Python Tutorial

Introduction Python Features Python Applications System requirements for Python Python Installation Python Examples Python Basics Python Indentation Python Variables Python Data Types Python IDE Python Keywords Python Operators Python Comments Python Pass Statement

Python Conditional Statements

Python if Statement Python elif Statement Python If-else statement Python Switch Case

Python Loops

Python for loop Python while loop Python Break Statement Python Continue Statement Python Goto Statement

Python Arrays

Python Array Python Matrix

Python Strings

Python Strings Python Regex

Python Built-in Data Structure

Python Lists Python Tuples Python Lists vs Tuples Python Dictionary Python Sets

Python Functions

Python Function Python min() function Python max() function Python User-define Functions Python Built-in Functions Python Recursion Anonymous/Lambda Function in Python python apply() Function Python lambda() Function

Python File Handling

Python File Handling Python Read CSV Python Write CSV Python Read Excel Python Write Excel Python Read Text File Python Write Text File Read JSON File in Python

Python Exception Handling

Python Exception Handling Python Errors and exceptions Python Assert

Python OOPs Concept

OOPs Concepts in Python Classes & Objects in Python Inheritance in Python Polymorphism in Python Python Encapsulation Python Constructor Python Super function Python Static Method Static Variables in Python Abstraction in Python

Python Iterators

Iterators in Python Yield Statement In Python

Python Generators

Python Generator

Python Decorators

Python Decorator

Python Functions and Methods

Python Built-in Functions Python String Methods Python List Methods Python Dictionary Methods Python Tuple Methods Python Set Methods

Python Modules

Python Modules Python Datetime Module Python Math Module Python Import Module Python Time Module Python Random Module Python Calendar Module CSV Module in Python Python Subprocess Module Python Subprocess

Python MySQL

Python MySQL Python MySQL Client Update Operation Delete Operation Database Connection Creating new Database using Python MySQL Creating Tables Performing Transactions

Python MongoDB

Python MongoDB

Python SQLite

Python SQLite

Python Data Structure Implementation

Python Stack Python Queue Python Linked List Python Hash Table Python Graph

Python Advance Topics

Speech Recognition in Python Face Recognition in Python Python Linear regression Python Rest API Python Command Line Arguments Python JSON Python Virtual Environment Type Casting in Python Python Collections Python Commands Python Data Visualization Python Debugger Python DefaultDict Python Enumerate

Python 3

Anaconda in Python 3 Anaconda python 3 installation for windows 10 List Comprehension in Python3

Misc

Python PPTX Python Pickle Python Seaborn Python Coroutine Python EOL Python Infinity Python math.cos and math.acos function Python Project Ideas Based On Django Reverse a String in Python Reverse a Number in Python Python Word Tokenizer Python Trigonometric Functions Python try catch exception GUI Calculator in Python Implementing geometric shapes into the game in python Installing Packages in Python Python Try Except Python Sending Email Socket Programming in Python Python CGI Programming Python Data Structures Python abstract class Python Compiler Python K-Means Clustering NSE Tools In Python Operator Module In Python Palindrome In Python Permutations in Python Pillow Python introduction and setup Python Functionalities of Pillow Module Python Argmin Python whois Python JSON Schema Python lock Return Statement In Python Reverse a sentence In Python tell() function in Python Why learn Python? Write Dictionary to CSV in Python Write a String in Python Binary Search Visualization using Pygame in Python Latest Project Ideas using Python 2022 Closest Pair of Points in Python ComboBox in Python Python vs R Best resources to learn Numpy and Pandas in python Check Letter in a String Python Python Console Python Control Statements Convert Float to Int in Python using Pandas Difference between python list and tuple Importing Numpy in Pycharm Python Key Error Python NewLine Python tokens and character set Python Strong Number any() Keyword in python Best Database in Python Check whether dir is empty or not in python Comments in the Python Programming Language Convert int to Float in Python using Pandas Decision Tree Classification in Python End Parameter in python __GETITEM__ and __SETITEM__ in Python Python Namespace Python GUI Programming List Assignment Index out of Range in Python List Iteration in Python List Index out of Range Python for Loop List Subtract in Python Python Empty Tuple Python Escape Characters Sentence to python vector Slicing of a String in Python Executing Shell Commands in Python Genetic Algorithm in python Get index of element in array in python Looping through Data Frame in Python Syntax of Map function in Python After Python What Should I Learn Python AIOHTTP Alexa Python Artificial intelligence mini projects ideas in python Artificial intelligence mini projects with source code in Python Find whether the given stringnumber is palindrome or not First Unique Character in a String Python Python Network Programming Python Interface Python Multithreading Python Interpreter Data Distribution in python Flutter with tensor flow in python Front end in python Iterate a Dictionary in Python Iterate a Dictionary in Python – Part 2 Allocate a minimum number of pages in python Assertion Errors and Attribute Errors in Python Checking whether a String Contains a Set of Characters in python Python Control Flow Statements *Args and **Kwargs in Python Bar Plot in Python Conditional Expressions in Python Function annotations() in Python How to Write a Configuration file in Python Image to Text in python import() Function in Python Import py file in Python Multiple Linear Regression using Python Nested Tuple in Python Python String Negative Indexing Reading a File Line by Line in Python Python Comment Block Base Case in Recursive function python ER diagram of the Bank Management System in python Image to NumPy Arrays in Python NOT IN operator in Python One Liner If-Else Statements in Python Sklearn in Python Python Ternary Operators Self in Python Python vs Java Python Modulo Python Packages Python Syntax Python Uses Python Bitwise Operators Python Identifiers Python Matrix Multiplication Python AND Operator Python Logical Operators Python Multiprocessing Python Unit Testing __init__ in Python Advantages of Python Is Python Case-sensitive when Dealing with Identifiers Python Boolean Python Call Function Python History Python Image Processing Python main() function Python Permutations and Combinations Difference between Input() and raw_input() functions in Python Conditional Statements in python Confusion Matrix Visualization Python Python Algorithms Python Modules List Difference between Python 2 and Python 3 Is Python Case Sensitive Method Overloading in Python Python Arithmetic Operators Assignment Operators in Python Is Python Object Oriented Programming language Division in Python Python exit commands Continue And Pass Statements In Python Colors In Python Convert String Into Int In Python Convert String To Binary In Python Convert Uppercase To Lowercase In Python Convert XML To JSON In Python Converting Set To List In Python Covariance In Python CSV Module In Python Decision Tree In Python Difference Between Yield And Return In Python Dynamic Typing In Python

How to

How to Substring a String in Python How to Iterate through a Dictionary in Python How to convert integer to float in Python How to reverse a string in Python How to take input in Python How to install Python in Windows How to install Python in Ubuntu How to install PIP in Python How to call a function in Python How to download Python How to comment multiple lines in Python How to create a file in Python How to create a list in Python How to declare array in Python How to clear screen in Python How to convert string to list in Python How to take multiple inputs in Python How to write a program in Python How to compare two strings in Python How to create a dictionary in Python How to create an array in Python How to update Python How to compare two lists in Python How to concatenate two strings in Python How to print pattern in Python How to check data type in python How to slice a list in python How to implement classifiers in Python How To Print Colored Text in Python How to develop a game in python How to print in same line in python How to create a class in python How to find square root in python How to import numy in python How to import pandas in python How to uninstall python How to upgrade PIP in python How to append a string in python How to open a file in python How to Open a file in python with Path How to run a Python file in CMD How to change the names of Columns in Python How to Concat two Dataframes in Python How to Iterate a List in Python How to learn python Online How to Make an App with Python

Sorting

Python Sort List Sort Dictionary in Python Python sort() function Python Bubble Sort

Programs

Factorial Program in Python Prime Number Program in Python Fibonacci Series Program in Python Leap Year Program in Python Palindrome Program in Python Check Palindrome In Python Calculator Program in Python Armstrong Number Program in Python Python Program to add two numbers Anagram Program in Python Even Odd Program in Python GCD Program in Python Python Exit Program Python Program to check Leap Year Operator Overloading in Python Pointers in Python Python Not Equal Operator Raise Exception in Python Salary of Python Developers in India What is a Script in Python

Python Syntax

Python is a strong object-oriented programming language that is simple to learn. Python was created to be a very readable programming language. The syntax of the Python programming language is a set of guidelines that specify how a Python program should be constructed.

Comments

# Indicates that a comment has been made.

A comment starts with a hash character (#) that is absent from the literal String and finishes at the end of the actual line. The Python interpreter ignores any characters after the # character to the end of the line that is part of the remark. It's worth noting that Python doesn't support multi-line or block comments. Consider the following scenario;

A=10989
# A is initialized with a numeric value of 11.
if(A!=200000):
print(“Your number is not equal to 200000”)
  • You can have stand-alone comments like the one above and inline comments appearing after a statement. Consider the following scenario:

    A=11000 #A is initialized with a numeric value of 11.
  • Python does not have a syntax for multi-line comments like C and C++'s /*... */, yet multi-line strings are frequently used in place of multi-line comments.

Indentation

A block of code is a group of statements in a programming language that should be handled as a unit. Curly brackets are used to indicate code blocks in C, while indentation is used to indicate code blocks in Python, as shown in the example below;

C program:

for(doublei=11.0;i<50;i++)
{
Total_price+=i;
// curly braces are indicating the code block in this C code.
   }

Python program:

foriinrange(50):
Total_price+=i #The indentation indicates the code block in this python code.

Note: Indented code blocks in Python are always preceded by a colon (:) on the preceding line.

  • The use of indentation aids in enforcing the uniform, legible style that many Python programmers prefer. However, for the uninformed, it may be perplexing; for example, the following two snippets will provide different outcomes.
>>>ifx!=100:>>>ifx!=4:
...y=x%2...y=x%2
...print(y)...print(y)

In the excerpt on the left, print(y) is indented, and it will only be run if x is less than 100. In the excerpt on the right, print(y) is outside the block and will be run regardless of the value of x.

Finally, remember that the amount of whitespace used to indent code blocks is completely up to the user, as long as it's consistent throughout the script.

Most style guidelines recommend indenting code blocks by four spaces, and we'll follow that recommendation in this report.

Coding Style in Python

  • There should be four spaces between each indentation and no tabs.
  • Do not use tabs and spaces in the same sentence. Because tabs can be confusing, sticking to utilizing only spaces is preferable.
  • Users with a small display will appreciate the maximum line length of 79 characters.
  • Separate top-level function and class declarations by blank lines and bigger chunks of code within functions should be separated by a single blank line.
  • Inline comments should be used (they should be complete sentences).
  • Around expressions and assertions, use spaces.

Keywords

The Python keywords are listed below. A keyword is a word used in programming languages with a specific meaning. Because these words are reserved, you cannot use them as constants, variables, or other identifier names.

  • As we know that Python is a powerful tool, but this language is still being developed. As a result, the company's keywords will continue to evolve and increase.

Here are some of its keywords:

False       class    finallyisreturn

Nonecontinueforlambdatry

Truedeffromnonlocalwhile

anddelglobalnotwith

aselififoryield

assertelseimportpass

breakexceptinraise

  • The keyword is a module in Python that allows one to list all of your keywords. To get the most recent keyword list, use the code below;
import keyword
print(keyword.kwlist)

Identifiers (Names)

Identifiers are fundamental building blocks of a program that serve as a naming convention for various program elements like variables, objects, classes, functions, lists, dictionaries, and so on.

The following are the rules that makeup Python Identifier:

  1. A string of letters and numbers that can be any length is an identifier.
  2. Lowercase and uppercase letters are distinct.

All of the characters are important.

  • A letter must be the initial character; the underscore (_) qualifies as a letter.
  • Except for the initial letter, the digits 0-9 can be part of the identifier.
  • An identifier cannot be a Python keyword.
  • Except for the underscore (_), an identifier cannot contain any special characters.

Some examples of valid identifiers are listed below:

Myidenti                          Date_21_22

MYIDENTI                      _beauti

ABC                                file_date_22

A10BCDE                         _invita_01

 Some examples of invalid identifiers are listed below:

My-identi                                            False

23MYIDENTI                                       My.logo

from                                                    [email protected]

 

Continuation of the Statements

  • As in Python, every statement is written on its line; therefore, to separate statements in Python, the newline character is used.
  • However, using the backslash (/) character, a long statement can span multiple lines.
if (x==120) and (y>120) or \ 
(y<300):
print(“This was an example to illustrate the use of  backslash (\) character”)

Please note that the backslash character can span multiple physical lines and a single statement on one logical line, but not two different statements in one logical line.

  •  Expressions enclosed in parentheses (), square brackets (), or curly braces can span multiple lines without using backslashes.

Look at the code below for better understanding:

my_list = [100, 200, 300, 400
500, 600, 700, 800,
  900, 1000, 1100, 1200]

End-of-Line Marks the End of a Statement

Item_price=180

We've established a variable called Item price and given it the value 180 in this assignment operation. The end of this sentence is simply signalled by the end of the line, as you can see. This differs from languages such as C and C++, which require every statement to end with a semicolon (;).

Semicolon Can Optionally Terminate a Statement

To divide numerous statements on a single line, use the semicolon as shown in the code below:

print('Rollno : ', 1);print(‘Name: ', 'Harry Potter');print('Age : ', '23');print(‘gender : ’, ‘Male’)

Here, the above code is equivalent to;

print('Rollno : ', 1)
print(‘Name: ', 'Harry Potter')
print('Age : ', '23')
print(‘gender : ’, ‘Male’)

Most Python style guides advise against using a semicolon to group many statements on a single line; however, it can be useful occasionally.

It doesn’t matter if there's whitespace between the lines.

While meaningful whitespace before lines (which signify a code block) is important, whitespace within lines of Python code is unimportant. All four of these formulations, for example, are equivalent:

A=12*5
A=  12  *  5
A=           12  *    5
A=12 *        5

One should note that When operators follow one another, effectively using whitespace can result in significantly more readable code, as you can see below: -

A=12*-9
Vs
A=12* -9

String Literal

A String literal is a sequence of characters surrounded by quotation marks.

A string literal in Python is denoted by single quotes ('), double quotes ("), triple single quotes ("'), and triple-double quotes (""").

If a string in Python began with a double quote, then it should end with a double quote too. The reason is that the String Literal in Python must be surrounded by the same types of quotes.

The following are some string literal examples:

A=” This is an example of String literal "
B=” String literal are surrounded by quotations “
print(A)   
print(B)

Output in Python

  • In Python, print() is used as an output statement. 
  • It displays the value of any Python expression on the Python shell.
  • The single print() method can display several values separated by commas. 

Using the single print() method.

  • A single space ‘ ’ default acts as a separator between values. Any other character can be used with a sep argument.
  • Example:
>>>Rollno=123 
>>>print(Rollno)
Python Syntax
>>>name=”Unknown”
>>>print(name)
Python Syntax
>>>print(“Roll no: “, Rollno,”,Name :”, name)
Python Syntax

Obtaining User Input

  • The input() function is included in the standard Python distribution's core library. It interprets the keystrokes as a string object that a variable of the same name may reference.
>>>a=int(input(“enter your rollno : “ ))
Python Syntax
>>>b=input(“enter your name : “ )
Python Syntax

Summary

  • A newline character is used to finish a Python statement.
  • Python organizes its code structure with spaces and identifiers.
  • The names given to variables, functions, modules, classes and other objects in Python are called identifiers.
  • The code's functionality is explained in the comments. The Python interpreter ignores them.
  • To designate a string, single, double, triple, or triple-double quotation marks can be used.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 



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