ Factorial Program in C++ Function in C++ Hexadecimal to Decimal in C++ Octal to Decimal in C++ Reverse a Number in C++ Structure Vs Class in C++ C++ Forward Iterators C++ Output Iterators C++ Prime number program Char Array to String in C++ Constructor Overloading in C++ Default arguments in C++ Different Ways to Compare Strings in C++ Dynamic Binding in C++ Program to convert infix to postfix expression in C++ SET Data Structure in C++ Upcasting and Downcasting in C++ Reverse an Array in C++ Fast Input and Output in C++ Delete Operator in C++ Copy elision in C++ C++ Date and Time C++ Bitwise XOR Operator Array of sets in C++ Binary Operator Overloading in C++ Binary Search in C++ Implementing the sets without C++ STL containers Scope Resolution Operator in C++ Smart pointers in C++ Types of polymorphism in C++ Exception Handling in C++ vs Java Const Keyword in C++ Type Casting in C++ Static keyword in C++ vs Java Inheritance in C++ vs Java How to concatenate two strings in C++ Programs to Print Pyramid Patterns in C++ swap() function in C++ Structure of C++ Program Stringstream in C++ and its applications rand() and srand() in C / C++ C++ Ternary Operator C++ Scope of Variables While Loop Examples in C++ Star pattern in C++ using For Loops For Loop Examples in C++ Do-While Loop Examples in C++ Top 5 IDEs for C++ That You Should Try Once Assertions in C/C++ C++ Convert Int to String Continue in C++ While loop Diamond Pattern in C++ using For Loop How to Reverse a String in C++ using Do-While Loop How to Reverse a String in C++ using For Loop How to Reverse a String in C++ using While Loop Infinite loop in C++ Loops in C++ Returning Multiple Values from a Function using Tuple and Pair in C++ wcscpy(), wcslen(), wcscmp() Functions in C++ Auto keyword in C++ C++ 11 vs C++ 14 vs C++ 17 C++ STL (Standard Template Library) Differences Between C Structures and C++ Structures Divide by Zero Exception in C++ Dynamic Constructor in C++ Dynamic Memory Allocation in C++ Find the Size of Array in C/C++ without using sizeof() function Floating Point Operations and Associativity in C, C++ and Java Hello World Program in C++ How to create a table in C++ How to Setup Environment for C++ Programming on Mac Implementation of a Falling Matrix in C++ Message Passing in C++ Pointer to Object in C++ Templates in C++ vs Generics in Java Ways to Copy a Vector in C++ What does Buffer Flush mean in C++ sort() function in C++ Structure Sorting (By Multiple Rules) in C++ Similarities between C++ and Java std::distance in C++ Array program in C++ C++ Tricks for Competitive Programming Desired Capabilities in Selenium Web Driver in C++ Socket Programming in C++ Template Specialization in C++ Classes and Objects in C++ Convex hull Algorithm in C++ DES in C++ C++ vardiac() function Difference between Two Sets in C++ Difference between Exit and Return Structured Binding in C++ Differences between Local and Global Variable Bitwise Operator vs Logical Operator Difference between OOP and POP in C++ Fork in C++ Functors in C++ How to call a void function in C++ How to create a directory or folder in C/C++ How to create a library in C++ How to create a stack in C++ How to create the Processes with Fork in C++ How to Handle Divide by Zero Exception in C++ Lambda Expression in C++ Pattern programs in C++ Roadmap to C++ Programming Substring in C++ Virtual base class in C++ Bits stdc++.h in C++ Top 14 Best Free C++ IDE (Editor & Compiler) for Windows in 2022 Bitmasking in C++ Auto Keyword in C++ Features of OOPS in C++ Hospital Management Project in C++ How to Declare Unordered Sets in C++ How to Sort an Array in C++ Include Guards in C++ Iostream in C++ Method overriding in C++ How to run program in turbo c++ How to Use Getline in C++ Leap Year Program in C++ Naming Convention in C++ New Operator in C++ Nullptr in C++ Object Slicing in C++ Principles of Object-Oriented Programming in C++ Processing strings using std string stream in C++ Pure Virtual Function in C++ With Example Program Random Number Generator in C++ Singleton Design Pattern in C++ Size_t Data Type in C++ Skyline Problem in C++ System() function in C++ Web Development in C++ Data Hiding in C++ Difference between exit() and _Exit() in C++ Hashing in C++ Object in C++ Sum of all Elements between k1’th and k2’th Smallest Elements Virtual class in C++ Vector Size in C++ Top best IDEs for C/C++ Developers in 2022 Tensorflow in C++ Sliding Window Technique in C++ Reverse String Word-Wise in C++ Returning a Function Pointer from a Function in C/C++ RTTI in C++ Pthreads or POSIX Threads in C++ Reserved Keywords in C++ Passing a Vector to a function in C++ 10 Best C and C++ Books for Beginners & Advanced Programmers Add two numbers represented by two arrays in C++ Array of Object in C++ C++ Program For FCFS Containership in C++ Counting Frequencies of Array Elements in C++ Decltype type Specifier in C++ Dynamic _Cast in C++ Difference between int main() and int main(void) in C/C++ Depth First Search Program to Traverse a Graph in C++ Features and Use Of Pointers in C/C++ Fread Function in C++ Programming Fscanf Function in The C++ Functions in C++ With Types and Examples Gmtime Function in C/C++ How is Multiset Implemented in C++ How to Build a Program in C++ How to Declare a 2d Array Dynamically in C++ inheritance Program in C++ int Max and int Min in C/C++ is It Fine to Write Void Main Or Main in C/C++ How to create a button in C++ abs() function in C++ Compile Time Polymorphism in C++ Division in C++ Factorial of a Number in C++ using while Loop Multiset in C++ 4 Pillars of OOPs Approach in C++ Backtracking Time Complexity in C++ C++ Global Variable C++ Pipe Tutorial Observer Design Pattern in C++ Private Inheritance in C++ Pthread in C++ Parameters SDL library in C++ with Examples Pointers in C++ Abstract Factory Design Pattern in C++ Ascending order in C++ How the value is passed in C++ Call by Pointer in C++ Constexpr in C++ Deadlock in C++ Design Patterns in C++ Factory Method for Designing Pattern in C++ How to calculate size of string in C++ Name Mangling and extern in C++ Preventing Object Copy in C++ Program that produces different results in C and C++ Quick Sort in C++ Single Handling in C++ Type difference of Character literals in C VS C++ Use of Inheritance in C++ User-defined literals in C++ Vector methods in C++ Void * in C and C++ Zombie and Orphan Process in C++ Isprint() in C++ List and Vector in C++ List iterators in C++ Merging Two Vectors in C++ Sleep function in C++ Stoi function in C++ String erase() in C++ String Trim in C++ When should we write own Assignment operator in C++ C++ tcp client server example C++ tcp server example Early Binding and Late Binding in C++ Factory Design Pattern in C++ Fisher-Yates shuffle algorithm in C++ For Auto in C++ Group anagrams in C++ How to convert binary string to int in C++ How to convert string to float in C++ How to remove space from string in C++ How to use pair in C++ How to use the string find() in C++ Dynamic Casting in C++ 2D Vector Initialization in C++ C++ GUI Visual Studio C++ IPC C++ Macro Function Example C++ Permutation Overloading Stream Insertion in C++ Overloading array Index operator in C++ Operators that cannot be overloaded in C++ Operator overloading in C++ isprint() function in c++ Is_trivial function in C++ Is assignment operator Inherited in C++ div() function in C++ Default Assignment Operator and References in C++ Copy Constructor vs Assignment Operator in C++ Conversion Operator in C++ Array sum in C++ STL C++ Define Macro C++ Design C++ Factory Pattern TCP Client Server Example in C++ Convert String to Uppercase in C++ exit() and _Exit() in C and C++ Initializer list in C++ Iterator invalidation in C++ Lower bound in C++ Modulus of Two float numbers or double number Pass by value in C++ Set insert function in C++ Std partition_point in C++ Unary Operator Overloading in C++ Using Default Arguments with Virtual Functions Virtual Functions and Runtime Polymorphism What is endl in C++ What is Unary Operator Overloading in C++ Which operators cannot be overloaded in C++ C++ Program to Divide the String Into N equal Parts Gray Code to Binary Code in C++ How to get the value of pi in C++ Multimap value_comp() function in C++ Vector of Vectors in C++ Naïve Bayes Algorithm in C++ Minimum Cost Path Problem in C++ 10 C++ Programming Tricks You Should Know btowc() function in C++ forward_list::cend() in C++ Unordered_multimap max_load_factor() function in C++ Cpp_int in c++ Dynamic Objects in C++ FLOCK() FUNCTION IN C++ Generate Random Double Numbers in C++ How to Assign Infinity to a Number in C++ Jump statements in C++ Multipath inheritance in C++ Out of Range Exception in C++ Size of Class in C++ Size of string in C++ std::binary_negate in c++ Thread_local in C++ Tokenizing a String in C++ Ancestors of a Node in Binary Search Tree C++ program for Double to String Conversion C++ Program to Demonstrate Use of Formatting Flags on Float Output Clamp in C++ K-Dimensional Tree in C++ Mutable Lambda in C++ Power Set in C++ Program to Find Sum of Geometric Progression Std::Back_inserter in C++ Strpbrk() function in C++ Size of int in C++ TYPES OF MANIPULATORS IN C++ Double colon in C++ How to sort vector in C++ How to use Setprecision in C++ How to write a Vector in C++ Insertion in Splay Tree in C++ Merge Sort Algorithm in C++ Printing a Character using ASCII value in C++ Regex in C++ Size of Data Types in C++ Sqrtf() function in C++ Static Casting in C++ Using Range in Switch Case in C++ wcstoimax() and wcstoumax() function in C++ What is float in C++ What is the Diamond Problem in C++ Best way to learn C++ ios setstate() function in C++ Nested Namespace in C++ Single Inheritance in C++ std::fixed, std::scientific, std::hexfloat, std::defaultfloat in C++ StringStream in C++ for Decimal to Hexadecimal and back The OFFSETOF() macro in C++ Difference between std::next and std::advance in C++ Hiding of all overloaded methods with same name in base class in C++ C++ program to concatenate two strings using operator overloading Difference between array::fill() and array::swap() in C++ Difference between Friend Function and Virtual Function in C++ Semaphores in C++ Seekg in C++ UDP server- client implementattion in C++ What is long long in C++ CSV file management using C++ Toggle bits of a number except first and last bits in C++ Trailing Return Type C++ 11 Binary search implementation in C++ Different Versions of C++ What is Cascading in C++ Background Colour in C++ BOOL DATATYPE IN C++ BIT VECTORS IN C++ Literals in C++ Application of pointer in C++ Index with minimum sum of prefix and suffix sums in an array in C++ Maximum sum Bi-tonic sub-sequence in C++ std::optional in C++ C/C++ program for triangular matchstick number COUT COMMAND IN C++ LANGUAGE Adjacency matrix program in C++ language Difference between Null String and Empty String in C++ Character data type in c++ Constructors in Inheritance C++ Comma Operator Overloading in C++ Structure and Class in C++ Template Definition in C++ Tree Data Structure in C++ Typename in C++ C++ program to implement the bin packing algorithm How to merge multiple std::sets into a single std::set in C++? Stack Clear C++ C++ Friend Class Seekg in C++ Semaphores in C++ C++ Exceptions Difference Between C and C++ Double-linked list program in C++ Color Code in C++ CRC Program in C++ Anti-Clockwise spiral traversal of a binary tree in C++ Advantages of OOP in C++ Cryptarithmetic Puzzle in C++ Angular sweep algorithm in C++ How to Access Private Variables in C++? Particle Swarm Optimization in C++ Understanding std::ios_base::iword in C++ std::piecewise_construct _t in C++ Toeplitz Matrix in C++ Two-Way Linear Search Algorithm in C++ C++ Concurrency in action C++ integer size C++ Enum class Compare two lists in C++ Command to run C++ Program in terminal Cascading In C++ Static Member Function in C++ with Example C++ Multiple, Multilevel and Hierarchical inheritance Painting Fence Algorithm in C++ Rearrange Distant Barcodes in C++ What are the rules for using an Underscore in a C++ dentifier? std::quoted in C++ Std::memory_order in C++ Std::fisher_f_distribution in C++ Advantages Oops in C++ floor() and ceil() function in C++ Topological Sort in C++ How to get file size in C++ Class Meaning in C++ DIFFERENCE BETWEEN NEW AND DELETE OPERATOR IN C++ New and Delete In C++ Operators in C++ String data types in C++ begin() in C++

UDP server- client implementattion in C++

Unfortunately, C++ is not the best language to describe network protocols like UDP directly. If you would like, we can provide you with the requested data in plain English, which you can then translate into C++ code or any other language suitable for network programming.

Overview of UDP:

  • Brief Explanation of UDP and its Difference from TCP:

In contrast to TCP (Transmission Control Protocol), UDP (User Datagram Protocol) is a transport layer protocol. It is an explanation:

Connectionless: UDP transmits data without establishing a dependable connection, unlike TCP. All it does is toss packets into the network and hope they reach their intended location. As a result, UDP is now lighter and faster but less dependable.

No flow control: UDP does not regulate the data transfer between the sender and the recipient. If it overloads the receiver, it may cause congestion.

Absence of error checking: UDP does not look for mistakes or dropped packets. The application must deal with a corrupted or dropped packet.

Simple header: The only information in the UDP header, compared to the TCP header, is the payload length, source and destination ports, and checksum.

  • Overview of UDP's Connectionless and Lightweight Nature:

There are various benefits to UDP's connectionless nature:

Speed: UDP is faster for sending brief bursts of data, such as in online gaming or video streaming, because it does not incur the overhead of connection setup and teardown.

Efficiency: UDP is resource-constrained and environment-friendly due to its small header and lack of error checking.

Scalability: UDP is scalable for server-client applications because it can manage numerous concurrent connections without creating separate sessions.

Disadvantages:

Unreliable: UDP is prone to data loss and corruption without error checking or retransmission. Applications that use UDP must put their reliability measures in place.

Unordered delivery: Applications must address the possibility of UDP packets arriving out of order.

Socket Programming Basics in C++

Introduction to Sockets

  • Virtual endpoints called sockets allow processes on a network to communicate with one another.
  • They serve as "doorways" through which data enters and exits applications.
  • Consider them as phone calls:
  • You dial a number (socket address) to establish a connection and exchange information.

Role in network programming:

  • It permits data transmission and reception across networks for applications.
  • It provides a uniform network communication interface independent of the operating system or underlying hardware.
  • It is necessary for developing a variety of network-based applications, including chat programs, web servers, file transfer utilities, and more.

Server and Client Roles

Server:

  • Keeps an ear out for new connections from customers.
  • Usually, it has a port number that can be found and a fixed address.
  • Establishes connections, responds to messages, and manages requests.
  • Frequently offers clients resources or services.

Customer:

  • It establishes a connection with servers.
  • It gives the port number and address of the server to connect to.
  • It requests things from the server and gets back information.
  • It uses any resources or services that the server offers.

Socket Programming in C++

Key steps for socket programming:

  • Establish a socket: Using the socket() function, allocate a socket while indicating the preferred communication protocol (such as TCP or UDP).
  • Bind the socket (just on the server): The bind() function links the socket to a particular address and port.
  • Watch for connections (only on the server): Use the listen() function to indicate your willingness to accept connections.
  • Only accept connections from the server: Accept incoming connection requests using the accept() function and create a new socket for each client.
  • Link to a server (for client use only): Use the connect() function to establish a connection with the server.
  • Data transmission and reception: Use the send() and recv() functions to transmit and receive data via the created socket.
  • Shut off the socket: Use the close() function to break the connection.

Creating a UDP Server in C++: A Step-by-Step Guide

How to Build a UDP Server in C++: A Comprehensive Guide

A quick and easy substitute for connection-based protocols in networked device communication is the User Datagram Protocol (UDP). The process of building a UDP server in C++ will be covered in this article, along with the important steps of initializing and configuring a socket, binding it to a particular port and IP address, and managing exceptions and errors.

  • Initializing a Socket for the server

The first step in creating a UDP server is initializing and configuring a socket. The socket serves as the endpoint for communication. In C++, the socket() function is used to create a socket. The parameters AF_INET and SOCK_DGRAM indicate we are creating an IPv4 socket for UDP communication.

int server_socket = socket(AF_INET, SOCK_DGRAM, 0);

if (server_socket < 0) {

    std::cerr << "Error creating socket: " << strerror(errno) << std::endl;

    exit(1);

}
  • Binding the Socket:

Prepare server address structure:

struct sockaddr_in server_addr;

server_addr.sin_family = AF_INET;

server_addr.sin_addr.s_addr = INADDR_ANY;  // Accept connections from any IP

server_addr.sin_port = htons(PORT_NUMBER);  // Replace with desired port

Bind the socket to the address and port:

if (bind(server_socket, (struct sockaddr*)&server_addr, sizeof(server_addr)) < 0) {

    std::cerr << "Error binding socket: " << strerror(errno) << std::endl;

    close(server_socket);

    exit(1);

}
  • Handling Exceptions and Errors:
  • Examine the return values for errors: the error-returning socket(), bind(), recvfrom(), sendto(), and close() methods return -1.
  • Use strerror(errno) to obtain a human-readable error message.

Exception handling (C++11 and later):

  • Try-catch blocks should encircle socket operations.
  • For additional control, catch std::system_error or specific exceptions related to sockets.
  • Additional Considerations:
  • Non-blocking sockets: For asynchronous operations, set the non-blocking mode using fcntl() or ioctlsocket().
  • Timeouts: Set timeouts on recvfrom() to avoid permanent blocking.
  • Check incoming data for accuracy to guard against security flaws.
  • Debugging and troubleshooting can be facilitated by error logging.

Creating a UDP Client in C++: A Step-by-Step Guide

User Datagram Protocol (UDP) clients are essential for interacting with UDP servers. This tutorial will walk you through the process of building a C++ UDP client, including how to initialize and configure a socket, set the IP address and port of the destination server, and handle exceptions and errors.

  • Initializing and Configuring a Socket for the Client

Initializing and configuring a socket is the first step in developing a UDP client. The socket() function creates a socket like on the server. Conversely, a client configures the socket differently, indicating the pertinent parameters and communication protocol.

Example:

#include <iostream>

#include <cstdlib>

#include <unistd.h>

int main() {

    // Creating a UDP socket for the client

    int clientSocket = socket(AF_INET, SOCK_DGRAM, 0);

    if (clientSocket == -1) {

        std::cerr << "Error creating socket" << std::endl;

        return 1;

    }

    // Further configuration and logic will be added in the subsequent steps

    // ...

    return 0;

}
  • Specify server address:
struct sockaddr_in serverAddr;

serverAddr.sin_family = AF_INET;

serverAddr.sin_addr.s_addr = inet_addr("127.0.0.1");  // Replace with server IP

serverAddr.sin_port = htons(12345);                   // Replace with server port
  • Send data to server:
const char* message = "Hello, UDP server!";

int bytesSent = sendto(sockfd, message, strlen(message), 0, (struct sockaddr*)&serverAddr, sizeof(serverAddr));

if (bytesSent < 0) {

    throw std::runtime_error("Sendto failed");

}
  • Receive response from server (optional):
char buffer[1024];

int bytesReceived = recvfrom(sockfd, buffer, sizeof(buffer), 0, nullptr, nullptr);

if (bytesReceived < 0) {

    throw std::runtime_error("Recvfrom failed");

}

buffer[bytesReceived] = '\0';  // Null-terminate the received string

std::cout << "Received from server: " << buffer << std::endl;
  • Close the socket:
close(sockfd);

UDP Server Communication Loop:

This example uses the standard sockets library for networking.

UDP client-server model implemented server side.

#include <iostream>

#include <cstdlib>

#include <cstring>

#include <unistd.h>

#include <sys/types.h>

#include <sys/socket.h>

#include <arpa/inet.h>

#define PORT           8080

#define MAXLINE  1024

int main() {

    int serverSocket;

    char buffer[MAXLINE];

    const char *helloMessage = "Hello from the server";

    struct sockaddr_in serverAddress, clientAddress;

    // Creating socket file descriptor

    if ((serverSocket = socket(AF_INET, SOCK_DGRAM, 0)) < 0) {

        perror("Socket creation failed");

        exit(EXIT_FAILURE);

    }

    memset(&serverAddress, 0, sizeof(serverAddress));

    memset(&clientAddress, 0, sizeof(clientAddress));

    // Filling server information

    serverAddress.sin_family = AF_INET; // IPv4

    serverAddress.sin_addr.s_addr = INADDR_ANY;

    serverAddress.sin_port = htons(PORT);

    // Bind the socket with the server address

    if (bind(serverSocket, (const struct sockaddr *)&serverAddress, sizeof(serverAddress)) < 0) {

        perror("Bind failed");

        exit(EXIT_FAILURE);

    }

    socklen_t clientAddressLength;

    int receivedBytes;

    clientAddressLength = sizeof(clientAddress);

    receivedBytes = recvfrom(serverSocket, (char *)buffer, MAXLINE, MSG_WAITALL,

                             (struct sockaddr *)&clientAddress, &clientAddressLength);

    buffer[receivedBytes] = '\0';

    printf("Client: %s\n", buffer);

    sendto(serverSocket, helloMessage, strlen(helloMessage), MSG_CONFIRM,

           (const struct sockaddr *)&clientAddress, clientAddressLength);

    std::cout << "Hello message sent." << std::endl;

    return 0;

}

Output:

UDP server- client implementattion in C++

UDP client-server model implemented client-side

#include <iostream>

#include <cstdlib>

#include <cstring>

#include <unistd.h>

#include <sys/types.h>

#include <sys/socket.h>

#include <arpa/inet.h>

#define SERVER_PORT 8080

#define MAXLINE 1024

int main() {

    int clientSocket;

    char buffer[MAXLINE];

    const char *helloMessage = "Hello from client";

    struct sockaddr_in serverAddress;

    // Creating socket file descriptor

    if ((clientSocket = socket(AF_INET, SOCK_DGRAM, 0)) < 0) {

        perror("Socket creation failed");

        exit(EXIT_FAILURE);

    }

    memset(&serverAddress, 0, sizeof(serverAddress));

    // Filling server information

    serverAddress.sin_family = AF_INET;

    serverAddress.sin_port = htons(SERVER_PORT);

    serverAddress.sin_addr.s_addr = INADDR_ANY;

    int sentBytes;

    socklen_t serverAddressLength;

    sentBytes = sendto(clientSocket, helloMessage, strlen(helloMessage),

                       MSG_CONFIRM, (const struct sockaddr *)&serverAddress, sizeof(serverAddress));

    std::cout << "Hello message sent." << std::endl;

    serverAddressLength = sizeof(serverAddress);

    int receivedBytes = recvfrom(clientSocket, (char *)buffer, MAXLINE,

                                 MSG_WAITALL, (struct sockaddr *)&serverAddress, &serverAddressLength);

    buffer[receivedBytes] = '\0';

    std::cout << "Server: " << buffer << std::endl;

    close(clientSocket);

    return 0;

}

Output:

UDP server- client implementattion in C++

Error Handling and Debugging

Common Errors:

  • Socket Creation Errors: Use perror to print helpful messages while you check for errors during the socket creation process.
  • Handle errors that arise during binding, as they may point to port conflicts or permission problems.
  • Handle errors during reception, such as network problems or client disconnections.
  • Handle send errors, which indicate issues with the network or unavailable clients.
  • Buffer Overflows: Check the sizes of incoming data and take care when allocating buffer lengths to avoid buffer overflows.
  • Data Corruption: Using checksums or other integrity checks to identify and deal with corrupted data.
  • Packet Loss: Use timeouts or retransmission techniques to make your application resilient to packet loss.

Debugging Techniques:

  • Statements to Print: Use printf or std::cout to monitor values and the execution flow.
  • Debuggers: Use debuggers like GDB or the Visual Studio debugger to step through code, examine variables, and place breakpoints.
  • Tools for Network Analysis: Use programs like Wireshark to record and examine network traffic and spot communication problems.
  • Logging: Put in place logging systems to document mistakes and occurrences for future review.
  • Unit Testing: Write unit tests to isolate and test distinct code components.