Python Tutorial

Introduction Python Features Python Applications Python System Requirements Python Installation Python Examples Python Basics Python Indentation Python Variables Python Data Types Python IDE Python Keywords Python Operators Python Comments Python Pass Statement

Python Conditional Statements

Python if Statement Python elif Statement Python If-else statement Python Switch Case

Python Loops

Python for loop Python while loop Python Break Statement Python Continue Statement Python Goto Statement

Python Arrays

Python Array Python Matrix

Python Strings

Python Strings Python Regex

Python Built-in Data Structure

Python Lists Python Tuples Python Lists vs Tuples Python Dictionary Python Sets

Python Functions

Python Function Python min() function Python max() function Python User-define Functions Python Built-in Functions Python Recursion Anonymous/Lambda Function in Python python apply() Function Python lambda() Function

Python File Handling

Python File Handling Python Read CSV Python Write CSV Python Read Excel Python Write Excel Python Read Text File Python Write Text File Read JSON File in Python

Python Exception Handling

Python Exception Handling Python Errors and exceptions Python Assert

Python OOPs Concept

OOPs Concepts in Python Classes & Objects in Python Inheritance in Python Polymorphism in Python Python Encapsulation Python Constructor Python Super function Python Static Method Static Variables in Python Abstraction in Python

Python Iterators

Iterators in Python Yield Statement In Python Python Yield vs Return

Python Generators

Python Generator

Python Decorators

Python Decorator

Python Functions and Methods

Python Built-in Functions Python String Methods Python List Methods Python Dictionary Methods Python Tuple Methods Python Set Methods

Python Modules

Python Modules Python Datetime Module Python Math Module Python Import Module Python Time Module Python Random Module Python Calendar Module CSV Module in Python Python Subprocess Module Python Subprocess

Python MySQL

Python MySQL Python MySQL Client Update Operation Delete Operation Database Connection Creating new Database using Python MySQL Creating Tables Performing Transactions

Python MongoDB

Python MongoDB

Python SQLite

Python SQLite

Python Data Structure Implementation

Python Stack Python Queue Python Linked List Python Hash Table Python Graph

Python Advance Topics

Speech Recognition in Python Face Recognition in Python Python Linear regression Python Rest API Python Command Line Arguments Python JSON Python Virtual Environment Type Casting in Python Python Collections Python Commands Python Data Visualization Python Debugger Python DefaultDict Python Enumerate

Python 2

What is Python 2

Python 3

Anaconda in Python 3 Anaconda python 3 installation for windows 10 List Comprehension in Python3

Misc

Python PPTX Python Pickle Python Seaborn Python Coroutine Python EOL Python Infinity Python math.cos and math.acos function Python Project Ideas Based On Django Reverse a String in Python Reverse a Number in Python Python Word Tokenizer Python Trigonometric Functions Python try catch exception GUI Calculator in Python Implementing geometric shapes into the game in python Installing Packages in Python Python Try Except Python Sending Email Socket Programming in Python Python CGI Programming Python Data Structures Python abstract class Python Compiler Python K-Means Clustering NSE Tools In Python Operator Module In Python Palindrome In Python Permutations in Python Pillow Python introduction and setup Python Functionalities of Pillow Module Python Argmin Python whois Python JSON Schema Python lock Return Statement In Python Reverse a sentence In Python tell() function in Python Why learn Python? Write Dictionary to CSV in Python Write a String in Python Binary Search Visualization using Pygame in Python Latest Project Ideas using Python 2022 Closest Pair of Points in Python ComboBox in Python Python vs R Best resources to learn Numpy and Pandas in python Check Letter in a String Python Python Console Python Control Statements Convert Float to Int in Python using Pandas Difference between python list and tuple Importing Numpy in Pycharm Python Key Error Python NewLine Python tokens and character set Python Strong Number any() Keyword in python Best Database in Python Check whether dir is empty or not in python Comments in the Python Programming Language Convert int to Float in Python using Pandas Decision Tree Classification in Python End Parameter in python __GETITEM__ and __SETITEM__ in Python Python Namespace Python GUI Programming List Assignment Index out of Range in Python List Iteration in Python List Index out of Range Python for Loop List Subtract in Python Python Empty Tuple Python Escape Characters Sentence to python vector Slicing of a String in Python Executing Shell Commands in Python Genetic Algorithm in python Get index of element in array in python Looping through Data Frame in Python Syntax of Map function in Python After Python What Should I Learn Python AIOHTTP Alexa Python Artificial intelligence mini projects ideas in python Artificial intelligence mini projects with source code in Python Find whether the given stringnumber is palindrome or not First Unique Character in a String Python Python Network Programming Python Interface Python Multithreading Python Interpreter Data Distribution in python Flutter with tensor flow in python Front end in python Iterate a Dictionary in Python Iterate a Dictionary in Python – Part 2 Allocate a minimum number of pages in python Assertion Errors and Attribute Errors in Python Checking whether a String Contains a Set of Characters in python Python Control Flow Statements *Args and **Kwargs in Python Bar Plot in Python Conditional Expressions in Python Function annotations() in Python How to Write a Configuration file in Python Image to Text in python import() Function in Python Import py file in Python Multiple Linear Regression using Python Nested Tuple in Python Python String Negative Indexing Reading a File Line by Line in Python Python Comment Block Base Case in Recursive function python ER diagram of the Bank Management System in python Image to NumPy Arrays in Python NOT IN operator in Python One Liner If-Else Statements in Python Sklearn in Python Cube Root in Python Python Variables, Constants and Literals What Does the Percent Sign (%) Mean in Python Creating Web Application in python Notepad++ For Python PyPi TensorFlow Python | Read csv using pandas.read_csv() What is online python free IDE What is Python online compiler Run exec python from PHP What are the Purposes of Python Python Ternary Operators Self in Python Python vs Java Python Modulo Python Packages Python Syntax Python Uses Python Bitwise Operators Python Identifiers Python Matrix Multiplication Python AND Operator Python Logical Operators Python Multiprocessing Python Unit Testing __init__ in Python Advantages of Python Is Python Case-sensitive when Dealing with Identifiers Python Boolean Python Call Function Python History Python Image Processing Python main() function Python Permutations and Combinations Difference between Input() and raw_input() functions in Python Conditional Statements in python Confusion Matrix Visualization Python Python Algorithms Python Modules List Difference between Python 2 and Python 3 Is Python Case Sensitive Method Overloading in Python Python Arithmetic Operators Assignment Operators in Python Is Python Object Oriented Programming language Division in Python Python exit commands Continue And Pass Statements In Python Colors In Python Convert String Into Int In Python Convert String To Binary In Python Convert Uppercase To Lowercase In Python Convert XML To JSON In Python Converting Set To List In Python Covariance In Python CSV Module In Python Decision Tree In Python Difference Between Yield And Return In Python Dynamic Typing In Python What is Python compiler GDB Python coding platform Python Classification Python | a += b is not always a = a + b PyDev with Python IDE Character Set in Python Best Python AI Projects _dict_ in Python

How to

How to Substring a String in Python How to Iterate through a Dictionary in Python How to convert integer to float in Python How to reverse a string in Python How to take input in Python How to install Python in Windows How to install Python in Ubuntu How to install PIP in Python How to call a function in Python How to download Python How to comment multiple lines in Python How to create a file in Python How to create a list in Python How to declare array in Python How to clear screen in Python How to convert string to list in Python How to take multiple inputs in Python How to write a program in Python How to compare two strings in Python How to create a dictionary in Python How to create an array in Python How to update Python How to compare two lists in Python How to concatenate two strings in Python How to print pattern in Python How to check data type in python How to slice a list in python How to implement classifiers in Python How To Print Colored Text in Python How to develop a game in python How to print in same line in python How to create a class in python How to find square root in python How to import numy in python How to import pandas in python How to uninstall python How to upgrade PIP in python How to append a string in python How to open a file in python How to Open a file in python with Path How to run a Python file in CMD How to change the names of Columns in Python How to Concat two Dataframes in Python How to Iterate a List in Python How to learn python Online How to Make an App with Python How to comment out a block of code in Python

Sorting

Python Sort List Sort Dictionary in Python Python sort() function Python Bubble Sort

Programs

Factorial Program in Python Prime Number Program in Python Fibonacci Series Program in Python Leap Year Program in Python Palindrome Program in Python Check Palindrome In Python Calculator Program in Python Armstrong Number Program in Python Python Program to add two numbers Anagram Program in Python Number Pattern Programs in Python Even Odd Program in Python GCD Program in Python Python Exit Program Python Program to check Leap Year Operator Overloading in Python Pointers in Python Python Not Equal Operator Raise Exception in Python Salary of Python Developers in India What is a Script in Python

Character Set in Python

A collection of legal characters that will recognize by a programming language known as a Character set.

Taking python programming language as an instance. The set of characters supported by the python language is called the python character set. Therefore, the Python character set is a genuine collection of characters that the Python language can recognize.

Python is compatible with all ASCII and Unicode characters. Python character set includes the following:

  • Digits: Python programming language supports all the digits starting from 0 to 9. Supports all digits (0 to 9)
  • Alphabets:  Python programming supports all alphabets, including small and capital alphabets. Supports all small alphabets (a to z) and all Capital alphabets (A to Z).
  • White spaces: Python programming language is completely depended on indentation where it is a tab space with 4 white spaces. Python recognizes white spaces like tab spaces (4 white spaces). Blank space, newline character and carriage return.
  • ASCII values: Python recognizes all the ASCII characters. Thus, python character set also includes ASCII values.
  • UNICODE characters: Almost all characters are now available across platforms, programmes, and devices due to Unicode, an international character encoding standard that assigns a unique number to each character across different programming languages. Python also has support for UNICODE characters.

Since Python supports the Unicode standard, and it also supports ASCII and Unicode.

You can better understand how the python character set works by understanding the python tokens.

What is a Token

The smallest distinct unit in a Python programming language is called a token. Tokens are used to create all statements and instructions in a program.

We have various tokens in Python that are:

  • Keywords
  • Identifiers
  • Python Literals
  • Operators
  • Punctuator

These python tokens are built on top of a python character set.

Keywords: In a computer language, keywords have a particular significance or meaning. They are utilized for their unique qualities. They cannot be utilized for any arbitrary reason, including as names for functions or variables.

In Python, we have 33 keywords. That include:

False, await, else, impart, pass, None, break, except, in, raise, True, class, finally, is, return, and, continue, for, lambda, try, as, def, from, nonlocal,          while, assert, del, global, not, with, async, elif, if, or, yield.

Example

# For is keyword
for p in range(1, 9):
     
    # Printing the value of p after each iteration of for loop
    print(p)
     
    # Checking if the value of p is less than 5
    # Here we have used if, continue, else, and break keywords in this program
    if p < 5:
        continue
     
    # If p is greater than 5, then break the loop
    else:
        break

Output

Character Set in Python

Identifiers: The names assigned to any variable, function, class, list, method, etc. for their identification are known as identifiers. Python has certain guidelines for naming identifiers and is a case-sensitive language.

You have certain rules for naming an identifier in the python programming language.

As Python is a case-sensitive programming language. It even treats small and capital letters as different identifiers. "Key" and "key" are two different identifiers in python programming. 

Every identifier should:

  1. Start with an alphabet. It might either be a small letter (a – z) or a capital letter (A – Z), or it can start with an underscore (_). But it should start with any other character other than these.
  2.  Digits can also be a part of an identifier but digits can not start an identifier name. That identifier should not begin with a digit.
  3. Except for alphabets, underscore, digits using any other character or white spaces are not allowed in an identifier name.
  4. It should not be a keyword.

Example

# Declaring Abc, _abc and abc1 as identifiers in the program
Abc = 1
_abc = 2
Abc1 = 3
# Printing the values using the identifiers
print (Abc)
print (_abc)
print (Abc1)

Output

Character Set in Python

Using the identifier names 9abc, [email protected], and [email protected] is not allowed in Python as you have to follow the rules for declaring an identifier. Above mentioned identifiers do not follow the set of rules, so we cannot use them for naming an identifier.  

Python Literals: Literals are the constant values that are fixed. The source code uses literal in Python.

In a python programming language, you have support for a different type of literal, which include:

  • String literals
  • Character literals
  • Numeric literals
  • Boolean literals
  • Special literals
  • Collection of literals

String Literals: String literal is defined as a text which is enclosed within single quotes (‘ ’), Double quotes (“ ”) or triple quotes. The such text represents the python string literals. We use triple quotes for multi-line strings.

Example

# Program for string literals
p = ‘Hai’
q = “hello”
r = ‘‘‘this is
	multi line
	string’’’


# Printing the values
print (p)
print (q)
print (r)

Output

Character Set in Python

Character literals: A character literal is a single character enclosed between single quotes or Double quotes.

Example

# Program for Character literals
p = ‘a’
q = “b”


# Printing character literals
print (p)
print (q)

Output

Character Set in Python

Numeric literals: Literals in the form of numbers are known as Python numeric literals. Python is compatible with the following numeric literals:

  1. Integer literals
  2. Float literals
  3. Complex literals

Example

# Program for numeric literals in Python
p = 1		# Integer literal
q = -2 
r = 0.1		# Float literal		


# Printing the values 
print (p) 
print (q) 
print (r)

Output

Character Set in Python

Boolean literals: In Python, Boolean literals are True or False values. Where T and F are capital letters, you should not use small letters as Python is case sensitive language.

Example

# Program for Python Boolean literals 
p = True
q = False


# Printing values 
print (p)
print (q)

Output

Character Set in Python

Special literals: None is said to be special literal in a python programming language. We use None when you have to denote nothing that is no value, or the absence of value.

Example

# Program for special literal in Python
p = None


# Printing the value
print (p)

Output

None

Collection of literals: In Python, you have a collection of literals, which is also known as literals collections that are:

1) List

Python uses lists to store the sequential order of different kinds of data. Although Python has six data types that may hold sequences, the list is the most popular and dependable form. Because Python lists are changeable types, we can change their elements after they've been generated.

2) Tuple

A tuple is an assortment of immutable, ordered objects. Since both tuples and lists are sequences, they are similar. Tuples and lists, however, vary because we cannot alter tuples, although we can modify lists after creating them. Additionally, we build tuples using parentheses, whereas we make lists using square brackets.

3) Dictionary

The information is kept in key-value pair format using a Python dictionary. Python's dictionary data type can mimic real-world data arrangements where a given value exists for a particular key. The mutable data structure is what it is. The element's Keys and values are used to define the dictionary.

4) Set

A Python set is a grouping of unsorted elements. The set's elements must all be distinct and unchangeable, and the sets must eliminate duplicates. Sets can be changed after they are created because they are changeable.

Example

# Program for literals collection
l = [1, 2, 3]		# List
t = (1, 2, 3)		# Tuple
d = {1: ‘a’, 2: ‘b’, 3: ‘c’}	#Dictionary
s = {1, 2, 3}		#Set


# Printing the values
print (l)
print (t)
print (d)
print (s)

Output

Character Set in Python

Operators: Python Operators are symbols used to perform operations on operands that may be values or identifiers. Operators are used to performing operations on operands.

In the python character set, we have special characters used as operators.

In Python, we have different types of operators that are:

  1. Arithmetic Operators
  2. Comparison Operators
  3. Logical Operators
  4. Bitwise Operators
  5. Assignment Operators
  6. Identity Operators
  7. Membership Operators

Example

# Program for python operators
p = 10
q = 20
# Arithmetic Operator in Python 
print (p + q)
# Comparison Operator in Python
print (p == q)
o = True
u = False
# Logical Operator in Python
print (o or u)
# Bitwise Operator in Python
print (p | q)
# Assignment Operator in Python
p += q
print (p)
# Identity Operator in Python
print (p is q)
l = [10, 20, 30, 40, 50]
# Membership Operator in Python
if (q in l):
	Print ("q is present in the list l")

Output

Character Set in Python

Punctuators: Punctuators are the symbols that are used in Python to form the structures, Organize statements and expressions.

Some of the punctuators in a python programming language are:

[], {}, (), @, -+, +=, *=, //=, **== and there are even many other punctuators in python programming language which you can use to organize the statements.



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