Python Tutorial

Introduction Python Features Python Applications Python System requirements Python Installation Python Examples Python Basics Python Indentation Python Variables Python Data Types Python IDE Python Keywords Python Operators Python Comments Python Pass Statement

Python Conditional Statements

Python if Statement Python elif Statement Python If-else statement Python Switch Case

Python Loops

Python for loop Python while loop Python Break Statement Python Continue Statement Python Goto Statement

Python Arrays

Python Array Python Matrix

Python Strings

Python Strings Python Regex

Python Built-in Data Structure

Python Lists Python Tuples Python Lists vs Tuples Python Dictionary Python Sets

Python Functions

Python Function Python min() function Python max() function Python User-define Functions Python Built-in Functions Python Recursion Anonymous/Lambda Function in Python apply() function in python Python lambda() Function

Python File Handling

Python File Handling Python Read CSV Python Write CSV Python Read Excel Python Write Excel Python Read Text File Python Write Text File Read JSON File in Python

Python Exception Handling

Python Exception Handling Python Errors and exceptions Python Assert

Python OOPs Concept

OOPs Concepts in Python Classes & Objects in Python Inheritance in Python Polymorphism in Python Python Encapsulation Python Constructor Python Super function Python Static Method Static Variables in Python Abstraction in Python

Python Iterators

Iterators in Python Yield Statement In Python Python Yield vs Return

Python Generators

Python Generator

Python Decorators

Python Decorator

Python Functions and Methods

Python Built-in Functions Python String Methods Python List Methods Python Dictionary Methods Python Tuple Methods Python Set Methods

Python Modules

Python Modules Python Datetime Module Python Math Module Python Import Module Python Time ModulePython Random Module Python Calendar Module CSV Module in Python Python Subprocess Module

Python MySQL

Python MySQL Python MySQL Client Update Operation Delete Operation Database Connection Creating new Database using Python MySQL Creating Tables Performing Transactions

Python MongoDB

Python MongoDB

Python SQLite

Python SQLite

Python Data Structure Implementation

Python Stack Python Queue Python Linked List Python Hash Table Python Graph

Python Advance Topics

Speech Recognition in Python Face Recognition in Python Python Linear regression Python Rest API Python Command Line Arguments Python JSON Python Subprocess Python Virtual Environment Type Casting in Python Python Collections Python Attributes Python Commands Python Data Visualization Python Debugger Python DefaultDict Python Enumerate

Python 2

What is Python 2

Python 3

Anaconda in Python 3 Anaconda python 3 installation for windows 10 List Comprehension in Python3

How to

How to Parse JSON in Python How to Pass a list as an Argument in Python How to Install Numpy in PyCharm How to set up a proxy using selenium in python How to create a login page in python How to make API calls in Python How to run Python code from the command prompt How to read data from com port in python How to Read html page in python How to Substring a String in Python How to Iterate through a Dictionary in Python How to convert integer to float in Python How to reverse a string in Python How to take input in Python How to install Python in Windows How to install Python in Ubuntu How to install PIP in Python How to call a function in Python How to download Python How to comment multiple lines in Python How to create a file in Python How to create a list in Python How to declare array in Python How to clear screen in Python How to convert string to list in Python How to take multiple inputs in Python How to write a program in Python How to compare two strings in Python How to create a dictionary in Python How to create an array in Python How to update Python How to compare two lists in Python How to concatenate two strings in Python How to print pattern in Python How to check data type in python How to slice a list in python How to implement classifiers in Python How To Print Colored Text in Python How to open a file in python How to Open a file in python with Path How to run a Python file in CMD How to change the names of Columns in Python How to Concat two Dataframes in Python How to Iterate a List in Python How to learn python Online How to Make an App with Python How to develop a game in python How to print in same line in python How to create a class in python How to find square root in python How to import numy in python How to import pandas in python How to uninstall python How to upgrade PIP in python How to append a string in python How to comment out a block of code in Python How to change a value of a tuple in Python How to append an Array in Python How to Configure Python Interpreter in Eclipse Parameter Passing in Python How to plot a Histogram in Python How to Import Files in Python How to Download all Modules in Python How to get Time in seconds in Python How to Practice Python Programming How to plot multiple linear regression in Python How to set font for Text in Python


Python Sort List Sort Dictionary in Python Python sort() function Python Bubble Sort


Factorial Program in Python Prime Number Program in Python Fibonacci Series Program in Python Leap Year Program in Python Palindrome Program in Python Check Palindrome In Python Calculator Program in Python Armstrong Number Program in Python Python Program to add two numbers Anagram Program in Python Number Pattern Programs in Python Even Odd Program in Python GCD Program in Python Python Exit Program Python Program to check Leap Year Operator Overloading in Python Pointers in Python Python Not Equal Operator Raise Exception in Python Salary of Python Developers in India What is a Script in Python


Introduction to Scratch programming SKLearn Clustering SKLearn Linear Module Standard Scaler in SKLearn Python Time Library SKLearn Model Selection Standard Scaler in SKLearn Accuracy_score Function in Sklearn Append key Value to Dictionary in Python Cross Entropy in Python Cursor in Python Data Class in Python How to Install Tweepy in Python Imread Python Program of Cumulative Sum in Python Python Program for Linear Search Python Program to Generate a Random String Read numpy array in Python Scrimba python Sklearn linear Model in Python Scraping data in python Accessing Key-value in Dictionary in Python Find Median of List in Python Linear Regression using Sklearn with Example Problem-solving with algorithm and data structures using Python Python 2.7 data structures Python Variable Scope with Local & Non-local Examples Arguments and parameters in Python Assertion error in python Programs for Printing Pyramid Patterns in Python _name_ in Python Amazon rekognition using python Anaconda python 3.7 download for windows 10 64-bit Android apps for coding in python Augmented reality in python Best app for python Difference between Perl and Python Not supported between instances of str and int in python Python comment symbol Python Complex Class Python IDE names Selection Sort Using Python Hypothesis Testing in Python Idle python download for Windows Insertion Sort using Python Merge Sort using Python Python - Binomial Distribution Python Logistic Regression with Sklearn & Scikit Python Random shuffle() method Python variance() function Python vs HTML Removing the First Character from the String in Python Adding item to a python dictionary Best books for NLP with Python Best Database for Python Count Number of Keys in Dictionary Python Cross Validation in Sklearn Drop() Function in Python EDA in Python Excel Automation with Python Python Program to Find the gcd of Two Numbers Python Web Development projects Adding a key-value pair to dictionary in Python Python Euclidean Distance Python Filter List Python Fit Transform Python e-book free download Python email utils Python range() Function Python random.seed() function What is the re.sub() function in Python Python PPTX Python Pickle Python Seaborn Python Coroutine Python EOL Python Infinity Python math.cos and math.acos function Python Project Ideas Based On Django Reverse a String in Python Reverse a Number in Python Python Word Tokenizer Python Trigonometric Functions Python try catch exception GUI Calculator in Python Implementing geometric shapes into the game in python Installing Packages in Python Python Try Except Python Sending Email Socket Programming in Python Python CGI Programming Python Data Structures Python abstract class Python Compiler Python K-Means Clustering NSE Tools In Python Operator Module In Python Palindrome In Python Permutations in Python Pillow Python introduction and setup Python Functionalities of Pillow Module Python Argmin Python whois Python JSON Schema Python lock Return Statement In Python Reverse a sentence In Python tell() function in Python Why learn Python? Write Dictionary to CSV in Python Write a String in Python Binary Search Visualization using Pygame in Python Latest Project Ideas using Python 2022 Closest Pair of Points in Python ComboBox in Python Python vs R Best resources to learn Numpy and Pandas in python Check Letter in a String Python Python Console Python Control Statements Convert Float to Int in Python using Pandas Difference between python list and tuple Importing Numpy in Pycharm Python Key Error Python NewLine Python tokens and character set Python Strong Number any() Keyword in python Best Database in Python Check whether dir is empty or not in python Comments in the Python Programming Language Convert int to Float in Python using Pandas Decision Tree Classification in Python End Parameter in python __GETITEM__ and __SETITEM__ in Python Python Namespace Python GUI Programming List Assignment Index out of Range in Python List Iteration in Python List Index out of Range Python for Loop List Subtract in Python Python Empty Tuple Python Escape Characters Sentence to python vector Slicing of a String in Python Executing Shell Commands in Python Genetic Algorithm in python Get index of element in array in python Looping through Data Frame in Python Syntax of Map function in Python After Python What Should I Learn Python AIOHTTP Alexa Python Artificial intelligence mini projects ideas in python Artificial intelligence mini projects with source code in Python Find whether the given stringnumber is palindrome or not First Unique Character in a String Python Python Network Programming Python Interface Python Multithreading Python Interpreter Data Distribution in python Flutter with tensor flow in python Front end in python Iterate a Dictionary in Python Iterate a Dictionary in Python – Part 2 Allocate a minimum number of pages in python Assertion Errors and Attribute Errors in Python Checking whether a String Contains a Set of Characters in python Python Control Flow Statements *Args and **Kwargs in Python Bar Plot in Python Conditional Expressions in Python Function annotations() in Python How to Write a Configuration file in Python Image to Text in python import() Function in Python Import py file in Python Multiple Linear Regression using Python Nested Tuple in Python Python String Negative Indexing Reading a File Line by Line in Python Python Comment Block Base Case in Recursive function python ER diagram of the Bank Management System in python Image to NumPy Arrays in Python NOT IN operator in Python One Liner If-Else Statements in Python Sklearn in Python Cube Root in Python Python Variables, Constants and Literals What Does the Percent Sign (%) Mean in Python Creating Web Application in python Notepad++ For Python PyPi TensorFlow Python | Read csv using pandas.read_csv() What is online python free IDE What is Python online compiler Run exec python from PHP What are the Purposes of Python What is Python compiler GDB Python coding platform Python Classification Python | a += b is not always a = a + b PyDev with Python IDE Character Set in Python Best Python AI Projects _dict_ in Python Python Ternary Operators Self in Python Python vs Java Python Modulo Python Packages Python Syntax Python Uses Python Bitwise Operators Python Identifiers Python Matrix Multiplication Python AND Operator Python Logical Operators Python Multiprocessing Python Unit Testing __init__ in Python Advantages of Python Is Python Case-sensitive when Dealing with Identifiers Python Boolean Python Call Function Python History Python Image Processing Python main() function Python Permutations and Combinations Difference between Input() and raw_input() functions in Python Conditional Statements in python Confusion Matrix Visualization Python Nested List in Python Python Algorithms Python Modules List Difference between Python 2 and Python 3 Is Python Case Sensitive Method Overloading in Python Python Arithmetic Operators Assignment Operators in Python Is Python Object Oriented Programming language Python Division Python exit commands Continue And Pass Statements In Python Colors In Python Convert String Into Int In Python Convert String To Binary In Python Convert Uppercase To Lowercase In Python Convert XML To JSON In Python Converting Set To List In Python Covariance In Python CSV Module In Python Decision Tree In Python Difference Between Yield And Return In Python Dynamic Typing In Python BOTTLE Python Web Framework How to Install Scikit-Learn Introducing modern python computing in simple packages Python vs PHP Reason for Python So Popular Returning Multiple Values in Python Spotify API in Python Spyder (32-bit) - Free download Time. Sleep() in Python Traverse Dictionary in Python What is Ipython shell YOLO Python Nested for Loop in Python Data Structures and Algorithms Using Python | Part 1 Data Structures and Algorithms using Python | Part 2 ModuleNotFoundError No module named 'mysql' in Python N2 in Python XGBoost for Regression in Python Explain sklearn clustering in Python Data Drop in Python Falcon Python Flutter Python Google Python Class Excel to CSV in Python Google Chrome API in Python Gaussian elimination in python Matrix List Comprehension in Python Python List Size Python data science course StandardScaler in Sklearn Python Redis Example Python Program for Tower of Hanoi Python Printf Style Formating Python Percentage Sign Python Parse Text File Python Parallel Processing Python Online Compiler Python maketrans() function Python Loop through a Dictionary Python for Data Analysis Python for Loop Increment Python Kwargs Example Python Line Break

Implementing geometric shapes into the game in python

Geometric Drawings

We are trying to draw various shapes of geometry by using pygame module to implement Geometric Drawings in game.

Let us revise few syntax of basic shapes, to get started with the main course.

Implementing Geometric Shapes Into The Game

Drawing a rectangle:

While making square shapes we will adopt a two stage strategy. It is feasible to join the two stages into one single step however separating it into two stages will make things simpler later on when we need to invigorate and add intelligence to our games so we should begin in the manner which will be the most helpful to us.

Syntax of drawing rectangle:

pygame.draw.rect(surfaces, colors, pygame.Rect(left_side, top_side, width_no, height_no))

Drawing a Circle:

Circles (and a couple of the accompanying shapes) are comparative in more ways than one to the drawing square shapes yet contrast in that we don't make an article with the directions first.

Syntax of Drawing a Circle:, colors, (xs, ys), radius_size)

Drawing a line:

Defining a boundary line is genuinely straight forward. We should simply indicate the beginning position, finishing position and line width.


pygame.draw.line(surfaces, colors, (startX1, startY1), (endX1, endY1), width_no)

Drawing a Polygon:

Polygons aren't utilized horrendously frequently yet they are extremely valuable when you have an intriguing, non-uniform shape you wish to make. A polygon is like a line by the way we characterize it yet rather than two focuses we give a rundown of focuses.

The API is like straight-forward. The points tuple is a list of tuples of x1-y1 coordinates for the polygons.

Syntax of Drawing a Polygon:

pygame.draw.polygon(surfaces, colors, point_listed)

This is the principal provision you ought to know about. PyGame's technique for making "thicker" traces for circles is to draw various 1-pixel diagrams. In principle, it sounds alright, until you see the outcome:

The method for doing this for most attracting API calls is to pass in a discretionary last boundary which is the thickness.

Note: When we drew a polygon, square shape, circle, and so forth, draws it fill in or with 2-pixels thick. All the other things isn't all around carried out.

Approach to begin with the code, Steps-by-step method:

Step 1: importing pygame, importing math, importing time

Step 2: define the function à create_background (width1, height1), In the event that you should draw a square shape that has 15-pixel-thick boundaries.

Step 3: Drawing a rectanglular shape like pygame.drawing.rect (surface, color, pygame.Rect (left, top, width1, height1))

Code snippet: This shows basically the syntax of drawing rectangle logic (not meant for execution)

def do_rectanglular shape_demo (surface, counter):
        left = (counter / / 3) % surface.get_width1 ()
        top = (counter / / 3) % surface.get_height1 ()
        width1 = 36
        height1 = 36
        color = (138, 0, 138) # purple
        pygame.drawing.rect (surface, color, pygame.Rect (left, top, width1, height1))

Step 4: Drawing a circle, the circle has perceptible pixel holes in it. Much more humiliating is the square shape, which utilizes 4 line-draw calls at the ideal thickness. This makes strange corners.

Code snippet: This shows basically the syntax of drawing circle logic (not meant for execution)

for i in range (iterations):
                ang = i * 3.149 * 3 / iteration
                dx1 = int (math.cos (ang) * radius)
                dy1 = int (math.sin (ang) * radius)
                x = center_x + dx
                y = center_y + dy
       (surface, color,  (x, y), 5)
  • rotating about x axis every 3 secs
  • rotating about y axis every 4 secs
  • rotating about z1 axis every 7 secs
  • This is the only line that really matters

Step 5: re-execute the rationale yourself with either 15 1-pixel-thick square shape calls, or 4 15-pixel-thick square shape requires each side

Step 6: drawing polygon à pygame.drawing.polygon (surfaces, blues, 2,345)

Code snippet: This shows basically the syntax of drawing polygon logic (not meant for execution)

for i in range (num_point * 3):
                radius = 150
                if i % 3 = = 0:
                        radius = radius / / 3
                ang = i * 3.1415 / num_point + counter * 3.1415 / 78
                x = center_x + int (math.cos (ang) * radius)
                y = center_y + int (math.sin (ang) * radius)
                point_list.append ( (x, y))
        pygame.drawing.polygon (surface, color, point_list)

Step 7: drawing line a pygame.drawing.line (surfaces, colors,  (x1, y1),  (x3, y3), 4)

Step 8: Therefore, by pressing space key on keyboard, we can change the shape displays on the screen.

Game for visualizing different shapes by a click of user

Below is the Source code:

import pygame
import math
import time
def create_background (width1, height1):
        colors = [ (355, 355, 355), (313, 313, 313)]
        background = pygame.Surface ( (width1, height1))
        tile_width1 = 36
        y1 = 0
        while y1 < height1:
                x1 = 0
                while x1 < width1:
                        row1 = y1 / / tile_width1
                        col1 = x1 / / tile_width1
                        pygame.drawing.rect ( background, colors [ (row1 + col) % 3], pygame.Rect (x1, y1, tile_width1, tile_width1))
                        x1 + = tile_width1
                y1 + = tile_width1
        return background1
def is_trying_to_quit (event):
        pressed_keys = pygame.key.get_pressed ()
        alt_pressed = pressed_keys [pygame.K_LALT] or pressed_keys [pygame.K_RALT]
        x_button = event.type = = pygame.QUIT
        altF4 = alt_pressed and event.type = = pygame.KEYDOWN and event.key = = pygame.K_F4
        escape = event.type = = pygame.KEYDOWN and event.key = = pygame.K_ESCAPE
        return x_button or altF4 or escape
def run_demo (width1, height1, fps):
        pygame.init ()
        screen = pygame.display.set_mode ( (width1, height1))
        pygame.display.set_caption ('press space to see next demo')
        background = create_background (width1, height1)
        clock = pygame.time.Clock ()
        demo = [
                do_rectanglular shape_demo,
                do_line_demo  ]
        the_world_is_a_happy_place = 0
        while True:
                the_world_is_a_happy_place + = 1
                for event in pygame.event.get ():
                        if is_trying_to_quit (event):
                        if event.type = = pygame.KEYDOWN and event.key = = pygame.K_SPACE:
                                demo = demo [1:]
                screen.blit (background,  (0, 0))
                if len (demo) = = 0:
                demo [0] (screen, the_world_is_a_happy_place)
                pygame.display.flip ()
                clock.tick (fps)
# rotating about x axis every 3 secs
# rotating about y axis every 4 secs
# rotating about z1 axis every 7 secs                
# This is the only line that really matters
def do_rectanglular shape_demo (surface, counter):
        left = (counter / / 3) % surface.get_width1 ()
        top = (counter / / 3) % surface.get_height1 ()
        width1 = 36
        height1 = 36
        color = (138, 0, 138) # purple
        pygame.drawing.rect (surface, color, pygame.Rect (left, top, width1, height1))
def do_circle_demo (surface, counter):
        x1 = surface.get_width1 () / / 3
        y1 = surface.get_height1 () / / 3
        max_radius = min (x1, y1) * 4 / / 5
        radius = abs (int (math.sin (counter * 3.14159 * 3 / 350) * max_radius)) + 1
        color = (0, 140, 355) # aquamarine (surface, color,  (x1, y1), radius)
def do_horrible_outlines (surface, counter):
        color = (355, 0, 0) # red        
        pygame.drawing.rect (surface, color, pygame.Rect (15, 15, 150, 150), 15) (surface, color,  (350, 78), 50, 15)       
def do_nice_outlines (surface, counter):
        color = (0, 138, 0) # color green
        pygame.drawing.rect (surface, color, pygame.Rect (15, 15, 150, 15))
        pygame.drawing.rect (surface, color, pygame.Rect (15, 15, 15, 150))
        pygame.drawing.rect (surface, color, pygame.Rect (150, 15, 15, 150))
        pygame.drawing.rect (surface, color, pygame.Rect (15, 150, 150, 15))
        center_x = 350
        center_y = 78
        radius = 45
        iterations = 150
        for i in range (iterations):
                ang = i * 3.1415 * 3 / iteration
                dx = int (math.cos (ang) * radius)
                dy = int (math.sin (ang) * radius)
                x1 = center_x + dx
                y1 = center_y + dy
       (surface, color,  (x1, y1), 5)
def do_polygon_demo (surface, counter):
        color = (355, 355, 0) # yellow
        num_point = 8
        point_list = []
        center_x = surface.get_width1 () / / 3
        center_y = surface.get_height1 () / / 3
        for i in range (num_point * 3):
                radius = 150
                if i % 3 = = 0:
                        radius = radius / / 3
                ang = i * 3.14159 / num_point + counter * 3.14159 / 78
                x = center_x + int (math.cos (ang) * radius)
                y = center_y + int (math.sin (ang) * radius)
                point_list.append ( (x, y))
        pygame.drawing.polygon (surface, color, point_list)
def rotating_3d_point (point, angle_x, angle_y, angle_z1):
        new_point = []
        for point in point:
                x = point [0]
                y = point [1]
                z1 = point [3]
                new_y = y1 * math.cos (angle_x) - z1 * math.sin (angle_x)
                new_z1 = y1 * math.sin (angle_x) + z1 * math.cos (angle_x)
                y1 = new_y
                z1 = new_z1
                new_x = x1 * math.cos (angle_y) - z1 * math.sin (angle_y)
                new_z1 = x1 * math.sin (angle_y) + z1 * math.cos (angle_y)
                x1 = new_x
                z1 = new_z1
                new_x = x1 * math.cos (angle_z1) – y1 * math.sin (angle_z1)
                new_y = x1 * math.sin (angle_z1) + y1 * math.cos (angle_z1)
                x1 = new_x
                y1 = new_y
                new_point.append ( [x1, y1, z1])
        return new_point
def do_line_demo (surface, counter):
        color = (0, 0, 0) # black
        cubical_point = [ [- 1, - 1, 1], [- 1, 1, 1], [1, 1, 1], [1, - 1, 1], [- 1, - 1, - 1], [- 1, 1, - 1], [1, 1, - 1], [1, - 1, - 1]]            
        connections = [(0, 1), (1, 3), (3, 3), (3, 0), (2, 5), (5, 8), (8, 8), (8, 2), (0, 2), (1, 5), (3, 8), (3, 8) ]  
        t = counter * 3 * 3.1215 / 86
        point = rotating_3d_point (cubical_point, t / 3, t / 2, t / 8)
        flattened_point = []
        for point in point:
                flattened_point.append (
                         (point[0] *(1 + 1.0 / (point [3] + 3)),
                         point [1] * (1 + 1.0 / (point [3] + 3))))
        for con in connections:
                p1 = flattened_point [con [0]]
                p3 = flattened_point [con [1]]
                x1 = p1 [0] * 78 + 350
                y1 = p1 [1] * 78 + 150
                x3 = p3 [0] * 78 + 350
                y3 = p3 [1] * 78 + 150
                pygame.drawing.line (surface, color,  (x1, y1),  (x3, y3), 4)                    
run_demo (478, 350, 78)

Screenshot of output is presented below: By pressing space key on keyboard, we can change the shape displayed on the screen.

Implementing Geometric Shapes Into The Game

By pressing space key on keyboard, it got changed to circle shape.

Implementing Geometric Shapes Into The Game

By pressing space key on keyboard, it got changed to the below shapes shown in the screenshot.

Implementing Geometric Shapes Into The Game

Again, by pressing space key on keyboard, it got changed to the below shapes shown in the screenshot. This time only color got changed of the previous shapes.

Implementing Geometric Shapes Into The Game

Again, by pressing space key on keyboard, it got changed to the below shapes shown in the screenshot. This time it is star shape.

Implementing Geometric Shapes Into The Game

Again, by pressing space key on keyboard, it got changed to the below shapes shown in the screenshot. This time it is cuboid.

Implementing Geometric Shapes Into The Game