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Python OOPs Concept

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How to

How to convert integer to float in Python How to reverse a string in Python How to take input in Python How to install Python in Windows How to install Python in Ubuntu How to install PIP in Python How to call a function in Python How to download Python How to comment multiple lines in Python How to create a file in Python How to create a list in Python How to declare array in Python How to clear screen in Python How to convert string to list in Python How to take multiple inputs in Python How to write a program in Python How to compare two strings in Python How to create a dictionary in Python How to create an array in Python How to update Python How to compare two lists in Python How to concatenate two strings in Python How to print pattern in Python How to check data type in python How to slice a list in python How to implement classifiers in Python How To Print Colored Text in Python How to develop a game in python How to print in same line in python How to create a class in python How to find square root in python How to import numy in python How to import pandas in python How to uninstall python How to upgrade PIP in python How to append a string in python How to open a file in python

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Factorial Program in Python Prime Number Program in Python Fibonacci Series Program in Python Leap Year Program in Python Palindrome Program in Python Check Palindrome In Python Calculator Program in Python Armstrong Number Program in Python Python Program to add two numbers Anagram Program in Python Even Odd Program in Python GCD Program in Python Python Exit Program Python Program to check Leap Year Operator Overloading in Python Pointers in Python Python Not Equal Operator Raise Exception in Python Salary of Python Developers in India What is a Script in Python Singleton design pattern in python

Is Python Object Oriented Programming language

In this tutorial, we will see whether python also belongs to an object-oriented programming language like several others. We will also see the advantages of using OOPs. Further, we will understand the real-world entities used in OOPs.

To answer the very first question in this tutorial, yes, Python is an Object-Oriented Programming language that makes use of classes and objects. Some of the prevalent object-oriented programming languages are- Java, C++, JavaScript, C#, PHP, MATLAB, PYTHON, etc.

Benefits of Object-oriented programming language:

  • Use of objects has made the code reusability easier.
  • It is easier to debug when objects are in use and an issue in coding arises.
  • Objects can be deployed without revealing implementation details.

Now, let us understand the concepts of classes and objects

Classes

Class is like a blueprint that helps to create an object. It describes the properties and behaviors. It includes the contents of objects such as variables, methods, and functions.

For example- let us consider a class “Flower” now the properties of a Flower could be color, aroma, size, and season of flourishing.

Syntax of writing a class:

class Class Name

Example of writing a class name:

class Flower

Objects: Objects are defined as an instance of a class. The method and function of a class can be accessed with the help of an object only.

Now, let us understand the creation of classes and objects in Python:

In Python, the creation of classes is easy, it can be created with the help of a keyword called “class” along with the class name. Functions / Methods and variables are declared inside the class itself.

Way to create an object in python:

Syntax:

Object name = class_name( )
obj = Flower( )

The functions written within the class can be accessed with the aid of class with its class name and with the “.” dot operator calls its function.

We can access the class in two following ways:

  • Without creating the object

To access the functions inside the class, the class name along with the dot operator is written.

Example-

Class Myclass():
Myclass.flower()
Rafflesia
Myclass.define()
largest flower


  • Without creating an object.
p = Myclass
p.flower()
Rafflesia
p.define()
largest flower


Now creating an object is easier. It can be created by using a variable named “p” in this case and assigning it to the class “Myclass” and with the help of a dot operator the functions can be invoked inside the class.

Real-world entities used in python are:

  1. Inheritance

     2.Polymorphism

    3.Abstraction

    4. Encapsulation

Inheritance

Inheritance is the ability of one class to originate or inherit the properties from another class. The class deriving properties from other classes is called the derived class or child class and the class from which the properties are being derived is called the base class or parent class.

Below are some of the benefits of inheritance are:

  • Inheritance is capable of representing real-world relationships well.
  • It provides the code reusability. Users can be escaped from the trouble of writing the same code repeatedly.it also allows users to add additional features to a class without the need of altering it.
  • Its nature is transitive, which means that if class B inherits properties from another class let’s say A, then all the subclasses of B would automatically inherit properties from class A.   

Example- Program showing the implementation of inheritance in python

Is Python Object Oriented Programming language

Output:

Is Python Object Oriented Programming language

Polymorphism

It means having numerous forms.

 Example: showing implementation of polymorphism in python

Is Python Object Oriented Programming language

Output:

Is Python Object Oriented Programming language

Encapsulation

Encapsulation is one of the vital concepts in object-oriented programming (OOP). It describes the idea of covering data and the methods that work on data within a single unit.

Example: Showing the implementation of encapsulation in python

Is Python Object Oriented Programming language

Output:

Is Python Object Oriented Programming language

Abstraction

It is defined as a process of managing complexity by hiding redundant information and data from the user. It also means showing only the required data and results to users and not the processes.

Example- We can talk over phones, chat on the internet, etc.

Do we know all the processes working at the backend which allow us to perform these functions? NO

This is only termed an abstraction. We can act but background details have been hidden by the developers.

In Python, data hiding is achieved by using a double underscore (Or __) symbol before the name of an attribute and the user won’t be able to access those attributes outside the class.  

Example: Showing implementation of Abstraction

Is Python Object Oriented Programming language

Output:

Is Python Object Oriented Programming language

Explanation- Uncommenting print statement written at the results in an error.

We have tried to access the variable written outside the class which is against the principle of abstraction. So, the error is thrown.

Example: Showing the implementation of the abstraction 

Is Python Object Oriented Programming language

Output:

Is Python Object Oriented Programming language

Explanation: We have Commented on the print statement written at the end thus, the error gets resolved.



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