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AES 256 Encryption in Java

Now a days, security has grown in importance. Java programming supports a variety of encryption and hashing methods, which offers security for data transport and communication among various nodes. In this part, we'll talk about the AES 256 encryption technique and show how to use the logic in a Java program.

What does AES mean?

AES is known as the Advanced Encryption Standard algorithm. It is a form of symmetric encryption and decryption algorithm for block ciphers. It functions with keys of 128, 192, and 256 bits in size. It uses a legitimate secret key comparable for encryption and decryption.

The block cypher is employed in AES. It implies that the data that has to be encrypted is divided up into blocks. In order to encrypt the original data value, different padding bits, such as 128, 192, or 256 bits, are used.

AES Algorithm

The AES technique uses iterative, symmetric-key block cyphers that let cryptographic keys (secret keys) of 128, 192, and 256 bits to encrypt and decode data in blocks of 128 bits. If the 128-bit block size requirement is not reached, the data that has to be encrypted must be padded. Padding is accomplished by including 128 bits in the final block.

Java's Java Cryptographic Extension (JCE) architecture supports the encryption and decryption of messages and strings.

For encryption and decryption, the Java Cryptographic Extension framework offers a variety of packages.

1. java. security

2. java.security.cert

3. java.security.spec

4. java.security.interfaces

5. javax.crypto

6. javax. crypto.spec

7. javax. crypto.interfaces

Java's Cipher class is utilized for both encryption and decoding. The opposite process of encryption is used when decrypting a communication. To obtain the original message, it needs the value of the secret key. The public key from the specified transformation type is used to initialize the cypher using the init() function of the Cipher class.

AES Algorithm Operation Modes

1. ECB

2. CBC

3. CFB

4. OF

5. CTR

6. GCM

Electronic Code Book

It is the most basic option available. The plaintext message is divided into blocks of 128 bits in size. The same technique and key are then used to encrypt these blocks. As a result, it consistently produces the same cypher text for the same block. It is advised not to utilize ECB for encryption since it is considered a vulnerability.

Cipher Block Chaining

CBC uses an Initialization Vector (IV) to enhance the encryption. When using CBC, the plaintext and IV are XORed to encrypt the data. The encryption text is then produced. The plain text and encryption results are then XORed until the last block.

Cipher FeedBack

A stream cypher can be created using CFB. The cypher text is created by encrypting the initialization vector (IV) and then XORing it with the plaintext. The next plaintext block is then used to encrypt the cypher text. In this mode, decryption and encryption can be done simultaneously, but not the other way around.

Output Feedback

OFB can also be applied as a stream cypher. There is no need for padding information. The cypher text is created by first encrypting the IV and then XORing the encrypted result with plaintext. The IV cannot be simultaneously encrypted or decrypted in this situation.

CTR

Except for encrypting the counter value rather than the IV, the encryption procedure in CTR mode is identical to that in OFB mode. It has two benefits: encryption and decryption may be done simultaneously, and the noise of one block doesn't impact that of another.

Galois/Counter Mode

An expanded variant of CTR mode is GCM mode. NIST first introduced it. After the encryption procedure, the GCM mode offers the cypher text and authentication tag.

Program For AES-256 Encryption and Decryption in java

AESEncryptionDecryption.java

import javax.crypto.Cipher; 
import javax.crypto.SecretKey; 
import javax.crypto.SecretKeyFactory; 
import javax.crypto.spec.IvParameterSpec; 
import javax.crypto.spec.PBEKeySpec; 
import javax.crypto.spec.SecretKeySpec; 
import java.nio.charset.StandardCharsets; 
import java.security.InvalidAlgorithmParameterException; 
import java.security.InvalidKeyException; 
import java.security.NoSuchAlgorithmException; 
import java.security.spec.InvalidKeySpecException; 
import java.security.spec.KeySpec; 
import java.util.Base64; 
import javax.crypto.BadPaddingException; 
import javax.crypto.IllegalBlockSizeException; 
import javax.crypto.NoSuchPaddingException; 
public class AESEncryptionDecryption 
{ 
/* Private variable declaration */ 
private static final String secret_key = "R12346789"; 
private static final String Value_Salt = "[email protected]#$%^&*()"; 
/* Method for Encryption */ 
public static String encrypt(String strToEncrypt) 
{ 
try 
{ 
/* Establish a byte array. */ 
byte[] iv = {0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}; 
IvParameterSpec is = new IvParameterSpec(iv); 
/* Making a hidden key factory. */ 
SecretKeyFactory f = SecretKeyFactory.getInstance("PBKDF2WithHmacSHA256"); 
/* The PBEKeySpec class implements the KeySpec interface. */ 
KeySpec s1 = new PBEKeySpec(secret_key.toCharArray(), Value_Salt.getBytes(), 65536, 256); 
SecretKey t1 = f.generateSecret(s1); 
SecretKeySpec SK = new SecretKeySpec(t1.getEncoded(), "AES"); 
Cipher cipher = Cipher.getInstance("AES/CBC/PKCS5Padding"); 
cipher.init(Cipher.ENCRYPT_MODE, sk, is); 
/* the encrypted value is returned */ 
return Base64.getEncoder() 
.encodeToString(cipher.doFinal(strToEncrypt.getBytes(StandardCharsets.UTF_8))); 
} 
catch (InvalidAlgorithmParameterException | InvalidKeyException | NoSuchAlgorithmException | InvalidKeySpecException | BadPaddingException | IllegalBlockSizeException | NoSuchPaddingException e) 
{ 
System.out.println("Error while encryption: " + e.toString()); 
} 
return null; 
} 
/* Method for Decryption */ 
public static String decrypt(String strToDecrypt) 
{ 
try 
{ 
/* Establish a byte array. */ 
byte[] iv = {0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}; 
IvParameterSpec is = new IvParameterSpec(iv); 
/* Making a hidden key factory. */ 
SecretKeyFactory f = SecretKeyFactory.getInstance("PBKDF2WithHmacSHA256"); 
/* The PBEKeySpec class implements the KeySpec interface. */ 
KeySpec s1 = new PBEKeySpec(secret_key.toCharArray(), Value_Salt.getBytes(), 65536, 256); 
SecretKey t1 = f.generateSecret(s1); 
SecretKeySpec SK = new SecretKeySpec(t1.getEncoded(), "AES"); 
Cipher cipher = Cipher.getInstance("AES/CBC/PKCS5PADDING"); 
cipher.init(Cipher.DECRYPT_MODE, sk, is); 
/* the encrypted value is returned */ 
return new String(cipher.doFinal(Base64.getDecoder().decode(strToDecrypt))); 
} 
catch (InvalidAlgorithmParameterException | InvalidKeyException | NoSuchAlgorithmException | InvalidKeySpecException | BadPaddingException | IllegalBlockSizeException | NoSuchPaddingException e) 
{ 
System.out.println("Error while decryption: " + e.toString()); 
} 
return null; 
} 
public static void main(String[] args) 
{ 
/* Encrypting the message.*/ 
String original_value = "AES 256 Encryption and Decryption"; 
/* Invoke the encrypt() function, then save the result. */ 
String encrypted_value = encrypt(original_value); 
/* Use the decrypt() function and then save the decryption results. */ 
String decrypted_value = decrypt(encrypted_value); 
System.out.println("Original value: " + original_value); 
System.out.println("Encrypted value: " + encrypted_value); 
System.out.println("Decrypted value: " + decrypted_value); 
} 
} 

Output

AES 256 Encryption in Java



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