C++ Tutorial Index

C++ Tutorial C++ History C++ Installation C++ First Program C++ cin and cout C++ Data type C++ Variable C++ operator C++ Keywords

C++ Control Statements

C++ If C++ Nested if C++ If-else C++ If-else-if C++ Switch C++ Break C++ Continue C++ Goto C++ For loop C++ While loop C++ Do while loop

C++ Functions

C++ Call by Value C++ Call by Reference C++ Recursion Function C++ Inline function C++ Friend function

C++ Arrays

Single dimension array Two dimension array

C++ Strings

C++ Strings

C++ Inheritance

C++ Inheritance Single level Inheritance Multilevel Inheritance Multiple Inheritance Hierarchical Inheritance Hybrid Inheritance

C++ Polymorphism

C++ Polymorphism C++ Overloading C++ Overriding C++ Virtual Function

C++ Pointers

C++ Pointers C++ this pointer

C++ Exception Handling

C++ Exception Handling

C++ Constructors

C++ Constructors Default Constructor Parameterize Constructor Copy constructor Constructor Overloading Destructor

C++ File Handling

C++ File Handling C++ Writing to file C++ Reading file C++ Close file


C Vs C++ C++ Comments C++ Data Abstraction C++ Identifier C++ Memory Management C++ Storage Classes C++ Void Pointer C++ Array To Function C++ Expressions C++ Features C++ Interfaces C++ Encapsulation std::min in C++ External merge sort in C++ Remove duplicates from sorted array in C++ Precision of floating point numbers Using these functions floor(), ceil(), trunc(), round() and setprecision() in C++ C++ References C++ Friend Functions C++ Mutable keyword Unary Operators in C++ Initialize Array of objects with parameterized constructors in C++ Differences between #define & const in C/C++ C++ Program to Implement Shell Sort C++ Program to Implement Merge Sort Storage Classes in C Vector resize() in C++ Passing by Reference Vs. Passing by the pointer in C++ Free vs delete() in C++ goto statement in C and C++ C++ program to read string using cin.getline() C++ String Concatenation Heap Sort in C++ Swap numbers in C++ Input Iterators in C++ Fibonacci Series in C++ C ++ Program: Alphabet Triangle and Number Triangle C++ Program: Matrix Multiplication C++ Program to Print Fibonacci Triangle Stack in C++ Maps in C++ Queue in C++ C++ Bitset C++ Algorithms Priority Queue in C++ C++ Multimap C++ Deque Function Pointer in C++ Sizeof() Operators in C++ C++ array of Pointers free() Vs delete in C Timsort Implementation Using C++ CPP Templates C++ Aggregation C++ Enumeration C++ Math Functions C++ Object Class C++ Queue Initialize Vector in C++ Vector in C++ C++ STL Components Function overloading in C++ C++ Maximum Index Problem C++ find missing in the second array C++ Program to find the product array puzzle C++ Program To Find Largest Subarray With 0 Sum C++ Program To Move All Zeros To The End Of The Array C++ Program to find the element that occurs once C++ Program to find the largest number formed from an array Constructor Vs Destructor C++ Namespaces C++ OOPs Concept C++ Static C++ Structs C++ Try-Catch C++ User Defined Exceptions C++ Virtual Destructor C++ vs C# Malloc() and new in C++ Palindrome Number Program in C++ Snake Code in C++ Splitting a string in C++ Structure Vs Class in C++ Virtual Function Vs Pure Virtual Function C++ Bidirectional Iterators C++ Forward Iterators C++ Iterators C++ Output Iterators C++ Range-based For Loop Converting string into integer in C++ LCM Program in C++ Type conversion in C++ Add two numbers using the function in C++ Advantage and disadvantage friend function C++ Armstrong Number Program in C++ ATM machine program in C++ using functions Binary to Decimal in C++ Bit Manipulation in C++ C++ Constructor C++ Dijkstra Algorithm Using the Priority Queue C++ int into String C++ Signal Handling Decimal to Binary in C++ Decimal to Hexadecimal in C++ Decimal to Octal in C++ Factorial Program in C++ Function in C++ Hexadecimal to Decimal in C++ Octal to Decimal in C++ Reverse a Number in C++ Structure Vs Class in C++ C++ Forward Iterators C++ Output Iterators C++ Prime number program Char Array to String in C++ Constructor Overloading in C++ Default arguments in C++ Different Ways to Compare Strings in C++ Dynamic Binding in C++ Program to convert infix to postfix expression in C++ SET Data Structure in C++ Upcasting and Downcasting in C++ Reverse an Array in C++ Fast Input and Output in C++ Delete Operator in C++ Copy elision in C++ C++ Date and Time C++ Bitwise XOR Operator Array of sets in C++ Binary Operator Overloading in C++ Binary Search in C++ Implementing the sets without C++ STL containers Scope Resolution Operator in C++ Smart pointers in C++ Types of polymorphism in C++ Exception Handling in C++ vs Java Const Keyword in C++ Type Casting in C++ Static keyword in C++ vs Java Inheritance in C++ vs Java How to concatenate two strings in C++ Programs to Print Pyramid Patterns in C++ swap() function in C++ Structure of C++ Program Stringstream in C++ and its applications rand() and srand() in C / C++ C++ Ternary Operator C++ Scope of Variables While Loop Examples in C++ Star pattern in C++ using For Loops For Loop Examples in C++ Do-While Loop Examples in C++ Top 5 IDEs for C++ That You Should Try Once Assertions in C/C++ C++ Convert Int to String Continue in C++ While loop Diamond Pattern in C++ using For Loop How to Reverse a String in C++ using Do-While Loop How to Reverse a String in C++ using For Loop How to Reverse a String in C++ using While Loop Infinite loop in C++ Loops in C++ Returning Multiple Values from a Function using Tuple and Pair in C++ wcscpy(), wcslen(), wcscmp() Functions in C++ Auto keyword in C++ C++ 11 vs C++ 14 vs C++ 17 C++ STL (Standard Template Library) Differences Between C Structures and C++ Structures Divide by Zero Exception in C++ Dynamic Constructor in C++ Dynamic Memory Allocation in C++ Find the Size of Array in C/C++ without using sizeof() function Floating Point Operations and Associativity in C, C++ and Java Hello World Program in C++ How to create a table in C++ How to Setup Environment for C++ Programming on Mac Implementation of a Falling Matrix in C++ Message Passing in C++ Pointer to Object in C++ Templates in C++ vs Generics in Java Ways to Copy a Vector in C++ What does Buffer Flush mean in C++ sort() function in C++ Structure Sorting (By Multiple Rules) in C++ Similarities between C++ and Java std::distance in C++ Array program in C++ C++ Tricks for Competitive Programming Desired Capabilities in Selenium Web Driver in C++ Socket Programming in C++ Template Specialization in C++ Classes and Objects in C++ Convex hull Algorithm in C++ DES in C++ C++ vardiac() function Difference between Two Sets in C++ Difference between Exit and Return Structured Binding in C++ Differences between Local and Global Variable Bitwise Operator vs Logical Operator Difference between OOP and POP in C++ Fork in C++ Functors in C++ How to call a void function in C++ How to create a directory or folder in C/C++ How to create a library in C++ How to create a stack in C++ How to create the Processes with Fork in C++ How to Handle Divide by Zero Exception in C++ Lambda Expression in C++ Pattern programs in C++ Roadmap to C++ Programming Substring in C++ Virtual base class in C++ Bits stdc++.h in C++ Top 14 Best Free C++ IDE (Editor & Compiler) for Windows in 2022 Bitmasking in C++ Auto Keyword in C++ Features of OOPS in C++ Hospital Management Project in C++ How to Declare Unordered Sets in C++ How to Sort an Array in C++ Include Guards in C++ Iostream in C++ Method overriding in C++ How to run program in turbo c++ How to Use Getline in C++ Leap Year Program in C++ Naming Convention in C++ New Operator in C++ Nullptr in C++ Object Slicing in C++ Principles of Object-Oriented Programming in C++ Processing strings using std string stream in C++ Pure Virtual Function in C++ With Example Program Random Number Generator in C++ Singleton Design Pattern in C++ Size_t Data Type in C++ Skyline Problem in C++ System() function in C++ Web Development in C++ Data Hiding in C++ Difference between exit() and _Exit() in C++ Hashing in C++ Object in C++ Sum of all Elements between k1’th and k2’th Smallest Elements Virtual class in C++ Vector Size in C++ Top best IDEs for C/C++ Developers in 2022 Tensorflow in C++ Sliding Window Technique in C++ Reverse String Word-Wise in C++ Returning a Function Pointer from a Function in C/C++ RTTI in C++ Pthreads or POSIX Threads in C++ Reserved Keywords in C++ Passing a Vector to a function in C++ 10 Best C and C++ Books for Beginners & Advanced Programmers Add two numbers represented by two arrays in C++ Array of Object in C++ C++ Program For FCFS Containership in C++ Counting Frequencies of Array Elements in C++ Decltype type Specifier in C++ Dynamic _Cast in C++ Difference between int main() and int main(void) in C/C++ Depth First Search Program to Traverse a Graph in C++ Features and Use Of Pointers in C/C++ Fread Function in C++ Programming Fscanf Function in The C++ Functions in C++ With Types and Examples Gmtime Function in C/C++ How is Multiset Implemented in C++ How to Build a Program in C++ How to Declare a 2d Array Dynamically in C++ inheritance Program in C++ int Max and int Min in C/C++ is It Fine to Write Void Main Or Main in C/C++ How to create a button in C++ abs() function in C++ Compile Time Polymorphism in C++ Division in C++ Factorial of a Number in C++ using while Loop Multiset in C++ 4 Pillars of OOPs Approach in C++ Backtracking Time Complexity in C++ C++ Global Variable C++ Pipe Tutorial Observer Design Pattern in C++ Private Inheritance in C++ Pthread in C++ Parameters SDL library in C++ with Examples Pointers in C++ Abstract Factory Design Pattern in C++ Ascending order in C++ How the value is passed in C++ Call by Pointer in C++ Constexpr in C++ Deadlock in C++ Design Patterns in C++ Factory Method for Designing Pattern in C++ How to calculate size of string in C++ Name Mangling and extern in C++ Preventing Object Copy in C++ Program that produces different results in C and C++ Quick Sort in C++ Single Handling in C++ Type difference of Character literals in C VS C++ Use of Inheritance in C++ User-defined literals in C++ Vector methods in C++ Void * in C and C++ Zombie and Orphan Process in C++ Isprint() in C++ List and Vector in C++ List iterators in C++ Merging Two Vectors in C++ Sleep function in C++ Stoi function in C++ String erase() in C++ String Trim in C++ When should we write own Assignment operator in C++ C++ tcp client server example C++ tcp server example Early Binding and Late Binding in C++ Factory Design Pattern in C++ Fisher-Yates shuffle algorithm in C++ For Auto in C++ Group anagrams in C++ How to convert binary string to int in C++ How to convert string to float in C++ How to remove space from string in C++ How to use pair in C++ How to use the string find() in C++ Dynamic Casting in C++ 2D Vector Initialization in C++ C++ GUI Visual Studio C++ IPC C++ Macro Function Example C++ Permutation Overloading Stream Insertion in C++ Overloading array Index operator in C++ Operators that cannot be overloaded in C++ Operator overloading in C++ isprint() function in c++ Is_trivial function in C++ Is assignment operator Inherited in C++ div() function in C++ Default Assignment Operator and References in C++ Copy Constructor vs Assignment Operator in C++ Conversion Operator in C++ Array sum in C++ STL C++ Define Macro C++ Design C++ Factory Pattern TCP Client Server Example in C++ Convert String to Uppercase in C++ exit() and _Exit() in C and C++ Initializer list in C++ Iterator invalidation in C++ Lower bound in C++ Modulus of Two float numbers or double number Pass by value in C++ Set insert function in C++ Std partition_point in C++ Unary Operator Overloading in C++ Using Default Arguments with Virtual Functions Virtual Functions and Runtime Polymorphism What is endl in C++ What is Unary Operator Overloading in C++ Which operators cannot be overloaded in C++ C++ Program to Divide the String Into N equal Parts Gray Code to Binary Code in C++ How to get the value of pi in C++ Multimap value_comp() function in C++ Vector of Vectors in C++ Naïve Bayes Algorithm in C++ Minimum Cost Path Problem in C++ 10 C++ Programming Tricks You Should Know btowc() function in C++ forward_list::cend() in C++ Unordered_multimap max_load_factor() function in C++ Cpp_int in c++ Dynamic Objects in C++ FLOCK() FUNCTION IN C++ Generate Random Double Numbers in C++ How to Assign Infinity to a Number in C++ Jump statements in C++ Multipath inheritance in C++ Out of Range Exception in C++ Size of Class in C++ Size of string in C++ std::binary_negate in c++ Thread_local in C++ Tokenizing a String in C++ Ancestors of a Node in Binary Search Tree C++ program for Double to String Conversion C++ Program to Demonstrate Use of Formatting Flags on Float Output Clamp in C++ K-Dimensional Tree in C++ Mutable Lambda in C++ Power Set in C++ Program to Find Sum of Geometric Progression Std::Back_inserter in C++ Strpbrk() function in C++ Size of int in C++ TYPES OF MANIPULATORS IN C++ Double colon in C++ How to sort vector in C++ How to use Setprecision in C++ How to write a Vector in C++ Insertion in Splay Tree in C++ Merge Sort Algorithm in C++ Printing a Character using ASCII value in C++ Regex in C++ Size of Data Types in C++ Abstract Factory Design Pattern in C++

Naming Convention in C++

The first and most fundamental step a programmer takes to produce clean code is to name a file or a variable. This naming must be acceptable so that it serves as an easy way for any other programmer to read the code. Naming conventions in C++ are a collection of guidelines for selecting a proper name for a variable or function in a C++ program.

These are some of the rules that we need to follow to maintain the naming convention.

  • Ideally, the class name will be a noun.
  • Use lowercase letters for the remaining words in the class name and uppercase letters as word separators.
  • A capital letter must be used to start the class name.
  • There can be no underscores ('_') in the class name.
  • The letter "m" should come before the private attribute name in the class.
  • The same guidelines that apply to the class name will apply to the name after prepending "m."
  • Other name modifiers are likewise preceded by the character "m." For pointers, use the symbol "p."
  • Every method or function name needs to start with a verb.
  • Names of function/method arguments should begin with a lowercase letter. Containing the exception of class names, all words with a second letter should be written in uppercase.
  • An alphabet should be used to start the variable name.
  • Only after the alphabet are digits allowed in the variable name.
  • No other special characters may be used in variable names save the underscore ('_').
  • Variable names are not permitted to contain keywords.
  • The asterisk (*) should be used next to the variable name rather than the pointer type when referencing pointer variables.
  • Reference variables need to have a "r" prefix. This makes it simpler to tell one method from another that returns a modifiable object from a method that returns a non-modifiable object.
  • The letter "s" should be added before any static variables.
  • The global constants must be separated by a - ' ' and typed in all capital letters.
  • Except for underscore ('_') and dash ('-'), no other special characters are permitted in the file name.
  • The file name should either finish with the.cc or.cpp extension.
  • You shouldn't use any predefined header file names or filenames that are already present in the /user/include directory.


Calculate the product of two variables-
Name variable 1 as v1
Name variable 2 as v2
Name result as product or prd
This naming convention will be more practical than choosing names at random like x, y, and z.

Advantages of Naming Conventions

When writing code, adhering to a set of naming convention guidelines is beneficial in the following ways:

  1. Prevents naming conflicts.
  2. Enhances the code's clarity in cases of uncertainty.
  3. Helps a team become more organised and to foster consistency.
  4. Enhances the code's comprehension and readability.


  1. Class: In C++, give a class its own name and use uppercase letters to separate words. Ideally, the class name will be a noun. ReverseString and Multiply2Numbers are two examples. Without even looking at the content of the class, the name should be precise and suggest how the class will operate. PascalCase conventions fall under this category.
  2. Method: Every method and function does an action; therefore its purpose should be evident from the function name. As an illustration, writeDataToFile() is a more practical name than WriteFile (). Function names ought to be verb-based. Camel case conventions fall under this category. We may also use the snake case techniques. In the case of the snake, we must unite two distinct terms with a ' '. (Underscore).
  3. Constants: Constants should have '_' separators and all capital letters. Using MAX INT, TWO PI, etc. as examples.

Naming Convention in C++

C++ follows the CamelCase convention for writing the names of methods, variables, classes, packages, and constants,

CamelCase is a naming convention where a name is created from several words that are combined together as a single word with the first letter of each word capitalised.

The C++ programming naming conventions are listed below. They must be adhered to when writing C++ code for good maintenance, readability, and programme comprehension.

Type 1: Names of Classes and Class Attributes

  • A noun should appear in the class name.
  • Word separators should be capitalised, while the remaining characters should be written in lower case.
  • Uppercase letters must begin the class name.
  • The class name is not allowed to contain underscores ('_').
class PerimeterRectangle
class FingerprintScanner
  • The letter 'm' should come before the private attribute name in the class.
  • The same guidelines that apply to the class name will apply to the name after prepending 'm'.
  • Other name modifiers are likewise preceded by the character 'm'. For pointers, use 'p' as an example.
class PerimeterRectangle
	int perimeter;
	int mLngth;
	int mWdth;

Type 2: Functions and Function Argument Names

Every C++ function typically executes one or more operations, therefore the function name should make it obvious what it does. Every method or function name needs to start with a verb.

  • Suffixes might be helpful on occasion. For instance
    • Count: The counter's current count.
    • The key value, or key.
  • Prefixes can be helpful on occasion. For instance,
    • set- set value
    • get-get value.

The same naming convention as used for class names is employed.

int getValue();
int SolveEquation();

Names of function/method arguments should begin with a lowercase letter. Containing the exception of class names, all words with a second letter should be written in uppercase.

int PerimeterRectangle(int lengthRectangle, int widthRectangle)

Type 3: Variables

When variables are generated in a C++ programme, memory is allocated from the programme stack, unless when they are created dynamically using the new keyword or when they are defined as class attributes, in which case they take memory from the heap.

  • An alphabet should be used to start the variable name.
  • However, they should only be used after the alphabet.
  • Except for the underscore ('_'), no other special characters may be used in variable names.
  • It is prohibited to utilise keywords in variable names.
int t_cost;
int length;

Instead of using pointer type, pointer variables should be prefixed with 'p' and have an asterisk ('*') next to the variable name.

int *pName;
int *pAge, address; // Here only pAge is a pointer variable

Reference variables need to have a "r" prefix. This makes it easier to distinguish between a method returning a modifiable object and a method returning a non-modifiable object from the same method.

The letter "s" should come before any static variables.

static int sCnt;

Type 4: Constant

It is recommended to separate the global constants by a '_'.

 const double TWO_PI = 6.283185;

Type 5: File Naming

  • Except for underscore ('_') and dash ('-'), no special characters are permitted in the file name.
  • Either the.cc or.cpp extension should be at the end of the filename.
  • Use any predetermined header file name rather than filenames that are already present in /user/include.
helloworld.c       // Valid
hello_world.cpp    // Valid
hello-world.cpp   // Valid
hel-lo_world.cpp  // Valid
hello* world.cpp  // Not Valid
iostream.cpp // Not Valid