C++ Tutorial Index

C++ Tutorial C++ History C++ Installation C++ First Program C++ cin and cout C++ Data type C++ Variable C++ operator C++ Keywords

C++ Control Statements

C++ If C++ Nested if C++ If-else C++ If-else-if C++ Switch C++ Break C++ Continue C++ Goto C++ For loop C++ While loop C++ Do while loop

C++ Functions

C++ Call by Value C++ Call by Reference C++ Recursion Function C++ Inline function C++ Friend function

C++ Arrays

Single dimension array Two dimension array

C++ Strings

C++ Strings

C++ Inheritance

C++ Inheritance Single level Inheritance Multilevel Inheritance Multiple Inheritance Hierarchical Inheritance Hybrid Inheritance

C++ Polymorphism

C++ Polymorphism C++ Overloading C++ Overriding C++ Virtual Function

C++ Pointers

C++ Pointers C++ this pointer

C++ Exception Handling

C++ Exception Handling

C++ Constructors

C++ Constructors Default Constructor Parameterize Constructor Copy constructor Constructor Overloading Destructor

C++ File Handling

C++ File Handling C++ Writing to file C++ Reading file C++ Close file

Miscellaneous

C Vs C++ C++ Comments C++ Data Abstraction C++ Identifier C++ Memory Management C++ Storage Classes C++ Void Pointer C++ Array To Function C++ Expressions C++ Features C++ Interfaces C++ Encapsulation std::min in C++ External merge sort in C++ Remove duplicates from sorted array in C++ Precision of floating point numbers Using these functions floor(), ceil(), trunc(), round() and setprecision() in C++ C++ References C++ Friend Functions C++ Mutable keyword Unary Operators in C++ Initialize Array of objects with parameterized constructors in C++ Differences between #define & const in C/C++ C++ Program to Implement Shell Sort C++ Program to Implement Merge Sort Storage Classes in C Vector resize() in C++ Passing by Reference Vs. Passing by the pointer in C++ Free vs delete() in C++ goto statement in C and C++ C++ program to read string using cin.getline() C++ String Concatenation Heap Sort in C++ Swap numbers in C++ Input Iterators in C++ Fibonacci Series in C++ C ++ Program: Alphabet Triangle and Number Triangle C++ Program: Matrix Multiplication C++ Program to Print Fibonacci Triangle Stack in C++ Maps in C++ Queue in C++ C++ Bitset C++ Algorithms Priority Queue in C++ C++ Multimap C++ Deque Function Pointer in C++ Sizeof() Operators in C++ C++ array of Pointers free() Vs delete in C Timsort Implementation Using C++ CPP Templates C++ Aggregation C++ Enumeration C++ Math Functions C++ Object Class C++ Queue Initialize Vector in C++ Vector in C++ C++ STL Components Function overloading in C++ C++ Maximum Index Problem C++ find missing in the second array C++ Program to find the product array puzzle C++ Program To Find Largest Subarray With 0 Sum C++ Program To Move All Zeros To The End Of The Array C++ Program to find the element that occurs once C++ Program to find the largest number formed from an array Constructor Vs Destructor C++ Namespaces C++ OOPs Concept C++ Static C++ Structs C++ Try-Catch C++ User Defined Exceptions C++ Virtual Destructor C++ vs C# Malloc() and new in C++ Palindrome Number Program in C++ Snake Code in C++ Splitting a string in C++ Structure Vs Class in C++ Virtual Function Vs Pure Virtual Function C++ Bidirectional Iterators C++ Forward Iterators C++ Iterators C++ Output Iterators C++ Range-based For Loop Converting string into integer in C++ LCM Program in C++ Type conversion in C++ Add two numbers using the function in C++ Advantage and disadvantage friend function C++ Armstrong Number Program in C++ ATM machine program in C++ using functions Binary to Decimal in C++ Bit Manipulation in C++ C++ Constructor C++ Dijkstra Algorithm Using the Priority Queue C++ int into String C++ Signal Handling Decimal to Binary in C++ Decimal to Hexadecimal in C++ Decimal to Octal in C++ Factorial Program in C++ Function in C++ Hexadecimal to Decimal in C++ Octal to Decimal in C++ Reverse a Number in C++ Structure Vs Class in C++ C++ Forward Iterators C++ Output Iterators C++ Prime number program Char Array to String in C++ Constructor Overloading in C++ Default arguments in C++ Different Ways to Compare Strings in C++ Dynamic Binding in C++ Program to convert infix to postfix expression in C++ SET Data Structure in C++ Upcasting and Downcasting in C++ Reverse an Array in C++ Fast Input and Output in C++ Delete Operator in C++ Copy elision in C++ C++ Date and Time C++ Bitwise XOR Operator Array of sets in C++ Binary Operator Overloading in C++ Binary Search in C++ Implementing the sets without C++ STL containers Scope Resolution Operator in C++ Smart pointers in C++ Types of polymorphism in C++ Exception Handling in C++ vs Java Const Keyword in C++ Type Casting in C++ Static keyword in C++ vs Java Inheritance in C++ vs Java How to concatenate two strings in C++ Programs to Print Pyramid Patterns in C++ swap() function in C++ Structure of C++ Program Stringstream in C++ and its applications rand() and srand() in C / C++ C++ Ternary Operator C++ Scope of Variables While Loop Examples in C++ Star pattern in C++ using For Loops For Loop Examples in C++ Do-While Loop Examples in C++ Top 5 IDEs for C++ That You Should Try Once Assertions in C/C++ C++ Convert Int to String Continue in C++ While loop Diamond Pattern in C++ using For Loop How to Reverse a String in C++ using Do-While Loop How to Reverse a String in C++ using For Loop How to Reverse a String in C++ using While Loop Infinite loop in C++ Loops in C++ Returning Multiple Values from a Function using Tuple and Pair in C++ wcscpy(), wcslen(), wcscmp() Functions in C++ Auto keyword in C++ C++ 11 vs C++ 14 vs C++ 17 C++ STL (Standard Template Library) Differences Between C Structures and C++ Structures Divide by Zero Exception in C++ Dynamic Constructor in C++ Dynamic Memory Allocation in C++ Find the Size of Array in C/C++ without using sizeof() function Floating Point Operations and Associativity in C, C++ and Java Hello World Program in C++ How to create a table in C++ How to Setup Environment for C++ Programming on Mac Implementation of a Falling Matrix in C++ Message Passing in C++ Pointer to Object in C++ Templates in C++ vs Generics in Java Ways to Copy a Vector in C++ What does Buffer Flush mean in C++ sort() function in C++ Structure Sorting (By Multiple Rules) in C++ Similarities between C++ and Java std::distance in C++ Array program in C++ C++ Tricks for Competitive Programming Desired Capabilities in Selenium Web Driver in C++ Socket Programming in C++ Template Specialization in C++ Classes and Objects in C++ Convex hull Algorithm in C++ DES in C++ C++ vardiac() function Difference between Two Sets in C++ Difference between Exit and Return Structured Binding in C++ Differences between Local and Global Variable Bitwise Operator vs Logical Operator Difference between OOP and POP in C++ Fork in C++ Functors in C++ How to call a void function in C++ How to create a directory or folder in C/C++ How to create a library in C++ How to create a stack in C++ How to create the Processes with Fork in C++ How to Handle Divide by Zero Exception in C++ Lambda Expression in C++ Pattern programs in C++ Roadmap to C++ Programming Substring in C++ Virtual base class in C++ Bits stdc++.h in C++ Top 14 Best Free C++ IDE (Editor & Compiler) for Windows in 2022 Bitmasking in C++ Auto Keyword in C++ Features of OOPS in C++ Hospital Management Project in C++ How to Declare Unordered Sets in C++ How to Sort an Array in C++ Include Guards in C++ Iostream in C++ Method overriding in C++ How to run program in turbo c++ How to Use Getline in C++ Leap Year Program in C++ Naming Convention in C++ New Operator in C++ Nullptr in C++ Object Slicing in C++ Principles of Object-Oriented Programming in C++ Processing strings using std string stream in C++ Pure Virtual Function in C++ With Example Program Random Number Generator in C++ Singleton Design Pattern in C++ Size_t Data Type in C++ Skyline Problem in C++ System() function in C++ Web Development in C++ Data Hiding in C++ Difference between exit() and _Exit() in C++ Hashing in C++ Object in C++ Sum of all Elements between k1’th and k2’th Smallest Elements Virtual class in C++ Vector Size in C++ Top best IDEs for C/C++ Developers in 2022 Tensorflow in C++ Sliding Window Technique in C++ Reverse String Word-Wise in C++ Returning a Function Pointer from a Function in C/C++ RTTI in C++ Pthreads or POSIX Threads in C++ Reserved Keywords in C++ Passing a Vector to a function in C++ 10 Best C and C++ Books for Beginners & Advanced Programmers Add two numbers represented by two arrays in C++ Array of Object in C++ C++ Program For FCFS Containership in C++ Counting Frequencies of Array Elements in C++ Decltype type Specifier in C++ Dynamic _Cast in C++ Difference between int main() and int main(void) in C/C++ Depth First Search Program to Traverse a Graph in C++ Features and Use Of Pointers in C/C++ Fread Function in C++ Programming Fscanf Function in The C++ Functions in C++ With Types and Examples Gmtime Function in C/C++ How is Multiset Implemented in C++ How to Build a Program in C++ How to Declare a 2d Array Dynamically in C++ inheritance Program in C++ int Max and int Min in C/C++ is It Fine to Write Void Main Or Main in C/C++ How to create a button in C++ abs() function in C++ Compile Time Polymorphism in C++ Division in C++ Factorial of a Number in C++ using while Loop Multiset in C++ 4 Pillars of OOPs Approach in C++ Backtracking Time Complexity in C++ C++ Global Variable C++ Pipe Tutorial Observer Design Pattern in C++ Private Inheritance in C++ Pthread in C++ Parameters SDL library in C++ with Examples Pointers in C++ Abstract Factory Design Pattern in C++ Ascending order in C++ How the value is passed in C++ Call by Pointer in C++ Constexpr in C++ Deadlock in C++ Design Patterns in C++ Factory Method for Designing Pattern in C++ How to calculate size of string in C++ Name Mangling and extern in C++ Preventing Object Copy in C++ Program that produces different results in C and C++ Quick Sort in C++ Single Handling in C++ Type difference of Character literals in C VS C++ Use of Inheritance in C++ User-defined literals in C++ Vector methods in C++ Void * in C and C++ Zombie and Orphan Process in C++ Isprint() in C++ List and Vector in C++ List iterators in C++ Merging Two Vectors in C++ Sleep function in C++ Stoi function in C++ String erase() in C++ String Trim in C++ When should we write own Assignment operator in C++ C++ tcp client server example C++ tcp server example Early Binding and Late Binding in C++ Factory Design Pattern in C++ Fisher-Yates shuffle algorithm in C++ For Auto in C++ Group anagrams in C++ How to convert binary string to int in C++ How to convert string to float in C++ How to remove space from string in C++ How to use pair in C++ How to use the string find() in C++ Dynamic Casting in C++ 2D Vector Initialization in C++ C++ GUI Visual Studio C++ IPC C++ Macro Function Example C++ Permutation Overloading Stream Insertion in C++ Overloading array Index operator in C++ Operators that cannot be overloaded in C++ Operator overloading in C++ isprint() function in c++ Is_trivial function in C++ Is assignment operator Inherited in C++ div() function in C++ Default Assignment Operator and References in C++ Copy Constructor vs Assignment Operator in C++ Conversion Operator in C++ Array sum in C++ STL C++ Define Macro C++ Design C++ Factory Pattern TCP Client Server Example in C++ Convert String to Uppercase in C++ exit() and _Exit() in C and C++ Initializer list in C++ Iterator invalidation in C++ Lower bound in C++ Modulus of Two float numbers or double number Pass by value in C++ Set insert function in C++ Std partition_point in C++ Unary Operator Overloading in C++ Using Default Arguments with Virtual Functions Virtual Functions and Runtime Polymorphism What is endl in C++ What is Unary Operator Overloading in C++ Which operators cannot be overloaded in C++ C++ Program to Divide the String Into N equal Parts Gray Code to Binary Code in C++ How to get the value of pi in C++ Multimap value_comp() function in C++ Vector of Vectors in C++ Naïve Bayes Algorithm in C++ Minimum Cost Path Problem in C++ 10 C++ Programming Tricks You Should Know btowc() function in C++ forward_list::cend() in C++ Unordered_multimap max_load_factor() function in C++ Cpp_int in c++ Dynamic Objects in C++ FLOCK() FUNCTION IN C++ Generate Random Double Numbers in C++ How to Assign Infinity to a Number in C++ Jump statements in C++ Multipath inheritance in C++ Out of Range Exception in C++ Size of Class in C++ Size of string in C++ std::binary_negate in c++ Thread_local in C++ Tokenizing a String in C++ Ancestors of a Node in Binary Search Tree C++ program for Double to String Conversion C++ Program to Demonstrate Use of Formatting Flags on Float Output Clamp in C++ K-Dimensional Tree in C++ Mutable Lambda in C++ Power Set in C++ Program to Find Sum of Geometric Progression Std::Back_inserter in C++ Strpbrk() function in C++ Size of int in C++ TYPES OF MANIPULATORS IN C++ Double colon in C++ How to sort vector in C++ How to use Setprecision in C++ How to write a Vector in C++ Insertion in Splay Tree in C++ Merge Sort Algorithm in C++ Printing a Character using ASCII value in C++ Regex in C++ Size of Data Types in C++ Sqrtf() function in C++ Static Casting in C++ Using Range in Switch Case in C++ wcstoimax() and wcstoumax() function in C++ What is float in C++ What is the Diamond Problem in C++ Best way to learn C++ ios setstate() function in C++ Nested Namespace in C++ Single Inheritance in C++ std::fixed, std::scientific, std::hexfloat, std::defaultfloat in C++ StringStream in C++ for Decimal to Hexadecimal and back The OFFSETOF() macro in C++ Difference between std::next and std::advance in C++ Hiding of all overloaded methods with same name in base class in C++ C++ program to concatenate two strings using operator overloading Difference between array::fill() and array::swap() in C++ Difference between Friend Function and Virtual Function in C++ Semaphores in C++ Seekg in C++ UDP server- client implementattion in C++ What is long long in C++ CSV file management using C++ Toggle bits of a number except first and last bits in C++ Trailing Return Type C++ 11 Binary search implementation in C++ Different Versions of C++ What is Cascading in C++ Background Colour in C++ BOOL DATATYPE IN C++ BIT VECTORS IN C++ Literals in C++ Application of pointer in C++ Index with minimum sum of prefix and suffix sums in an array in C++ Maximum sum Bi-tonic sub-sequence in C++ std::optional in C++ C/C++ program for triangular matchstick number COUT COMMAND IN C++ LANGUAGE Adjacency matrix program in C++ language Difference between Null String and Empty String in C++ Character data type in c++ Constructors in Inheritance C++ Comma Operator Overloading in C++ Structure and Class in C++ Template Definition in C++ Tree Data Structure in C++ Typename in C++ C++ program to implement the bin packing algorithm How to merge multiple std::sets into a single std::set in C++? Stack Clear C++ C++ Friend Class Seekg in C++ Semaphores in C++ C++ Exceptions Difference Between C and C++ Double-linked list program in C++ Color Code in C++ CRC Program in C++ Anti-Clockwise spiral traversal of a binary tree in C++ Advantages of OOP in C++ Cryptarithmetic Puzzle in C++ Angular sweep algorithm in C++ How to Access Private Variables in C++? Particle Swarm Optimization in C++ Understanding std::ios_base::iword in C++ std::piecewise_construct _t in C++ Toeplitz Matrix in C++ Two-Way Linear Search Algorithm in C++ C++ Concurrency in action C++ integer size C++ Enum class Compare two lists in C++ Command to run C++ Program in terminal Cascading In C++ Static Member Function in C++ with Example C++ Multiple, Multilevel and Hierarchical inheritance Painting Fence Algorithm in C++ Rearrange Distant Barcodes in C++ What are the rules for using an Underscore in a C++ dentifier? std::quoted in C++ Std::memory_order in C++ Std::fisher_f_distribution in C++ Advantages Oops in C++ floor() and ceil() function in C++ Topological Sort in C++ How to get file size in C++ Class Meaning in C++ DIFFERENCE BETWEEN NEW AND DELETE OPERATOR IN C++ New and Delete In C++ Operators in C++ String data types in C++ begin() in C++

Typename in C++

In C++ template programming, the keyword typename is required to show that some name inside a template has a relation with type. This is especially important when dealing with dependent names because an identifier may only sometimes be obvious to the compiler if it refers to a type or variable. Therefore, when the type of name appears, the compiler knows that a specific identifier refers to a type.

Dependent names are a very common reality in the use of templates, especially with classes or functions. These names may contain enclosed types or member functions and are based on the template parameters. Typename should be used to avoid mistakes and provide the compiler with information about what these names are for.

Recognizing the Need for Type name:

While working with templates in C++, the compiler might need help to distinguish dependent names as types from variables or static members. To resolve this, the typename keyword is used.

Syntax:

template <typename T>

class Example {

Public:

With a type name, the compiler might be clear.

// about whether T: The type :value_type is either present or not.

void someFunction() {

// The next line may cause a compile error.

// Not using typename.

type name T::value_type variableOfTypeT;

// ...

}

};

Using typename with Templates:

Explicitly Specifying Dependent Type Names in Template Member Function Definitions:

While writing the member functions in the C++ template, using the `type name` keyword for its adoption will allow you to claim that a dependent name is of type. In so doing, you will be able to make the compiler aware of this fact that works as a type context for this template.

Code:

#include <iostream>

struct MyStruct;

template <typename T>

class Example {

public:

typename T::value_type getValue(); // Declaration

// ...

};

// Defining MyStruct with value_type.

struct MyStruct {

using value_type = int;

value_type getValue() const {

return 245;

}

};

// The implementation of the method getValue() for MyStruct is based on the Example.

template <>

MyStruct::value_type Example<MyStruct>::getValue() {

return MyStruct().getValue();

}

int main() {

Example<MyStruct> myInstance;

std::cout << myInstance.getValue() << std::endl;

return 0;

}

Output:

Typename in C++

Inside Template Functions:

Dependent names, especially in the template functions—use the typename keyword for templates. This is particularly vital for the appearance of explicit orders to a compiler by asserting that an identifier from the template stands only for a class. With such an approach, you can remove the ambiguity and also adequately verify that the correct types are used in interpreting template functions.

Code:

#include <iostream>

#include <vector>

#include <list>

template <typename Container>

void printFirstElement(const Container& container) {

    // Use typename to clarify that Container::value_type is a type.

    typename Container::value_type firstElement = container.front();

    // Print the first element.

    std::cout << "First Element: " << firstElement << std::endl;

}

int main() {

    // Example with std::vector

    std::vector<int> intVector = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5};

    printFirstElement(intVector);

    // Example with std::list

    std::list<double> doubleList = {3.14, 2.718, 1.6};

    printFirstElement(doubleList);

    return 0;

}

Output:

Typename in C++

Explanation:

The `printFirstElement` template function below is an example of a C++ code that prints the first element typed as any container type. The application of the template is demonstrated by the `main` function, which instantiates it using instances of 'std: In addition to lists with vectors containing integers, the lists also contain elements of double values. This code exceptionally depicts a generic and customizable method of printing the first element due to its simplicity and inter-adaptability in terms of use with more than one type of container.

Declaration of Template:

In C++, a template class or function denotes that a name inside the template that is dependent on the parameters represents a type; it is important to use the `type name` keyword when declaring a template. This is necessary to make sure everything is clear on this matter and in order to provide unambiguous information about the kind of these dependent names.

Code:

#include <iostream>

// Declare MyStruct here so that we can ignore the circular dependencies.

struct MyStruct;

// Template class Example

template <typename T>

class Example {

public:

    typename T::value_type getValue(); // Declaration

    // ...

};

// Struct of MyStruct with the value_type.

struct MyStruct {

    using value_type = int;

    value_type getValue() const {

        return 42;

    }

};

// GetValute of MyStruct that implements the Example’s getValue.

template <>

MyStruct::value_type Example<MyStruct>::getValue() {

    return MyStruct().getValue();

}

int main() {

    Example<MyStruct> myInstance;

    // Call the getValue method

    std::cout << "Value: " << myInstance.getValue() << std::endl;

    return 0;

}

Output:

Typename in C++

Best Practices for Using typename in Templates:

Don't Use typename Outside Templates:

Out of the template declarations, typename cannot be used anywhere outside. It aims at unraveling the chaos of confused dependent names in templates. The type name only sometimes has to appear outside of the templates, as it may lead to compilation errors. Use it sparingly in the template declarations and also definitions to enable the compiler to distinguish dependent names as types.

Handling Nested Types in Templates: Best Practices with typename:

When interacting with nested types in templates, proceed with caution. Typically, for every nested type of definition, the 'type name' keyword is used directly. This ensures clarity and prevents any compilation errors by assisting the compiler in correctly interpreting and differentiating nested types within the template.

Code:

#include <iostream>

// Forward declaration for Outer type

template <typename T>

struct Outer {

    // Nested type definition

    struct Inner {

        using value_type = T;

    };

};

// Template function using a nested type

template <typename T>

void printValueType(const Outer<T>& outerInstance) {

    typename Outer<T>::Inner::value_type value = 42;

    std::cout << "Value: " << value << std::endl;

}

int main() {

    // Instantiate Outer with int as the type

    Outer<int> outerInstance;

    // Use the entire outerInstance, which is of type Outer<int>

    printValueType(outerInstance);

    return 0;

}

Output:

Typename in C++

Resolving Compilation Errors in Template Programming:

Use the 'typename' keyword if you encounter compilation issues in template programming with dependent names. This can help with problems relating to the compiler's comprehension of whether a given identifier represents a type. By employing 'typename', compilation issues may be avoided by confirming that a specified name in the template does, in fact, represent a type.

Code:

#include <iostream>

#include <vector>

template <typename T>

class Example {

Public:

    typename T::value_type getValue() {

        return T::defaultValue();

    }

};

struct MyStruct {

    using value_type = int;

    static int defaultValue() {

        return 42;

    }

};

int main() {

    Example<MyStruct> myInstance;

    std::cout << myInstance.getValue() << std::endl;

// Output: 42

    return 0;

}

Output:

Typename in C++

Effective Use of Typename:

The name type-name is usually adopted to bear in mind templates think of dependent names as kinds.

Resolution of Ambiguity:

It needs to be clarified how the compiler should manipulate dependent names when it encounters such while handling template code. For instance, it can be seen whether a given name is scoped to an operation, variable, or type.

You can use a type name to tell the compiler that certain identifiers identify a type so that it cannot guess your intentions.

Accessing Nested Types:

Examples, where a type name is used when studying vested types in classes or structures, show that the term nesting stands for the user making sure whether it belongs with that type.

Template Specialization:

In the framework of template specialization, a Typename is almost a must to prove that a dependent name refers to a type in a specialized version.

The use of type names is necessary for the fact that some names may be types in the template or member functions of the template class, especially if those names are dependent on the parameters to which a type is related.

#include <iostream>

// Public sample Template class with inner type

template <typename T>

struct Container {

    using value_type = T;

};

// Template function employing typename to represent a friend name.

template <typename T>

void printValue(const Container<T>& container) {

    // Accessing the nested type 'value_type' from the 'Container' class

    typename Container<T>::value_type value = 42;

    // Printing the value

    std::cout << "Implied: " << value << std::endl;

}

int main() {

    // Instantiating the template class with int as a nested type.

    Container<int> intContainer;

    // The specified instantiation class name is the template function.

    printValue(intContainer);

    return 0;

}

Output:

Typename in C++

The Role of Typename in C++ Templates: Advantages and Considerations:

In the C++ templates, the ‘type name’ keyword provided a necessary tool to provide dependent names explicitly, particularly in complex template scenarios. It is handy to know if an identifier within template definitions matches a type, variable, or function. This eliminates any doubt and helps the compiler understand template code correctly. If poorly used, though essential for the clarity of the template, care should be taken to ensure proper use and avoid verbosity, as overuse creates compilation problems.

In conclusion, the 'type name' keyword is an essential tool in C ++ template programming because it causes dependent names to be eliminated and makes type declarations unambiguous even for complicated algorithms. So, it helps the compiler to understand and correct the codes of developers; however, it is doomed to be mentioned in verbose use or by careful application. While the 'type name' concept may appear quite a challenging one, its implementation for C++ templated code contributes to making sure that it is rather steady with minimal change and ensuring understandability, which depends on both readability and maintainability.