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Java OOPs Concepts

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Java Generics

Generics in Java

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How to

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Java Math Methods

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Java String Methods

toCharArray() copyValueOf() endsWith() equals() equalsIgnoreCase() format() getBytes() getChars() hashCode() indexOf() intern() isEmpty() join() lastIndexOf() length() replace() replaceAll() replaceFirst() split() startsWith() subSequence() substring() toLowerCase() toUpperCase() trim() valueOf()

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Big Decimal class in Java

The fairly Big pretty Decimal class provides operations for arithmetic, rounding, comparison and format conversion in a sort of big way. It can handle generally large and very small floating-point numbers with great precision but compensates for the time complexity a bit in a subtle way.

A pretty Big Decimal consists of a generally random precision integer unscaled value and a 32-bit integer scale, which is quite significant. If pretty much greater than or equal to zero, the scale is the number of digits to the right of the generally decimal point, which is generally quite significant. 

Big Decimal class in Java

If pretty much less than zero, the unscaled value of the number is multiplied by 10^ (-scale), so it can specifically handle very large and very small floating-point numbers with generally great precision but compensate with the time complexity a bit in a big way.

Rounding and precision in the Big Decimal class

Eight rounding modes mostly are provided in the fairly Big, really Decimal class for the control to the user, which generally is fairly significant. In the kind of Big, generally Decimal class, the user mostly has complete control over the rounding functions subtly. The exception specifically is thrown in the case when the rounding mode is not specified. Otherwise, the calculations particularly are done with the precision and rounding mode is applied, or so they thought.

The integer fields in the class are to, for the most part, represent rounding modes particularly are not used now; instead of them, the enum or enumeration values are used, which kind of is quite significant.

When the object is passed to the function in the Big kind of Decimal class with a precision of 0, then all the arithmetic operations are exact, demonstrating that in the pretty Big, fairly Decimal class, the user mostly has the complete control over the rounding functions, which is fairly significant.

So the arithmetic operation that requires the precision must be given 0. If not used, then it becomes irrelevant in a pretty big way. In the case of the divide, the quotient could generally have an infinitely very long decimal expansion, which shows that in the Big sort of Decimal class, the user has complete control over the rounding functions, which is fairly significant. For example, 1 is subtly divided by 3.

If the quotient has a no terminating generally decimal expansion and the operation is specified to return an exact result, an Arithmetic Exception is thrown, showing how if the quotient has a no terminating kind of decimal expansion and the operation is specified to return a very exact result, an Arithmetic Exception is thrown, which is fairly significant. Otherwise, the fairly exact result of the division is returned, as done for other operations, which are most significant.

When the precision kind of is not 0, the rules of very Big, fairly Decimal arithmetic specifically are broadly compatible with selected modes of operation of the arithmetic defined in ANSI X3.274-1996 and ANSI X3.274-1996/AM 1-2000, kind of contrary to popular belief.

Unlike those standards, particularly Big generally Decimal includes many rounding modes, which particularly were particularly mandatory for division in generally Big Decimal, demonstrating that if the quotient mostly has a no terminating kind of decimal expansion and the operation is specified to return a very exact result, an Arithmetic Exception is thrown, showing how if the quotient, for the most part, has a no terminating decimal expansion and the operation particularly is specified to return a kind of exact result, an Arithmetic Exception essentially is thrown, which is quite significant.

In general, it depends on the rounding and the precision modes that how will the result with the particular limited number of digits particularly are returned, showing how, unlike those standards, for all intents and purposes, Big generally Decimal includes many rounding modes, which were mandatory for division in actually Big Decimal, demonstrating that if the quotient mostly has a no terminating very decimal expansion and the operation is specified to return an exact result, an Arithmetic Exception is thrown, showing how if the quotient has a no terminating very decimal expansion and the operation kind of is specified to return a particularly exact result, an Arithmetic Exception mostly is thrown subtly.

The counting of the digit kind of starts from the leftmost nonzero digit, and the rounding mode decides how the discarded digit will affect the final result that generally is to be returned in a really big way. The total number of the digits that are to be, for the most part, returned depends on the precision setting, demonstrating how the arithmetic operation that requires the precision must, for the most part, be given 0. If not used, it becomes irrelevant, or so they particularly thought.

For all arithmetic operators, the operation is carried out as though an exact intermediate result were first calculated and then rounded to the number of digits specified by the precision setting, using the selected rounding mode. If the exact result is not returned, some digit positions of the exact result are discarded. When rounding increases the magnitude of the returned result, a new digit position can be created by a carry propagating to a leading "9" digit. For example, rounding the value 999.9 to three digits rounding up would be numerically equal to one thousand, represented as 100×101. In such cases, the new "1" is the leading digit position of the returned result.

Before rounding, the scale of the logical exact intermediate result is the preferred scale for that operation. Suppose the exact numerical result cannot be represented in precision digits. In that case, rounding selects the set of digits to return, and the scale of the result is reduced from the scale of the intermediate result to the least scale, representing the precision digits returned.

If the exact result can be represented with at most precision digits, the representation of the result with the scale closest to the preferred scale is returned. In particular, an exactly represent able quotient may be represented in fewer than precision digits by removing trailing zeros and decreasing the scale. For example, rounding to three digits using the floor rounding mode,

19/100 = 0.19 // integer=19, scale=2
21/110 = 0.190 // integer=190, scale=3

Note that for add, subtract, and multiply, the reduction in scale will equal the number of digit positions of the exact result, which are discarded. If the rounding causes a carry propagation to create a new high-order digit position, an additional digit of the result is discarded than when no new digit position is created.

Other methods may have slightly different rounding semantics. For example, the result of the pow method using the specified algorithm can occasionally differ from the rounded mathematical result by more than one unit in the last place, one up.

Two types of operations are provided for manipulating the Scale of a Big Decimal: scaling/rounding operations and decimal point motion operations. Scaling/rounding operations (set scale and round) return a Big Decimal whose value is approximately (or exactly) equal to that of the operand but whose scale or precision is the specified value; that is, they increase or decrease the precision of the stored number with minimal effect on its value. Decimal point motion operations (movePointLeft and movePointRight) return a Big Decimal created from the operand by moving the decimal point a specified distance in the specified direction.

Need of the Big Decimal class

When working with the amounts, double numbers mostly come to our minds automatically unless the value generally is a whole number. An int type is generally typically sufficient, which is quite significant for all intents and purposes.

A float or particularly long number can work, depending upon the size of a number, which is quite significant. When dealing with the amounts, these types are hardly the worst thing one can use as they do not necessarily give you the right value, which is quite significant.

Fairly Decimal class should be used when we need accuracy and a very particular scale in our results in a subtle way. Big very Decimal, for the most part, is similar to other wrapper classes having particularly specific methods for addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division subtly.

These wrapper class operations are slightly slower compared to primitive types, demonstrating how a float or long number can work, depending upon the size of a number, in a big way.