C++ Tutorial Index

C++ Tutorial C++ History C++ Installation C++ First Program C++ cin and cout C++ Data type C++ Variable C++ operator C++ Keywords

C++ Control Statements

C++ If C++ Nested if C++ If-else C++ If-else-if C++ Switch C++ Break C++ Continue C++ Goto C++ For loop C++ While loop C++ Do while loop

C++ Functions

C++ Call by Value C++ Call by Reference C++ Recursion Function C++ Inline function C++ Friend function

C++ Arrays

Single dimension array Two dimension array

C++ Strings

C++ Strings

C++ Inheritance

C++ Inheritance Single level Inheritance Multilevel Inheritance Multiple Inheritance Hierarchical Inheritance Hybrid Inheritance

C++ Polymorphism

C++ Polymorphism C++ Overloading C++ Overriding C++ Virtual Function

C++ Pointers

C++ Pointers C++ this pointer

C++ Exception Handling

C++ Exception Handling

C++ Constructors

C++ Constructors Default Constructor Parameterize Constructor Copy constructor Constructor Overloading Destructor

C++ File Handling

C++ File Handling C++ Writing to file C++ Reading file C++ Close file


C Vs C++ C++ Comments C++ Data Abstraction C++ Identifier C++ Memory Management C++ Storage Classes C++ Void Pointer C++ Array To Function C++ Expressions C++ Features C++ Interfaces C++ Encapsulation std::min in C++ External merge sort in C++ Remove duplicates from sorted array in C++ Precision of floating point numbers Using these functions floor(), ceil(), trunc(), round() and setprecision() in C++ C++ References C++ Friend Functions C++ Mutable keyword Unary Operators in C++ Initialize Array of objects with parameterized constructors in C++ Differences between #define & const in C/C++ C++ Program to Implement Shell Sort C++ Program to Implement Merge Sort Storage Classes in C Vector resize() in C++ Passing by Reference Vs. Passing by the pointer in C++ Free vs delete() in C++ goto statement in C and C++ C++ program to read string using cin.getline() C++ String Concatenation Heap Sort in C++ Swap numbers in C++ Input Iterators in C++ Fibonacci Series in C++ C ++ Program: Alphabet Triangle and Number Triangle C++ Program: Matrix Multiplication C++ Program to Print Fibonacci Triangle Stack in C++ Maps in C++ Queue in C++ C++ Bitset C++ Algorithms Priority Queue in C++ C++ Multimap C++ Deque Function Pointer in C++ Sizeof() Operators in C++ C++ array of Pointers free() Vs delete in C Timsort Implementation Using C++ CPP Templates C++ Aggregation C++ Enumeration C++ Math Functions C++ Object Class C++ Queue Initialize Vector in C++ Vector in C++ C++ STL Components Function overloading in C++ C++ Maximum Index Problem C++ find missing in the second array C++ Program to find the product array puzzle C++ Program To Find Largest Subarray With 0 Sum C++ Program To Move All Zeros To The End Of The Array C++ Program to find the element that occurs once C++ Program to find the largest number formed from an array Constructor Vs Destructor C++ Namespaces C++ OOPs Concept C++ Static C++ Structs C++ Try-Catch C++ User Defined Exceptions C++ Virtual Destructor C++ vs C# Malloc() and new in C++ Palindrome Number Program in C++ Snake Code in C++ Splitting a string in C++ Structure Vs Class in C++ Virtual Function Vs Pure Virtual Function C++ Bidirectional Iterators C++ Forward Iterators C++ Iterators C++ Output Iterators C++ Range-based For Loop Converting string into integer in C++ LCM Program in C++ Type conversion in C++ Add two numbers using the function in C++ Advantage and disadvantage friend function C++ Armstrong Number Program in C++ ATM machine program in C++ using functions Binary to Decimal in C++ Bit Manipulation in C++ C++ Constructor C++ Dijkstra Algorithm Using the Priority Queue C++ int into String C++ Signal Handling Decimal to Binary in C++ Decimal to Hexadecimal in C++ Decimal to Octal in C++ Factorial Program in C++ Function in C++ Hexadecimal to Decimal in C++ Octal to Decimal in C++ Reverse a Number in C++ Structure Vs Class in C++ C++ Forward Iterators C++ Output Iterators C++ Prime number program Char Array to String in C++ Constructor Overloading in C++ Default arguments in C++ Different Ways to Compare Strings in C++ Dynamic Binding in C++ Program to convert infix to postfix expression in C++ SET Data Structure in C++ Upcasting and Downcasting in C++ Reverse an Array in C++ Fast Input and Output in C++ Delete Operator in C++ Copy elision in C++ C++ Date and Time C++ Bitwise XOR Operator Array of sets in C++ Binary Operator Overloading in C++ Binary Search in C++ Implementing the sets without C++ STL containers Scope Resolution Operator in C++ Smart pointers in C++ Types of polymorphism in C++ Exception Handling in C++ vs Java Const Keyword in C++ Type Casting in C++ Static keyword in C++ vs Java Inheritance in C++ vs Java How to concatenate two strings in C++ Programs to Print Pyramid Patterns in C++ swap() function in C++ Structure of C++ Program Stringstream in C++ and its applications rand() and srand() in C / C++ C++ Ternary Operator C++ Scope of Variables While Loop Examples in C++ Star pattern in C++ using For Loops For Loop Examples in C++ Do-While Loop Examples in C++ Top 5 IDEs for C++ That You Should Try Once Assertions in C/C++ C++ Convert Int to String Continue in C++ While loop Diamond Pattern in C++ using For Loop How to Reverse a String in C++ using Do-While Loop How to Reverse a String in C++ using For Loop How to Reverse a String in C++ using While Loop Infinite loop in C++ Loops in C++ Returning Multiple Values from a Function using Tuple and Pair in C++ wcscpy(), wcslen(), wcscmp() Functions in C++ Auto keyword in C++ C++ 11 vs C++ 14 vs C++ 17 C++ STL (Standard Template Library) Differences Between C Structures and C++ Structures Divide by Zero Exception in C++ Dynamic Constructor in C++ Dynamic Memory Allocation in C++ Find the Size of Array in C/C++ without using sizeof() function Floating Point Operations and Associativity in C, C++ and Java Hello World Program in C++ How to create a table in C++ How to Setup Environment for C++ Programming on Mac Implementation of a Falling Matrix in C++ Message Passing in C++ Pointer to Object in C++ Templates in C++ vs Generics in Java Ways to Copy a Vector in C++ What does Buffer Flush mean in C++ sort() function in C++ Structure Sorting (By Multiple Rules) in C++ Similarities between C++ and Java std::distance in C++ Array program in C++ C++ Tricks for Competitive Programming Desired Capabilities in Selenium Web Driver in C++ Socket Programming in C++ Template Specialization in C++ Classes and Objects in C++ Convex hull Algorithm in C++ DES in C++ C++ vardiac() function Difference between Two Sets in C++ Difference between Exit and Return Structured Binding in C++ Differences between Local and Global Variable Bitwise Operator vs Logical Operator Difference between OOP and POP in C++ Fork in C++ Functors in C++ How to call a void function in C++ How to create a directory or folder in C/C++ How to create a library in C++ How to create a stack in C++ How to create the Processes with Fork in C++ How to Handle Divide by Zero Exception in C++ Lambda Expression in C++ Pattern programs in C++ Roadmap to C++ Programming Substring in C++ Virtual base class in C++ Bits stdc++.h in C++ Top 14 Best Free C++ IDE (Editor & Compiler) for Windows in 2022 Bitmasking in C++ Auto Keyword in C++ Features of OOPS in C++ Hospital Management Project in C++ How to Declare Unordered Sets in C++ How to Sort an Array in C++ Include Guards in C++ Iostream in C++ Method overriding in C++ How to run program in turbo c++ How to Use Getline in C++ Leap Year Program in C++ Naming Convention in C++ New Operator in C++ Nullptr in C++ Object Slicing in C++ Principles of Object-Oriented Programming in C++ Processing strings using std string stream in C++ Pure Virtual Function in C++ With Example Program Random Number Generator in C++ Singleton Design Pattern in C++ Size_t Data Type in C++ Skyline Problem in C++ System() function in C++ Web Development in C++ Data Hiding in C++ Difference between exit() and _Exit() in C++ Hashing in C++ Object in C++ Sum of all Elements between k1’th and k2’th Smallest Elements Virtual class in C++ Vector Size in C++ Top best IDEs for C/C++ Developers in 2022 Tensorflow in C++ Sliding Window Technique in C++ Reverse String Word-Wise in C++ Returning a Function Pointer from a Function in C/C++ RTTI in C++ Pthreads or POSIX Threads in C++ Reserved Keywords in C++ Passing a Vector to a function in C++ 10 Best C and C++ Books for Beginners & Advanced Programmers Add two numbers represented by two arrays in C++ Array of Object in C++ C++ Program For FCFS Containership in C++ Counting Frequencies of Array Elements in C++ Decltype type Specifier in C++ Dynamic _Cast in C++ Difference between int main() and int main(void) in C/C++ Depth First Search Program to Traverse a Graph in C++ Features and Use Of Pointers in C/C++ Fread Function in C++ Programming Fscanf Function in The C++ Functions in C++ With Types and Examples Gmtime Function in C/C++ How is Multiset Implemented in C++ How to Build a Program in C++ How to Declare a 2d Array Dynamically in C++ inheritance Program in C++ int Max and int Min in C/C++ is It Fine to Write Void Main Or Main in C/C++ How to create a button in C++ abs() function in C++ Compile Time Polymorphism in C++ Division in C++ Factorial of a Number in C++ using while Loop Multiset in C++ 4 Pillars of OOPs Approach in C++ Backtracking Time Complexity in C++ C++ Global Variable C++ Pipe Tutorial Observer Design Pattern in C++ Private Inheritance in C++ Pthread in C++ Parameters SDL library in C++ with Examples Pointers in C++ Abstract Factory Design Pattern in C++ Ascending order in C++ How the value is passed in C++ Call by Pointer in C++ Constexpr in C++ Deadlock in C++ Design Patterns in C++ Factory Method for Designing Pattern in C++ How to calculate size of string in C++ Name Mangling and extern in C++ Preventing Object Copy in C++ Program that produces different results in C and C++ Quick Sort in C++ Single Handling in C++ Type difference of Character literals in C VS C++ Use of Inheritance in C++ User-defined literals in C++ Vector methods in C++ Void * in C and C++ Zombie and Orphan Process in C++ Isprint() in C++ List and Vector in C++ List iterators in C++ Merging Two Vectors in C++ Sleep function in C++ Stoi function in C++ String erase() in C++ String Trim in C++ When should we write own Assignment operator in C++ C++ tcp client server example C++ tcp server example Early Binding and Late Binding in C++ Factory Design Pattern in C++ Fisher-Yates shuffle algorithm in C++ For Auto in C++ Group anagrams in C++ How to convert binary string to int in C++ How to convert string to float in C++ How to remove space from string in C++ How to use pair in C++ How to use the string find() in C++ Dynamic Casting in C++ 2D Vector Initialization in C++ C++ GUI Visual Studio C++ IPC C++ Macro Function Example C++ Permutation Overloading Stream Insertion in C++ Overloading array Index operator in C++ Operators that cannot be overloaded in C++ Operator overloading in C++ isprint() function in c++ Is_trivial function in C++ Is assignment operator Inherited in C++ div() function in C++ Default Assignment Operator and References in C++ Copy Constructor vs Assignment Operator in C++ Conversion Operator in C++ Array sum in C++ STL C++ Define Macro C++ Design C++ Factory Pattern TCP Client Server Example in C++ Convert String to Uppercase in C++ exit() and _Exit() in C and C++ Initializer list in C++ Iterator invalidation in C++ Lower bound in C++ Modulus of Two float numbers or double number Pass by value in C++ Set insert function in C++ Std partition_point in C++ Unary Operator Overloading in C++ Using Default Arguments with Virtual Functions Virtual Functions and Runtime Polymorphism What is endl in C++ What is Unary Operator Overloading in C++ Which operators cannot be overloaded in C++ C++ Program to Divide the String Into N equal Parts Gray Code to Binary Code in C++ How to get the value of pi in C++ Multimap value_comp() function in C++ Vector of Vectors in C++ Naïve Bayes Algorithm in C++ Minimum Cost Path Problem in C++ 10 C++ Programming Tricks You Should Know btowc() function in C++ forward_list::cend() in C++ Unordered_multimap max_load_factor() function in C++ Cpp_int in c++ Dynamic Objects in C++ FLOCK() FUNCTION IN C++ Generate Random Double Numbers in C++ How to Assign Infinity to a Number in C++ Jump statements in C++ Multipath inheritance in C++ Out of Range Exception in C++ Size of Class in C++ Size of string in C++ std::binary_negate in c++ Thread_local in C++ Tokenizing a String in C++ Ancestors of a Node in Binary Search Tree C++ program for Double to String Conversion C++ Program to Demonstrate Use of Formatting Flags on Float Output Clamp in C++ K-Dimensional Tree in C++ Mutable Lambda in C++ Power Set in C++ Program to Find Sum of Geometric Progression Std::Back_inserter in C++ Strpbrk() function in C++ Size of int in C++ TYPES OF MANIPULATORS IN C++ Double colon in C++ How to sort vector in C++ How to use Setprecision in C++ How to write a Vector in C++ Insertion in Splay Tree in C++ Merge Sort Algorithm in C++ Printing a Character using ASCII value in C++ Regex in C++ Size of Data Types in C++ Sqrtf() function in C++ Static Casting in C++ Using Range in Switch Case in C++ wcstoimax() and wcstoumax() function in C++ What is float in C++ What is the Diamond Problem in C++ Best way to learn C++ ios setstate() function in C++ Nested Namespace in C++ Single Inheritance in C++ std::fixed, std::scientific, std::hexfloat, std::defaultfloat in C++ StringStream in C++ for Decimal to Hexadecimal and back The OFFSETOF() macro in C++ Difference between std::next and std::advance in C++ Hiding of all overloaded methods with same name in base class in C++ C++ program to concatenate two strings using operator overloading Difference between array::fill() and array::swap() in C++ Difference between Friend Function and Virtual Function in C++ Semaphores in C++ Seekg in C++ UDP server- client implementattion in C++ What is long long in C++ CSV file management using C++ Toggle bits of a number except first and last bits in C++ Trailing Return Type C++ 11 Binary search implementation in C++ Different Versions of C++ What is Cascading in C++ Background Colour in C++ BOOL DATATYPE IN C++ BIT VECTORS IN C++ Literals in C++ Application of pointer in C++ Index with minimum sum of prefix and suffix sums in an array in C++ Maximum sum Bi-tonic sub-sequence in C++ std::optional in C++ C/C++ program for triangular matchstick number COUT COMMAND IN C++ LANGUAGE Adjacency matrix program in C++ language Difference between Null String and Empty String in C++ Character data type in c++ Constructors in Inheritance C++ Comma Operator Overloading in C++ Structure and Class in C++ Template Definition in C++ Tree Data Structure in C++ Typename in C++ C++ program to implement the bin packing algorithm How to merge multiple std::sets into a single std::set in C++? Stack Clear C++ C++ Friend Class Seekg in C++ Semaphores in C++ C++ Exceptions Difference Between C and C++ Double-linked list program in C++ Color Code in C++ CRC Program in C++ Anti-Clockwise spiral traversal of a binary tree in C++ Advantages of OOP in C++ Cryptarithmetic Puzzle in C++ Angular sweep algorithm in C++

Advantages of OOP in C++

Object-Oriented Programming (OOP) presents a new perspective on software development, establishing an organized and modular process for expressing code. Within the realm of C ++, an invaluable and flexible programming language, OOP has a crucial function as it positions itself at helping to improve code structure organization reusability and flexibility of code.

Modularity and Code Organization

Modular structure is promoted through OOP in C++ with the use of classes and objects. This way, it is much easier to understand and maintain the code as there was clearly separated from concerns. The methods of each class are responsible for representing the specific entity or concept; thus, they encapsulate functionality that is related to them and allow several classes in a more organized codebase.


The concept of encapsulation, a core principle in OOP requires organizing data and the methods that act on it into one basic unit: class. This protects the internal aspects of this class from outside and makes it possible to control who uses what feature. Encapsulation is improved when access specifiers such as private, public and protected are used in C++ since information hiding and the possibility to avoid unintended interference with the class’s internal state will be subsequently reduced.


Code reusability is one of the greatest OOP benefits. C++ is capable of reusing classes in different parts a program or even other projects, which creates an optimized development procedure. One of the bedrock concepts in OOP is inheritance, which allows for developing new classes on top of existing ones with inherited properties and functionality. This encourages the reuse of code, thus saving time and effort in development.


The other major concept of OOP, polymorphism can represent multiple object types via a single interface. In C++, polymorphism is implemented through function overloading and virtual functions. Function overloading makes it possible to define several functions with the same name but different argument lists, whilst virtual functions allow dynamic binding of methods in inherited classes.

Flexibility and Extensibility

The very incorporation of OOP in C++ makes the code more flexible and extendable. Since it is possible to build classes with modular structure that can be used or extended via inheritance this approach allows for reacting more easily when requirements are changed. New classes can be built or existing ones modified so that all new features are added without disturbing the entire codebase, allowing a more efficient and dynamic methodology.

Improved Code Maintenance

OOP helps with code maintenance by creating an organized structure. Changes or updates can be confined to particular classes or modules, avoiding unintentional impacts. The modular design enables improved debugging and testing, since defects can be traced to particular elements which are relatively easy to pinpoint.

Enhanced Security

Security is facilitated by OOP encapsulation that restricts the access to sensitive data and methods. The use of access specifiers grants developers with control over class members’ visibility, hence stopping unauthorized access. This makes internal state of a class secure by limiting the cases where unexpected changes can occur that may compromise security.

Better Collaboration

In OOP, collaboration of developers is made easy by having a standard framework and language for both discussing and implementing software solutions. Shared classes and objects become common vocabulary for the team members which help them communicate easily with each other’s code. This set method of programming helps in effective partnerships and effortless combination of personal inputs.


An abstraction can remove the not that crucial aspects of an object and leave only details developers really need to know. In C++ classes serve as abstractions and simplify the view into a complicated system. Defining interfaces clearly and hiding implementation details help developers to work at a higher level of abstraction which makes code easier for understanding and maintenance.

Concurrency and Multithreading

C++ provides concurrent programming and in order to effectively manage threads, the OOP principles go a long way in assisting. Given classes in this case, thread safe objects can be created inside those classes by enclosing the data within and thus making it impossible for even another process to interact with or read what is written on such an object. This is especially true in modern implementations where parallel running and concurrent completion are necessary for high performance.

Facilitates Agile Development

There is yet another relationship between Agile and Object-Oriented Programming, where the latter works favourably as a technique used to pursue in an embrace of the former. By design, OOP is more modular and flexible than other alternatives. Such a system adapts better to changing demands can change as needed and go through multiple iterations with few problems occurring along the way. Such Agile teams can adopt OOP principles to provide incremental updates to the customers and listen to feedback more promptly, thereby enhancing the efficiency of development process determined by an iterative and adaptive nature.

Real-world Modelling

It is easier for the developer to transform from planning towards producing programs when moving away from discussion and going in the writing of computer code by OOP. The developer that resembles real actor for the coded created object has easier time maintaining their work. This modelling represents an advantage starting from the moment of understanding what kind of structure and contents is contained in the codebase so that it would be easier to reason about and extend it.

Easier Debugging

The encapsulation of data and behaviour within classes simplifies the debugging process. Developers can isolate issues to specific classes or methods, making it easier to identify and rectify bugs. Additionally, OOP facilitates the use of tools like debugging frameworks and profilers, further streamlining the debugging and optimization processes.

Promotes Collaboration with Third-Party Libraries

Many third-party libraries and frameworks in C++ are designed with OOP principles in mind. When using such libraries, developers benefit from a consistent coding style and compatibility with their own OOP-based code. This promotes seamless integration of external tools, reducing the effort required to leverage the capabilities provided by these libraries.

Parallel Development

OOP enables parallel development by allowing multiple developers to work on different parts of a project simultaneously. Each developer can focus on implementing or modifying a specific class without interfering with others' work. This parallelization accelerates the development timeline, making it possible to deliver complex projects within tight deadlines.

Facilitates Code Maintenance and Updates

OOP's modular structure greatly facilitates code maintenance and updates. While introducing new features or fixing bugs, developers can concentrate on the relevant classes without disrupting the entire system. This targeted approach minimizes the risk of unintended consequences and accelerates the release of updates and enhancements.

Supports Multiple Paradigms

C++ is known for its versatility and supports multiple programming paradigms, including procedural and generic programming. OOP in C++ complements these paradigms, offering a cohesive and integrated approach. Developers can choose the most suitable paradigm for a specific task while still benefiting from the advantages of OOP where it adds the most value.

Educational Value

OOP serves as an excellent educational tool for teaching programming concepts. The principles of encapsulation, inheritance, and polymorphism are foundational concepts that help beginners understand abstract programming ideas. Aspiring developers can gain a solid understanding of software design and architecture by practicing OOP in C++, preparing them for a wide range of programming challenges.

Encourages Design Thinking

OOP encourages developers to think critically about the design of their software. The process of creating classes, defining relationships, and encapsulating functionality requires a thoughtful approach. This emphasis on design thinking promotes the creation of software that is not only functional but also well-structured and easy to understand.

Promotes Code Readability

The structure provided by OOP enhances code readability. Clear class definitions, meaningful method names, and well-defined relationships between objects contribute to a codebase that is easy to read and comprehend. This readability is invaluable when collaborating with other developers,

Supports Hierarchical Structure

OOP facilitates the creation of hierarchical structures through inheritance. This hierarchy allows for the modelling of complex relationships between entities. In C++, this is particularly useful for representing various levels of abstraction in a system, making it easier to conceptualize and manage the complexity of large-scale projects.

Encourages Software Reengineering

As software evolves, the need for reengineering arises. OOP's modularity and encapsulation make it more feasible to reengineer specific components or modules without affecting the entire system. This adaptability is crucial in industries where software systems need to be continuously updated and improved.


The benefits of Object-Oriented Programming in C++ are far wider than the phases during which it is used only. OOP principles offer a broad range of benefits, including improving modularity and reusability values, simplifying dynamic memory management procedures as well as guiding GUI development processes. With continuous development and improvement of OOP in C++, these guiding principles will remain relevant for producing cutting-edge applications that are also easy to maintain.