Python Tutorial

Introduction Python Features Python Applications System requirements for Python Python Installation Python Examples Python Basics Python Indentation Python Variables Python Data Types Python IDE Python Keywords Python Operators Python Comments Python Pass Statement

Python Conditional Statements

Python if Statement Python elif Statement Python If-else statement Python Switch Case

Python Loops

Python for loop Python while loop Python Break Statement Python Continue Statement Python Goto Statement

Python Arrays

Python Array Python Matrix

Python Strings

Python Strings Python Regex

Python Built-in Data Structure

Python Lists Python Tuples Python Lists vs Tuples Python Dictionary Python Sets

Python Functions

Python Function Python min() function Python max() function Python User-define Functions Python Built-in Functions Python Recursion Anonymous/Lambda Function in Python python apply() Function Python lambda() Function

Python File Handling

Python File Handling Python Read CSV Python Write CSV Python Read Excel Python Write Excel Python Read Text File Python Write Text File Read JSON File in Python

Python Exception Handling

Python Exception Handling Python Errors and exceptions Python Assert

Python OOPs Concept

OOPs Concepts in Python Classes & Objects in Python Inheritance in Python Polymorphism in Python Python Encapsulation Python Constructor Python Super function Python Static Method Static Variables in Python Abstraction in Python

Python Iterators

Iterators in Python Yield Statement In Python

Python Generators

Python Generator

Python Decorators

Python Decorator

Python Functions and Methods

Python Built-in Functions Python String Methods Python List Methods Python Dictionary Methods Python Tuple Methods Python Set Methods

Python Modules

Python Modules Python Datetime Module Python Math Module Python Import Module Python Time Module Python Random Module Python Calendar Module CSV Module in Python Python Subprocess Module Python Subprocess

Python MySQL

Python MySQL Python MySQL Client Update Operation Delete Operation Database Connection Creating new Database using Python MySQL Creating Tables Performing Transactions

Python MongoDB

Python MongoDB

Python SQLite

Python SQLite

Python Data Structure Implementation

Python Stack Python Queue Python Linked List Python Hash Table Python Graph

Python Advance Topics

Speech Recognition in Python Face Recognition in Python Python Linear regression Python Rest API Python Command Line Arguments Python JSON Python Virtual Environment Type Casting in Python Python Collections Python Commands Python Data Visualization Python Debugger Python DefaultDict Python Enumerate

Python 3

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How to

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Python Sort List Sort Dictionary in Python Python sort() function Python Bubble Sort


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Python Debugger

In this tutorial, we will understand what is debugging in general. Then we will realize what the python debugger means and what is the method to perform it.

Now, let us move toward our topic.


It is the process which is used by the developers to find out the error or bug and then resolve it to enable the code to run smoothly. Simply, it is a way of keeping the code free of bugs.

Python Debugger

A communicating source code environment for Python programs is known as Python Debugger Python allows debugging the code using a default module named pdb module. (Python developer module)The module needs to be imported into a python script to use it. The pdb module employs the basic debugger functions i.e., bdb, and line-oriented command interpreters i.e., cmd.

The pdb is advantageous as it runs entirely in the command line so making it great for debugging code on isolated servers in case the user lacks the privilege of a debugger based on Graphic User Interface.

Following are the things supported by pdb:

  1. Setting of breakpoints
  2. Stepping through code
  3. Listing of source code
  4. Inspecting stack traces

It is required to import the module to be able to use the pdb module.

Syntax to import pdb:

import pdb

Invoking a debugger

A debugger can be invoked by several methods.

  • For debugging within the program-

It is required to insert the following two commands import pdb and pdb.set_trace().

Further, it is required to execute the script ordinarily and execution will continue until it reaches the introduced breakpoint.

Here is an example that shows how to insert the set_trace() function.

Example 1: Addition of two numbers

Planned error: Asthe input() function returns a string the program concatenates those strings as a replacement for adding input numbers

import pdb

def sum(a1, a2):
	answer = a1 + a2
	return answer

b1 = input("Enter the 1st number: ")
b2 = input("Enter the 2nd number : ")
result = sum(b1, b2)


Python Debugger

Explanation: This image shows the output of the code written above. Here, the number 18 denotes the line number where the breakpoint is found in the module. The next line denotes the code line where the execution stops.

  • From the Command Line:

This method is considered the simplest means of employing a debugger. It just requires running the following command in the terminal.

python -m pdb file name

The above declaration loads the source code and stops implementation on the first line of code

#Python program to understand the debugger

def add(a1, a2):
	res = a1 + a2
	return res

b1 = input("Enter the 1st number : ")
b2 = input("Enter the 2nd number : ")
sum = add(b1, b2)


Python Debugger
  • Post-mortem debugging

It means getting into debug mode once after the execution process of the program is completed which means the failure has already occurred. 

The pdb module supports post-mortem debugging through the function named post_mortem() or pm(). An active trace back is looked at by this function and the debugger is initiated at the line in the call stack where the exception occurred.


# Python program to understand post-mortem debugging

def multiply(a1, a2):
	res = a1 * a2
	return res

x1 = input("Enter the 1st number : ")
x2 = input("Enter the 2nd number : ")
res1 = multiply(x1, x2)


Python Debugger

Checking variables on the Stack

Each variable including local variables as well as global variables is maintained on the stack. All the arguments of a function can be printed using args(or use a) function that is currently active. p command evaluates an expression given as an argument and prints the result.

Python pdb Breakpoint

While working with bulky programs we often need to increase the number of breakpoints at the point where we know errors might occur. To organize this user just need to usethe break command. When a breakpoint is inserted, the debugger allocates a number to it starting from 1.

Then the break command is employed to display all the breakpoints present in the program.

Managing Breakpoints

we can accomplish the breakpoints usingthe enable and disable and remove commands after the addition of breakpoints with the aid of numbers allocated to them.

It is the disable command which prevents the debugger from stopping when that breakpoint is reached while enable command turns on the disabled breakpoints.