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How To Print Colored Text in Python

Changing the colour of certain parts of a string when printing the output of a Python programme to the terminal may make it easier to read. We can approach this in a variety of ways and use packages to make things easier, as we will see in this tutorial.

Using ANSI Escape Sequences

The most basic way to print coloured text from a Python programme is to use ANSI escape sequences. To accomplish this, we will create a class with properties for applying different colours to text. Let's create a file called colors.py that contains a colours class, import it into the programme, and then use it on a f string.

The colors.py would look like this:

class bcolors:
    HEADER = '\033[95m'
    OKBLUE = '\033[94m'
    OKGREEN = '\033[90m'
    WARNING = '\033[93m'
    FAIL = '\033[91m'
    ENDC = '\033[0m'
    BOLD = '\033[1m'
    UNDERLINE = '\033[4m'

We can import the bcolors class from colors.py using the following statements.

from colors import bcolors
return f'Successfully downloaded {bcolors.OKGREEN}{file.title}{bcolors.ENDC} to {formt}'

Each ANSI character escape sequence, as we can see, takes the form 033[XXXm. The text style is indicated by the part following the [(square bracket). Numbers 90-96 offer a variety of text colours. Here are some examples:

NumberColor
90 grey
91 red
92green
93yellow
94 blue
95pink
96turquoises

Changing the Background Color of Text

To change the background colour of text, use the ANSI escape sequence character numbers 100-107. Let's go ahead and add some background colours to the bcolors class we just created.

Colors.py should now look like this:

class bcolors:
    HEADER = '\033[95m'
    OKBLUE = '\033[94m'
    OKGREEN = '\033[92m'
    WARNING = '\033[93m'
    FAIL = '\033[91m'
    ENDC = '\033[0m'
    BOLD = '\033[1m'
    UNDERLINE = '\033[4m'
    # Background colors:
    GREYBG = '\033[100m'
    REDBG = '\033[101m'
    GREENBG = '\033[102m'
    YELLOWBG = '\033[103m'
    BLUEBG = '\033[104m'
    PINKBG = '\033[105m'
    CYANBG = '\033[106m'

Let us see how this will work.

return f'Successfully downloaded {bcolors.GREENBG}{file.title}{bcolors.ENDC} to {formt}'

Here are all the available background colors and their corresponding ANSI number:

NumberColor
100 gray
101 red
102green
103yellow
104 blue
105pink
106turquoise

All the Available Font Effects

For reference here are all the available font effect codes to change the style of text in the terminal:

Number(s)Effect
0Reset / Normal
1Bold or increased intensity
2Faint (decreased intensity)
3Italic
4Underline
5Slow Blink
6Rapid Blink
7[[reverse video]]
8Conceal
9Crossed-out
10Primary(default) font
11–19Alternate font
20Fraktur
21Bold off or Double Underline
22Normal color or intensity
23Not italic, not Fraktur
24Underline off
25Blink off
27Inverse off
28Reveal
29Not crossed out
30–37Set foreground color
38Set foreground color
39Default foreground color
40–47Set background color
48Set background color
49Default background color
51Framed
52Encircled
53Overlined
54Not framed or encircled
55Not overlined
60ideogram underline
61ideogram double underline
62ideogram overline
63ideogram double overline
64ideogram stress marking
65ideogram attributes off
90–97Set bright foreground color
100–107Set bright background color

The colorama Package

Install the colorama package if you'd rather use a package to change the print colours in Python. To install it, enter the following command into your terminal:

pip install colorama

Then, in your programme, import the foreground, background, and style classes:

from colorama import Fore, Back, Style

To make some text red, use Fore.RED, and to make the rest of the text normal, use Style. RESET ALL

return f'Successfully downloaded {Fore.RED}{file.title}{Style.RESET_ALL} to {formt}'

Here are all the formatters available in colorama:

Fore - BLACK, RED, GREEN, YELLOW, BLUE, MAGENTA, CYAN, WHITE, RESET.
Back - BLACK, RED, GREEN, YELLOW, BLUE, MAGENTA, CYAN, WHITE, RESET.
Style - DIM, NORMAL, BRIGHT, RESET_ALL

Now you can easily print colored text in the python terminal!

Keep Learning!



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