Python Tutorial

Introduction Python Features Python Applications System requirements for Python Python Installation Python Examples Python Basics Python Indentation Python Variables Python Data Types Python IDE Python Keywords Python Operators Python Comments Python Pass Statement

Python Conditional Statements

Python if Statement Python elif Statement Python If-else statement Python Switch Case

Python Loops

Python for loop Python while loop Python Break Statement Python Continue Statement Python Goto Statement

Python Arrays

Python Array Python Matrix

Python Strings

Python Strings Python Regex

Python Built-in Data Structure

Python Lists Python Tuples Python Lists vs Tuples Python Dictionary Python Sets

Python Functions

Python Function Python min() function Python max() function Python User-define Functions Python Built-in Functions Python Recursion Anonymous/Lambda Function in Python python apply() Function Python lambda() Function

Python File Handling

Python File Handling Python Read CSV Python Write CSV Python Read Excel Python Write Excel Python Read Text File Python Write Text File Read JSON File in Python

Python Exception Handling

Python Exception Handling Python Errors and exceptions Python Assert

Python OOPs Concept

OOPs Concepts in Python Classes & Objects in Python Inheritance in Python Polymorphism in Python Python Encapsulation Python Constructor Python Super function Python Static Method Static Variables in Python Abstraction in Python

Python Iterators

Iterators in Python Yield Statement In Python

Python Generators

Python Generator

Python Decorators

Python Decorator

Python Functions and Methods

Python Built-in Functions Python String Methods Python List Methods Python Dictionary Methods Python Tuple Methods Python Set Methods

Python Modules

Python Modules Python Datetime Module Python Math Module Python Import Module Python Time Module Python Random Module Python Calendar Module CSV Module in Python Python Subprocess Module Python Subprocess

Python MySQL

Python MySQL Python MySQL Client Update Operation Delete Operation Database Connection Creating new Database using Python MySQL Creating Tables Performing Transactions

Python MongoDB

Python MongoDB

Python SQLite

Python SQLite

Python Data Structure Implementation

Python Stack Python Queue Python Linked List Python Hash Table Python Graph

Python Advance Topics

Speech Recognition in Python Face Recognition in Python Python Linear regression Python Rest API Python Command Line Arguments Python JSON Python Virtual Environment Type Casting in Python Python Collections Python Commands Python Data Visualization Python Debugger Python DefaultDict Python Enumerate

Python 3

Anaconda in Python 3 Anaconda python 3 installation for windows 10 List Comprehension in Python3

Misc

Python PPTX Python Pickle Python Seaborn Python Coroutine Python EOL Python Infinity Python math.cos and math.acos function Python Project Ideas Based On Django Reverse a String in Python Reverse a Number in Python Python Word Tokenizer Python Trigonometric Functions Python try catch exception GUI Calculator in Python Implementing geometric shapes into the game in python Installing Packages in Python Python Try Except Python Sending Email Socket Programming in Python Python CGI Programming Python Data Structures Python abstract class Python Compiler Python K-Means Clustering NSE Tools In Python Operator Module In Python Palindrome In Python Permutations in Python Pillow Python introduction and setup Python Functionalities of Pillow Module Python Argmin Python whois Python JSON Schema Python lock Return Statement In Python Reverse a sentence In Python tell() function in Python Why learn Python? Write Dictionary to CSV in Python Write a String in Python Binary Search Visualization using Pygame in Python Latest Project Ideas using Python 2022 Closest Pair of Points in Python ComboBox in Python Python vs R Best resources to learn Numpy and Pandas in python Check Letter in a String Python Python Console Python Control Statements Convert Float to Int in Python using Pandas Difference between python list and tuple Importing Numpy in Pycharm Python Key Error Python NewLine Python tokens and character set Python Strong Number any() Keyword in python Best Database in Python Check whether dir is empty or not in python Comments in the Python Programming Language Convert int to Float in Python using Pandas Decision Tree Classification in Python End Parameter in python __GETITEM__ and __SETITEM__ in Python Python Namespace Python GUI Programming List Assignment Index out of Range in Python List Iteration in Python List Index out of Range Python for Loop List Subtract in Python Python Empty Tuple Python Escape Characters Sentence to python vector Slicing of a String in Python Executing Shell Commands in Python Genetic Algorithm in python Get index of element in array in python Looping through Data Frame in Python Syntax of Map function in Python After Python What Should I Learn Python AIOHTTP Alexa Python Artificial intelligence mini projects ideas in python Artificial intelligence mini projects with source code in Python Find whether the given stringnumber is palindrome or not First Unique Character in a String Python Python Network Programming Python Interface Python Multithreading Python Interpreter Data Distribution in python Flutter with tensor flow in python Front end in python Iterate a Dictionary in Python Iterate a Dictionary in Python – Part 2 Allocate a minimum number of pages in python Assertion Errors and Attribute Errors in Python Checking whether a String Contains a Set of Characters in python Python Control Flow Statements *Args and **Kwargs in Python Bar Plot in Python Conditional Expressions in Python Function annotations() in Python How to Write a Configuration file in Python Image to Text in python import() Function in Python Import py file in Python Multiple Linear Regression using Python Nested Tuple in Python Python String Negative Indexing Reading a File Line by Line in Python Python Comment Block Base Case in Recursive function python ER diagram of the Bank Management System in python Image to NumPy Arrays in Python NOT IN operator in Python One Liner If-Else Statements in Python Sklearn in Python Python Ternary Operators Self in Python Python vs Java Python Modulo Python Packages Python Syntax Python Uses Python Bitwise Operators Python Identifiers Python Matrix Multiplication Python AND Operator Python Logical Operators Python Multiprocessing Python Unit Testing __init__ in Python Advantages of Python Is Python Case-sensitive when Dealing with Identifiers Python Boolean Python Call Function Python History Python Image Processing Python main() function Python Permutations and Combinations Difference between Input() and raw_input() functions in Python Conditional Statements in python Confusion Matrix Visualization Python Python Algorithms Python Modules List Difference between Python 2 and Python 3 Is Python Case Sensitive Method Overloading in Python Python Arithmetic Operators Assignment Operators in Python Is Python Object Oriented Programming language Division in Python Python exit commands Continue And Pass Statements In Python Colors In Python Convert String Into Int In Python Convert String To Binary In Python Convert Uppercase To Lowercase In Python Convert XML To JSON In Python Converting Set To List In Python Covariance In Python CSV Module In Python Decision Tree In Python Difference Between Yield And Return In Python Dynamic Typing In Python

How to

How to Substring a String in Python How to Iterate through a Dictionary in Python How to convert integer to float in Python How to reverse a string in Python How to take input in Python How to install Python in Windows How to install Python in Ubuntu How to install PIP in Python How to call a function in Python How to download Python How to comment multiple lines in Python How to create a file in Python How to create a list in Python How to declare array in Python How to clear screen in Python How to convert string to list in Python How to take multiple inputs in Python How to write a program in Python How to compare two strings in Python How to create a dictionary in Python How to create an array in Python How to update Python How to compare two lists in Python How to concatenate two strings in Python How to print pattern in Python How to check data type in python How to slice a list in python How to implement classifiers in Python How To Print Colored Text in Python How to develop a game in python How to print in same line in python How to create a class in python How to find square root in python How to import numy in python How to import pandas in python How to uninstall python How to upgrade PIP in python How to append a string in python How to open a file in python How to Open a file in python with Path How to run a Python file in CMD How to change the names of Columns in Python How to Concat two Dataframes in Python How to Iterate a List in Python How to learn python Online How to Make an App with Python

Sorting

Python Sort List Sort Dictionary in Python Python sort() function Python Bubble Sort

Programs

Factorial Program in Python Prime Number Program in Python Fibonacci Series Program in Python Leap Year Program in Python Palindrome Program in Python Check Palindrome In Python Calculator Program in Python Armstrong Number Program in Python Python Program to add two numbers Anagram Program in Python Even Odd Program in Python GCD Program in Python Python Exit Program Python Program to check Leap Year Operator Overloading in Python Pointers in Python Python Not Equal Operator Raise Exception in Python Salary of Python Developers in India What is a Script in Python

Python Basics

In this tutorial, we will learn about the basics of Python, a very famous programming language. This tutorial will help you understand the language better if you start with python. Let’s know more about python through these given points.

What is Python?

  • Python was created by Guido van Rossum during 1985- 1990.
  • Python is a general-purpose language that can be used to create all kinds of programs.
  • Python is an object-oriented programming language.
  • Python is an interpreted language, meaning that the source code is converted into the byte code and then executed by the machine.
  • Python is versatile and easy to learn, making it one of the most used languages for application development.
  • Python provides multi-programming patterns that support object-oriented, imperative, procedural and high-level programming.

Why learn Python?

  • It is a beginner’s language.
  • It is easy to learn and maintain.
  • It provides readability.
  • It is interactive.
  • It provides dynamic data types.
  • It works on different platforms like Windows, Linux, Mac, etc.
  • It has a very simple syntax very similar to the English language.
  • It allows the developer to write a code in fewer lines.
  • It provides dynamic memory location.

What is Python used for?

  • Used for creating web development.
  • Used for creating software development.
  • Used for connecting to the database system.
  • Used for working with big data.
  • Used for developing both online as well as offline applications.

Prerequisite

Before starting a programming language, you should know about computers and their basics. It’s good to have a basic knowledge of programming language. Still, even if you have no prior knowledge about any other programming language, you can learn Python as the first-ever programming language.

Python Syntax

In many other programming languages like C, C++, and Java, we used semi-colon (;) to separate two lines. Instead of a semi-colon, we use indentation and while space in python. We don’t even have to use curly braces for starting and ending a function.

For example-

def function_name ( ):
              1st statement
              2nd statement
              3rd statement
               ………………....
             Nth statement

Note: We mostly use four whitespaces to provide indentation in Python.

Python Indentation

Indentations are the spaces left blank before a line of code. It is a very important and unique concept of python. Indentations are used to show a block of code. Python will throw an error if we don’t use indentation, known as an indentation error.

Example1

if (4 < 9):
      print(“Welcome to Tutorial And Example”)

Output

Welcome to Tutorial And Example

Example2

if( 4 < 9 ):
print(“Welcome to Tutorial And Example”)

Output

print(“Welcome to Tutorial and Example”)
              ^
IndentationError: expected an indented block.

Explanation     

In the above two examples, one is a valid code with proper indentation, and the other is an invalid code that will give an indentation error. Example1 will print the value Welcome to Tutorial And Example, whereas example2 will throw an IndentationError.

Python Comments

In python, any line that starts with # is treated as a comment. Comments are used to describe the code. Whenever we write a program, we often use comments to explain it. Comments are not treated as part of a code and are ignored by the machine while executing the code.

We can have a single-line comment and a multi-line comment, but in both cases, we have to use hash (#) at the beginning of the code. Comments are mainly used to increase the readability of the code.

Example

# This is a single-line comment
print (“Welcome to Tutorials And Example”)
# This is a
# multi-line comment 
 print (“Welcome again!”) 

Output

Welcome to Tutorials And Example
Welcome again!

Another way to comment in python is by using triple quotes in your code. Whatever is written inside the triple quotes (also known as multiline string) is treated as a comment in the python programming language.

Example

“““ This is another way of 
Commenting in Python 
”””
print (“Welcome to Tutorials And Example”)

Output

Welcome to Tutorials And Example

Python Keywords

We often use products in our life which are reserved or meant to do one particular thing, and we cannot use them to do any other task. Similarly, keywords are those special words meant to perform only one task. They are reserved for special purposes. We cannot use keywords for naming a variable or function.

There are 33 keywords in Python.

await              None           break          except       in                   raise                 async

import            and              continue    for             lambda          try                      if

pass                 as                def               from         nonlocal         while                 or

else                 True            class            finally        is                    return               elif

import            assert        del                 global      not             with       yield

Note: Keywords are case sensitive, except for three; all other keywords are lowercase.

Input & Output Function

In python, we should know how to take inputs from a user and be able to print that outputs. To take inputs from the user, we use the input( ) function. To print the given input from a user, we use the print( ) function.

Example

# This is how we take inputs
age = input( “Enter your age: ” )


# Let the entered age be 22
print( “Your age is ”, age )

Output

Enter your age: Your age is 22

Python Data Types

Data types are one of the most important topics to understand while preparing for job interviews. Not just in python, data types are the core concept of any programming language. It’s very important to understand it well to write a very efficient program.

Data type represents the type of value stored in the variable. It is the most fundamental concept of any programming language. Let’s understand these built-in data structures in python.

  • Numeric Types:  Int, float, complex.
  • Text Types:  str.
  • Sequence Types:  list, tuple, range.
  • Set Type: set, frozenset.
  • Mapping Types: dict.
  • Binary Types: bytes, memoryview, bytearray.
  • Boolean Types: bool.
  • None Types: None.

Let’s understand these data types with better examples.

# This is an integer
x = 20
# This is a float value
x = 2.5
# This is complex value
 x = 4j
# This is string type
x = “TutorialAndExample”
# This is list type
x = [33, 44, 55]
# This is tuple type
x = ( 33, 44, 55) 
# This is range type
x = range(10) 
# This is set type
x = {“Apple”, “Banana”, “Grapes”}
# This is frozenset type
x = frozenset( {“Apple”, “Banana”, “Grapes”})
# This is Boolean type
x = True 
# This is byte type
x = b“Hello” 
# This is bytearray type
x = bytearray(10)
# This is memoryview type
x = memoryview(byte(10))
# This is None Type
x = None 

We can specify the data type using a constructor function. Let’s understand with an example.

# This is how we specify a data type
x = float(20) 
print(x)

Output

20.0

Explanation

We have specified an integer value as a float value using a constructor function in the above code. We can do this with all types of compatible data types.

Python Variables

Variables are one of the most important terms we should be familiar with if we want to be good programmers. In simpler words, we use variables to store a value. We can think of variables as a name given to a container used to store a value, and they can be changed anytime during the program's execution.

The syntax for creating variables in Python

variable_name = value

Rules of Creating Variable

  • A variable name can only contain alpha-numeric characters (A-z, 0-9) and underscore ( _ ).
  • We cannot start a variable name with a number. For example, 12a is an invalid variable.
  • A variable name can start with an underscore. For example, _x is a valid variable.
  • A variable name can start with a letter. For example, age can be a variable name.

Valid Variable Names

  • first_var
  • firstvar
  • _first_var
  • firstVar
  • FIRSTVAR

Invalid Variable Names

  • 1stvar
  • first-var
  • first var

Example

#declaring the variables
a = 9        #a is of type integer
b = 10.5             #b is of type float
c = “TutorialAndExample”       #c is of type string


#displaying the variables
print(a)
print(b)
print(c)

Outputs

9
10.5
TutorialAndExample

Python Function

Functions are a set of well-defined code which only works when it is called. Functions are defined and called to perform a specific task/operation.

In python, a function is defined using the def keyword; inside it, we can pass data as arguments. It also returns data as a result. We can also pass information in the form of an argument.

In python, parameters and argument are the same thing and can be used in place of each other. Parameters are the value inside the parentheses, whereas arguments are the value passes on.

The function should be called with the correct number of arguments. Otherwise, it will throw an error.

Example

def fun( ):
     print(“Hi! Welcome to TutorialAndExamples”)


fun()

Output

Hi! Welcome to TutorialAndExamples

Explanation

In the above code, a function is defined using the def keyword and function name as fun(). It is called using the same function name fun() in the last line.

Conclusion

This tutorial has covered almost all the basic concepts you should know before starting with the python programming language. There are so many things that come under python. It is very useful in real-world applications. These days Python are used everywhere. Hopefully, you will get a basic understanding to start your hands-on practice with python.



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