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Java String Methods

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Java Program to remove duplicate characters in a string

In strings, we can find many characters present one or more times in a string; accessing a particular character is difficult due to repetition. Duplicate characters will present in the string can be removed in many ways. Some of the ways include:

  • Using for loop
  • By sorting method
  • Hashing
  • IndexOf()

Hence, many ways exist to remove duplicate characters from the given string.

These different methods have varying time complexities. We can use them based on request.

Using for loop

It is one of the easiest and simple ways to remove duplicate characters from the given string.

Steps for removing the duplicate keys using for loop.

  1. The given array is converted into a character array as the division of the Characters.
  2. Find the length of the array.
  3. Create a function for calling the duplicate elements in the array by passing the character as a parameter.
  4. Using for loop, visit all characters of the array to search the duplicate element.
  5. Check the character present in the string.


import java.util.*;
class RemoveDuplicates
  //creating method for removing duplicate characters
   static void  remove duplicate(char strings[], int len)
  // declaring value for sttoring index
  int n=0;
  for(int i=0;i<len;i++)
   // checking whether the character is present
     int j;
   //if it was not present then add it result
//main section
public static void main(String s[])
  String info=“java is a good programming language”;
   //Converting to character array
  char strings[]=info.toCharArray();
 //finding length of character array
  int lengt=strings.length;
  // calling method for removal of characters


Java Program to remove duplicate characters from a string

Using Sorting method

The sorting method is one of the methods for removing duplicate characters in the string.

This method is faster as compared to the for-loop method. In this, first, the array is sorted.

And the duplicated elements are present adjacent to each other. Performing this operation includes:

  1. Sort the given string
  2. Take the current element and compare it with the remaining elements in the loop.
  3. The characters present for more than once can be removed.
  4. The technique does not maintain the authentic order of the input string. String order is different from initial.

A simple java Program using sorting techniques.


import java.util.Arrays; 
import java.util.*;
public class Main 
      static void removeDuplicates(String str)   
        //to find next character of string given
        int ind1 = 1;          
        // to find next character in the resultant string 
        int ind2 = 1;  
        // converting string to indivial(Chaaracter array)  
        char arr[] = str.toCharArray();   
        //Checking whether the character is present in it or not
while (ind1 != arr.length)   
            if(arr[ind1] != arr[ind1-1])   
                arr[ind2] = arr[ind1];   
        str = new String(arr);  
        System.out.println(str.substring(0, ind2));   
  //method for storing the sorted string  
    static String sortString(String str)   
       // String is converted to character 
       char temp[] = str.toCharArray();   
       //sort array using array's sort () method  
       //String from character array   
       str = new String(temp);   
       // result 
       return str;   
    public static void main(String[] args)   
        //Declaring a default string   
        String str = “Java is best programming language";   
        //calling method for storing the sorted string 
        String newString = sortString(str);  
        // removeDuplicates() method for removal of same characters  


Java Program to remove duplicate characters from a string

Using Hashing method

Another way to get rid of duplicate characters from a string is hashing. By using hashing, we can do that. We will use the subsequent steps to take away duplicates by using hashing:

  • Inside the main() approach, we can create a string from which we ought to eliminate replica characters.
  • We can call the removeDuplicates() approach and surpass the string from which we need to eliminate duplicates.
  • Inside the removeDuplicates() technique, create a LinkedHashSet of character kind. LinkedHashSet includes a distinct detail. This set contains distinct elements. So that duplicate characters are removed. Ultimately, we print all of the characters of the LinkedHashSet.
  • It includes characters in insertion order.
  • This can be done using a simple program.


import java.util.*;   
//Class for accessing methods for removing duplicate characters
class Main 
    //Create a method removeDuplicates() for finding unique characters using Hashing  
    static void removeDuplicates(String str)   
        //HashSet class creation   
        LinkedHashSet<Character> set = new LinkedHashSet<>();   
        //each character is added to set   
        for(int i=0;i<str.length();i++)   
        // string after removing same characters   
        for(Character ch : set)   
    public static void main(String args[])   
        //Default value is assigned to str  
        String str = "java is good programming language";   
        //calling method by passing string as a parameter   


Java Program to remove duplicate characters from a string

index() method

This method is used for the removal of duplicate characters from a string.

It uses index values to find distinct characters from the given string.

The steps followed in this are:

  • The main() method contains a string for finding unique characters.
  • The removeDuplicates() mehod is called, and the string is passed as an argument.
  • The initial string length is calculated in the removeDuplicates() method.
  • All characters are checked in the string.
  • This method returns -1 if the element can’t be present in the string. So it was added to the resulting string.


// import classes and packages   
import java.util.*;   
//create RemoveDuplicatesIndex class to remove characters   
class RemoveDuplicatesIndex {   
    // Create removeDuplicates() for removing duplicate characters by index()  
    public static void removeDuplicates(String str)   
        //Empty string for storing 
        String newstr = new String();   
        //length is calculated using length() function  
        int length = str.length();   
        //visiting each and every character of string  
        for (int i = 0; i < length; i++)    
            // Index value of ith position is stored
            char charAtPosition = str.charAt(i);   
            // check the charAtPosition  index. if it returns true add it to result
            if (newstr.indexOf(charAtPosition) < 0)   
                newstr += charAtPosition;   
        //Unique character string
    // main()  
    public static void main(String[] args)   
        // default value   
        String str = "Java is a object oriented programming language";   
        //calling method removeDuplicates method   


Java Program to remove duplicate characters from a string

The above four methods can be used to remove duplicate characters. Any of the four methods can be used according to our choice.