C++ Tutorial Index

C++ Tutorial C++ History C++ Installation C++ First Program C++ cin and cout C++ Data type C++ Variable C++ operator C++ Keywords

C++ Control Statements

C++ If C++ Nested if C++ If-else C++ If-else-if C++ Switch C++ Break C++ Continue C++ Goto C++ For loop C++ While loop C++ Do while loop

C++ Functions

C++ Call by Value C++ Call by Reference C++ Recursion Function C++ Inline function C++ Friend function

C++ Arrays

Single dimension array Two dimension array

C++ Strings

C++ Strings

C++ Inheritance

C++ Inheritance Single level Inheritance Multilevel Inheritance Multiple Inheritance Hierarchical Inheritance Hybrid Inheritance

C++ Polymorphism

C++ Polymorphism C++ Overloading C++ Overriding C++ Virtual Function

C++ Pointers

C++ Pointers C++ this pointer

C++ Exception Handling

C++ Exception Handling

C++ Constructors

C++ Constructors Default Constructor Parameterize Constructor Copy constructor Constructor Overloading Destructor

C++ File Handling

C++ File Handling C++ Writing to file C++ Reading file C++ Close file


C Vs C++ C++ Comments C++ Data Abstraction C++ Identifier C++ Memory Management C++ Storage Classes C++ Void Pointer C++ Array To Function C++ Expressions C++ Features C++ Interfaces C++ Encapsulation std::min in C++ External merge sort in C++ Remove duplicates from sorted array in C++ Precision of floating point numbers Using these functions floor(), ceil(), trunc(), round() and setprecision() in C++ C++ References C++ Friend Functions C++ Mutable keyword Unary Operators in C++ Initialize Array of objects with parameterized constructors in C++ Differences between #define & const in C/C++ C++ Program to Implement Shell Sort C++ Program to Implement Merge Sort Storage Classes in C Vector resize() in C++ Passing by Reference Vs. Passing by the pointer in C++ Free vs delete() in C++ goto statement in C and C++ C++ program to read string using cin.getline() C++ String Concatenation Heap Sort in C++ Swap numbers in C++ Input Iterators in C++ Fibonacci Series in C++ C ++ Program: Alphabet Triangle and Number Triangle C++ Program: Matrix Multiplication C++ Program to Print Fibonacci Triangle Stack in C++ Maps in C++ Queue in C++ C++ Bitset C++ Algorithms Priority Queue in C++ C++ Multimap C++ Deque Function Pointer in C++ Sizeof() Operators in C++ C++ array of Pointers free() Vs delete in C Timsort Implementation Using C++ CPP Templates C++ Aggregation C++ Enumeration C++ Math Functions C++ Object Class C++ Queue Initialize Vector in C++ Vector in C++ C++ STL Components Function overloading in C++ C++ Maximum Index Problem C++ find missing in the second array C++ Program to find the product array puzzle C++ Program To Find Largest Subarray With 0 Sum C++ Program To Move All Zeros To The End Of The Array C++ Program to find the element that occurs once C++ Program to find the largest number formed from an array Constructor Vs Destructor C++ Namespaces C++ OOPs Concept C++ Static C++ Structs C++ Try-Catch C++ User Defined Exceptions C++ Virtual Destructor C++ vs C# Malloc() and new in C++ Palindrome Number Program in C++ Snake Code in C++ Splitting a string in C++ Structure Vs Class in C++ Virtual Function Vs Pure Virtual Function C++ Bidirectional Iterators C++ Forward Iterators C++ Iterators C++ Output Iterators C++ Range-based For Loop Converting string into integer in C++ LCM Program in C++ Type conversion in C++ Add two numbers using the function in C++ Advantage and disadvantage friend function C++ Armstrong Number Program in C++ ATM machine program in C++ using functions Binary to Decimal in C++ Bit Manipulation in C++ C++ Constructor C++ Dijkstra Algorithm Using the Priority Queue C++ int into String C++ Signal Handling Decimal to Binary in C++ Decimal to Hexadecimal in C++ Decimal to Octal in C++ Factorial Program in C++ Function in C++ Hexadecimal to Decimal in C++ Octal to Decimal in C++ Reverse a Number in C++ Structure Vs Class in C++ C++ Forward Iterators C++ Output Iterators C++ Prime number program Char Array to String in C++ Constructor Overloading in C++ Default arguments in C++ Different Ways to Compare Strings in C++ Dynamic Binding in C++ Program to convert infix to postfix expression in C++ SET Data Structure in C++ Upcasting and Downcasting in C++ Reverse an Array in C++ Fast Input and Output in C++ Delete Operator in C++ Copy elision in C++ C++ Date and Time C++ Bitwise XOR Operator Array of sets in C++ Binary Operator Overloading in C++ Binary Search in C++ Implementing the sets without C++ STL containers Scope Resolution Operator in C++ Smart pointers in C++ Types of polymorphism in C++ Exception Handling in C++ vs Java Const Keyword in C++ Type Casting in C++ Static keyword in C++ vs Java Inheritance in C++ vs Java How to concatenate two strings in C++ Programs to Print Pyramid Patterns in C++ swap() function in C++ Structure of C++ Program Stringstream in C++ and its applications rand() and srand() in C / C++ C++ Ternary Operator C++ Scope of Variables While Loop Examples in C++ Star pattern in C++ using For Loops For Loop Examples in C++ Do-While Loop Examples in C++ Top 5 IDEs for C++ That You Should Try Once Assertions in C/C++ C++ Convert Int to String Continue in C++ While loop Diamond Pattern in C++ using For Loop How to Reverse a String in C++ using Do-While Loop How to Reverse a String in C++ using For Loop How to Reverse a String in C++ using While Loop Infinite loop in C++ Loops in C++ Returning Multiple Values from a Function using Tuple and Pair in C++ wcscpy(), wcslen(), wcscmp() Functions in C++ Auto keyword in C++ C++ 11 vs C++ 14 vs C++ 17 C++ STL (Standard Template Library) Differences Between C Structures and C++ Structures Divide by Zero Exception in C++ Dynamic Constructor in C++ Dynamic Memory Allocation in C++ Find the Size of Array in C/C++ without using sizeof() function Floating Point Operations and Associativity in C, C++ and Java Hello World Program in C++ How to create a table in C++ How to Setup Environment for C++ Programming on Mac Implementation of a Falling Matrix in C++ Message Passing in C++ Pointer to Object in C++ Templates in C++ vs Generics in Java Ways to Copy a Vector in C++ What does Buffer Flush mean in C++ sort() function in C++ Structure Sorting (By Multiple Rules) in C++ Similarities between C++ and Java std::distance in C++ Array program in C++ C++ Tricks for Competitive Programming Desired Capabilities in Selenium Web Driver in C++ Socket Programming in C++ Template Specialization in C++ Classes and Objects in C++ Convex hull Algorithm in C++ DES in C++ C++ vardiac() function Difference between Two Sets in C++ Difference between Exit and Return Structured Binding in C++ Differences between Local and Global Variable Bitwise Operator vs Logical Operator Difference between OOP and POP in C++ Fork in C++ Functors in C++ How to call a void function in C++ How to create a directory or folder in C/C++ How to create a library in C++ How to create a stack in C++ How to create the Processes with Fork in C++ How to Handle Divide by Zero Exception in C++ Lambda Expression in C++ Pattern programs in C++ Roadmap to C++ Programming Substring in C++ Virtual base class in C++ Bits stdc++.h in C++ Top 14 Best Free C++ IDE (Editor & Compiler) for Windows in 2022 Bitmasking in C++ Auto Keyword in C++ Features of OOPS in C++ Hospital Management Project in C++ How to Declare Unordered Sets in C++ How to Sort an Array in C++ Include Guards in C++ Iostream in C++ Method overriding in C++ How to run program in turbo c++ How to Use Getline in C++ Leap Year Program in C++ Naming Convention in C++ New Operator in C++ Nullptr in C++ Object Slicing in C++ Principles of Object-Oriented Programming in C++ Processing strings using std string stream in C++ Pure Virtual Function in C++ With Example Program Random Number Generator in C++ Singleton Design Pattern in C++ Size_t Data Type in C++ Skyline Problem in C++ System() function in C++ Web Development in C++ Data Hiding in C++ Difference between exit() and _Exit() in C++ Hashing in C++ Object in C++ Sum of all Elements between k1’th and k2’th Smallest Elements Virtual class in C++ Vector Size in C++ Top best IDEs for C/C++ Developers in 2022 Tensorflow in C++ Sliding Window Technique in C++ Reverse String Word-Wise in C++ Returning a Function Pointer from a Function in C/C++ RTTI in C++ Pthreads or POSIX Threads in C++ Reserved Keywords in C++ Passing a Vector to a function in C++ 10 Best C and C++ Books for Beginners & Advanced Programmers Add two numbers represented by two arrays in C++ Array of Object in C++ C++ Program For FCFS Containership in C++ Counting Frequencies of Array Elements in C++ Decltype type Specifier in C++ Dynamic _Cast in C++ Difference between int main() and int main(void) in C/C++ Depth First Search Program to Traverse a Graph in C++ Features and Use Of Pointers in C/C++ Fread Function in C++ Programming Fscanf Function in The C++ Functions in C++ With Types and Examples Gmtime Function in C/C++ How is Multiset Implemented in C++ How to Build a Program in C++ How to Declare a 2d Array Dynamically in C++ inheritance Program in C++ int Max and int Min in C/C++ is It Fine to Write Void Main Or Main in C/C++ How to create a button in C++ abs() function in C++ Compile Time Polymorphism in C++ Division in C++ Factorial of a Number in C++ using while Loop Multiset in C++ 4 Pillars of OOPs Approach in C++ Backtracking Time Complexity in C++ C++ Global Variable C++ Pipe Tutorial Observer Design Pattern in C++ Private Inheritance in C++ Pthread in C++ Parameters SDL library in C++ with Examples Pointers in C++ Abstract Factory Design Pattern in C++ Ascending order in C++ How the value is passed in C++ Call by Pointer in C++ Constexpr in C++ Deadlock in C++ Design Patterns in C++ Factory Method for Designing Pattern in C++ How to calculate size of string in C++ Name Mangling and extern in C++ Preventing Object Copy in C++ Program that produces different results in C and C++ Quick Sort in C++ Single Handling in C++ Type difference of Character literals in C VS C++ Use of Inheritance in C++ User-defined literals in C++ Vector methods in C++ Void * in C and C++ Zombie and Orphan Process in C++ Isprint() in C++ List and Vector in C++ List iterators in C++ Merging Two Vectors in C++ Sleep function in C++ Stoi function in C++ String erase() in C++ String Trim in C++ When should we write own Assignment operator in C++ C++ tcp client server example C++ tcp server example Early Binding and Late Binding in C++ Factory Design Pattern in C++ Fisher-Yates shuffle algorithm in C++ For Auto in C++ Group anagrams in C++ How to convert binary string to int in C++ How to convert string to float in C++ How to remove space from string in C++ How to use pair in C++ How to use the string find() in C++ Dynamic Casting in C++ 2D Vector Initialization in C++ C++ GUI Visual Studio C++ IPC C++ Macro Function Example C++ Permutation Overloading Stream Insertion in C++ Overloading array Index operator in C++ Operators that cannot be overloaded in C++ Operator overloading in C++ isprint() function in c++ Is_trivial function in C++ Is assignment operator Inherited in C++ div() function in C++ Default Assignment Operator and References in C++ Copy Constructor vs Assignment Operator in C++ Conversion Operator in C++ Array sum in C++ STL C++ Define Macro C++ Design C++ Factory Pattern TCP Client Server Example in C++ Convert String to Uppercase in C++ exit() and _Exit() in C and C++ Initializer list in C++ Iterator invalidation in C++ Lower bound in C++ Modulus of Two float numbers or double number Pass by value in C++ Set insert function in C++ Std partition_point in C++ Unary Operator Overloading in C++ Using Default Arguments with Virtual Functions Virtual Functions and Runtime Polymorphism What is endl in C++ What is Unary Operator Overloading in C++ Which operators cannot be overloaded in C++ C++ Program to Divide the String Into N equal Parts Gray Code to Binary Code in C++ How to get the value of pi in C++ Multimap value_comp() function in C++ Vector of Vectors in C++ Naïve Bayes Algorithm in C++ Minimum Cost Path Problem in C++ 10 C++ Programming Tricks You Should Know btowc() function in C++ forward_list::cend() in C++ Unordered_multimap max_load_factor() function in C++ Cpp_int in c++ Dynamic Objects in C++ FLOCK() FUNCTION IN C++ Generate Random Double Numbers in C++ How to Assign Infinity to a Number in C++ Jump statements in C++ Multipath inheritance in C++ Out of Range Exception in C++ Size of Class in C++ Size of string in C++ std::binary_negate in c++ Thread_local in C++ Tokenizing a String in C++ Ancestors of a Node in Binary Search Tree C++ program for Double to String Conversion C++ Program to Demonstrate Use of Formatting Flags on Float Output Clamp in C++ K-Dimensional Tree in C++ Mutable Lambda in C++ Power Set in C++ Program to Find Sum of Geometric Progression Std::Back_inserter in C++ Strpbrk() function in C++ Size of int in C++ TYPES OF MANIPULATORS IN C++ Double colon in C++ How to sort vector in C++ How to use Setprecision in C++ How to write a Vector in C++ Insertion in Splay Tree in C++ Merge Sort Algorithm in C++ Printing a Character using ASCII value in C++ Regex in C++ Size of Data Types in C++ Sqrtf() function in C++ Static Casting in C++ Using Range in Switch Case in C++ wcstoimax() and wcstoumax() function in C++ What is float in C++ What is the Diamond Problem in C++ Best way to learn C++ ios setstate() function in C++ Nested Namespace in C++ Single Inheritance in C++ std::fixed, std::scientific, std::hexfloat, std::defaultfloat in C++ StringStream in C++ for Decimal to Hexadecimal and back The OFFSETOF() macro in C++ Difference between std::next and std::advance in C++ Hiding of all overloaded methods with same name in base class in C++ C++ program to concatenate two strings using operator overloading Difference between array::fill() and array::swap() in C++ Difference between Friend Function and Virtual Function in C++ Semaphores in C++ Seekg in C++ UDP server- client implementattion in C++ What is long long in C++ CSV file management using C++ Toggle bits of a number except first and last bits in C++ Trailing Return Type C++ 11 Binary search implementation in C++ Different Versions of C++ What is Cascading in C++ Background Colour in C++ BOOL DATATYPE IN C++ BIT VECTORS IN C++ Literals in C++ Application of pointer in C++ Index with minimum sum of prefix and suffix sums in an array in C++ Maximum sum Bi-tonic sub-sequence in C++ std::optional in C++ C/C++ program for triangular matchstick number COUT COMMAND IN C++ LANGUAGE Adjacency matrix program in C++ language Difference between Null String and Empty String in C++ Character data type in c++ Constructors in Inheritance C++ Comma Operator Overloading in C++ Structure and Class in C++ Template Definition in C++ Tree Data Structure in C++ Typename in C++ C++ program to implement the bin packing algorithm How to merge multiple std::sets into a single std::set in C++? Stack Clear C++ C++ Friend Class Seekg in C++ Semaphores in C++ C++ Exceptions Difference Between C and C++ Double-linked list program in C++ Color Code in C++ CRC Program in C++ Anti-Clockwise spiral traversal of a binary tree in C++ Advantages of OOP in C++ Cryptarithmetic Puzzle in C++ Angular sweep algorithm in C++

Difference Between C and C++

What is C Language?

C is a high-level, general-purpose programming language used for creating games, web-based applications, system programming, and various other software applications.

  1. Dennis M. Ritchie created the C language in 1972 at Bell Telephone Labs.
  2. This versatile language was initially developed for UNIX OS development.
  3. Among the most frequently used programming languages is C.
  4. The programming language C is renowned for its simplicity and efficacy. Since it provides an overview of programming, it is the ideal option for you to begin it.

History of C Language:

  • At AT&T Bell Laboratories, Ken Thompson and Dennis Ritchie had been involved in the MULTICS program for several months.
  • In 1969, following the project's termination, Ken Thompson resumed developing his space exploration game using a slightly used PDP-7 computer.
  • He eventually wrote Unix, a virtually full operating system, from foundation in assembly syntax while performing this.
  • Thomson and Ritchie spent time creating software for systems and developing tools in higher-level programming languages when developing MULTICS. Additionally, everyone had witnessed how much simpler the entire procedure was compared to the mysterious and challenging language of assembly.
  • Ritchie accompanied Thompson to assist with the Unix transfer to the PDP-11, a more recent system.
  • They tried several more advanced languages throughout that time to see what they could do.
  • They employed BCPL, and it was extensively utilized in the MULTICS period. Thompson eventually created the B language for programming following giving it an attempt.
  • Though simpler and less complex than BCPL, the British language remained nonetheless related to it.
  • However, B lacked enough juice and did not fully utilize the PDP-11's fresh characteristics and capabilities.
Difference Between C and C++
  • Dennis Ritchie commenced by enhancing the B language for programming and ultimately produced the C language.
  • Programs created in C can be transferred and utilized on various computer topologies since it is a flexible language. Programmers can use low-level functionalities with their immediate conversion to computer code, which makes it incredibly quick and simple to build.
  • In 1972, they rewrote the Operating System for Unix in C.
  • Because C was flexible and the programming language that Unix was built on, programmers began embracing and utilizing it extensively. As a result, the operating system known as Unix flourished, which in return helped the programming language C gain popularity.
  • In 1977, Dennis Ritchie, Jr. and Brian Kernighan co-wrote the book "C programming language," who established guidelines for using the programming language. The phrase gained considerably greater traction after this work.
  • The development of C led to the birth of numerous more programming languages, making it incredibly important in developing computers. Because of this, it is frequently described as the "mother" of every programming language.

What is C++ Language?

The most widely used and well-liked programming language created by Bjarne Stroustrup over the years is C++. A high-level, object-oriented programming is done with C++. With the help of this spoken language, programmers may create big programs, software, thereby games, as well as operating systems with clear, effective code. It is a computer programming system that extends C and supports object-oriented programming (OOPs).

  1. Among the most commonly employed and well-liked programming systems is C++.
  2. Graphics User Interactions, systems with embedded components, and operating systems are all made with C++.
  3. It is a programming language for object-oriented systems that incorporates all OOP ideas, including transmission, packaging, and conceptualization, giving applications an obvious framework and enabling code reuse to reduce development expenses.
  4. It is platform-neutral and may be employed to develop programs that are cross-platform compatible.
  5. One may elect to study C++ as the initial language for programming because it's an easy one to pick up.
  6. Programmers can easily transition to C++ due to its syntax resembling that of C, the language Java, and C#.

History of CPP:

  • Bjarne Stroustrup, a scientist, started working at AT&T Bell Laboratories in 1979.
  • As machines became more sophisticated and powerful in the 1970s, restrictions in the programming language C began to appear.
  • Two factors drove Bjarne Stroustrup's creation of a new language in the early 1980s:
  • The Object Orientated Computing features of Simula, an operating system other than C provided an alternative method of computing. Categories would allow for the abstraction, organization, and representation of any type of code.
  • C is a systems programming syntax that provides the capability to perform complex low-level computing operations that reach very near to the computer architecture.
  • When these two concepts were integrated, greater level abstractions was possible without sacrificing the low level effectiveness.

What distinguishes C from C++:

Many people consider C++ to be an enhanced version of C. Another name for C++ is "C with class." It was almost true before C++ was first developed, but over the years, both programming languages have changed, with C gaining a variety of capabilities that perhaps aren't present in current versions of C++ or haven't been included in any edition of C++ yet. Nevertheless, C++ remains largely an extension of C with the addition of Exception handling, Object-Oriented Development, The use of templates, and a larger common vocabulary.

A list outlining a few of the most evident and widespread distinctions among C and C++ can be seen here. Here exist numerous other minute distinctions among the dialects and their variants.

                                   C                                  CPP
Dennis Ritchie, Jr. worked at For&T Bell Laboratory from 1969 to 1973, when he invented C.Bjarne Stroustrup, a computer scientist, created C++ in the year 1979.
Since C does not support OOPS features i.e., polymorphism, inheritance, abstraction, and encapsulation, it cannot fully implement object-oriented programming concepts.Since C++ is an Object-Oriented Programming language, it allows polymorphism, inheritance, and encapsulation.
The majority of C is a portion of C++.C++ can be considered an enhanced version of C.
Keyword counts for C are as follows: * C90: 32 * C99: 37 * C11: 44 * C23: 59Keyword counts in C++ are as follows: * C++98: 63; * C++11: 73; * C++17: 73; * C++20: 81.
Procedural programming is supported in C for the creation of codes.Since it allows both the conventional and object-oriented development frameworks, C++ is referred to as a combination dialect.
As a procedural code language, C separates information from operations.  In C++, information and functions are merged into a single entity.
C opposes the concealment of information.  To guarantee that information structures along with operators function correctly and that information is masked by the encapsulating.
C provides built-in data types for support.C++ supports both built-in and user-defined kinds of data.
Since C is a sequential programming language, it is procedure-oriented.Because C++ is an Object-Oriented Programming language, it is an object-driven language.
In C, overloading functions and operators cannot be allowed.C++ supports the overloading of functions and operators.
The language C is function-driven.The language C++ is object-driven.
C doesn't set up functions within its classes.In C++, procedures may be utilized within structures.
There are no domain capabilities in the C.C++ uses the domain to prevent term clashes.
Stdio. h is the conventional IO header.Iostream. h is the typical IO header.
The C language lacks support for referenced values.C++ allows reference values to be used.
The features of buddy and phantom aren't supported by C.C++ supports buddy and phantom procedures.
C doesn't allow inheritance.Inheritance is supported in C++.
In the C language for programming, type assurance is not enforced.In C++, strict verification of type is carried out. Numerous programs that run flawlessly in the C compiler are going to generate numerous warnings as well as errors in the C++ compiler.
Overloading is not supported by C.Overloading is supported in C++.
Type mocking is permitted when unions are used (C99 and later)With labour organizations, type deception is an undefinable action (except under very precise circumstances).
Sequence of specified initializers might be thrown off.Named initializers have to correspond with the struct's information layout.
C concentrates on the procedure or approach rather than the data.C++ is more concerned with data than with process or method.
For persistent memory distribution, C offers functions such as malloc() malloc() and free().Allocation of memory and de-allocation are handled by new operators in C++ and erase operators, respectively.
C does not provide immediate assistance for exception management.C++ supports the management of exceptions.
".c" is the file extension.The file extension is either ".cpp," ".c++," ".cc," or ".cxx."
Meta-programming: _Generic() plus macros  Patterns for meta-programming (while macros are still supported, they are not recommended)
The C contains 32 elements.The C++ contains 97 elements.
C employs a top-down strategy.C++ employs a bottom-up methodology.