Java Tutorial

Java Tutorial Java Features C++ vs Java Java History Java Hello World Java Development Kit Java Runtime Environment Java Virtual Machine Difference between JDK, JRE, and JVM Memory Areas in Java Java Operators Java Keywords Primitive Data Types Variables

Java Loops

Java Do While Loop Java While Loop Java For Loop Java Enhanced For Loop

Java Programs

Java Basic Programs Factorial Program in Java Fibonacci Series Program in Java Prime Number Program in Java Palindrome Number Program in Java Armstrong Number Program in Java Anagram Program in Java Pattern Programs in Java Calculator Program in Java Leap Year Program in Java Addition Program in Java Number Pattern Programs in Java Star Pattern Programs in Java Package Program in Java Pyramid Program in Java Sorting Program in Java String Palindrome Program in Java Even Odd Program in Java For Loop Program in Java If Else Program in Java Switch Case Program in Java GCD Program in Java LCM Program in Java Hello Program in Java Matrix Program in Java Menu Driven Program in Java Series Program in Java Client Server Program in Java Swapping Program in Java Pig Latin Program in Java Tower of Hanoi Program in Java Recursion Program in Java Matrix Multiplication Program in Java Perfect Number Program in Java Classes and Objects in Java Example Programs String Programs in Java Array Programs in Java Constructor Program in Java Inheritance Program in Java Abstract class Program in Java Interface Program in Java Encapsulation Program in Java Polymorphism Program in Java Exception Handling Program in Java Multithreading Program in Java Thread Program in Java Collection Programs in Java ArrayList Program in Java Stack Program in Java Applet Program in Java Swing Program in Java JDBC Program in Java How to run Java program in command prompt How to run Java program in Eclipse

Java Sorting

Sorting Algorithms in Java Merge Sort in Java Quick Sort in Java Bubble Sort in Java Insertion Sort in Java Selection Sort in Java Heap Sort in Java Radix Sort in Java Topological Sort in Java Bucket Sort in Java Counting Sort in Java

Java OOPs Concepts

OOPs - Object Oriented Programming Objects and Classes in Java Java Naming Conventions Constructors in Java Java this keyword Java static keyword Inheritance in Java Aggregation in Java Java super keyword Constructor Chaining and Constructor Overloading Java Polymorphism Static and Dynamic Binding in Java Java Abstraction Abstract class in Java Interface in Java Difference between Abstract class and Interface Java final keyword Packages in Java Access Modifiers in Java Java Wrapper classes Java Numbers Java Characters Java Integer Java Boolean Java Arrays Java Command Line Arguments Java strictfp Keyword Java Math

Java Strings

Java Strings Java String Methods StringBuilder in Java StringBuffer in Java Java Regular Expressions StringBuffer vs StringBuilder String vs StringBuffer String vs StringBuilder String Manipulation in Java Java String Concatenation How to Reverse a String in Java String Array in Java How to Compare Two Strings in Java How to Concatenate Two Strings in Java Why String in Immutable in Java java.lang.NumberFormatException for Input String String Pool in Java Java Generate Random String How to take String Input in Java Java String Interview Questions

Java Exceptions

Exception Handling in Java Java try catch Java throw Java throws Difference between throw and throws Java finally Java Custom Exception Java Exception Propagation

Garbage Collection

Automatic Resource Management in Java Java Garbage Collection Java finalize() Java gc() Difference between final, finally and finalize


Multithreading in Java Process and Thread in Java Basic Terms in Multithreading Java Thread creation Thread Scheduler in Java Java Thread class DeadLock in Java

Java IO

Java IO Java Read File Java BufferedWriter Java InputStreamReader Java File Java Read File Line By Line Java FileOutputStream Jar File in Java


Java Serialization Java transient


Java Network Programming Java Socket Programming Java URL Java URLConnection HttpURLConnection in Java Java InetAddress Java DatagramSocket and Java DatagramPacket


Java AWT


Swing in Java

Java Collections

Collections in Java Java List Interface ArrayList in Java LinkedList in Java Vector in Java Stack in Java ArrayList vs LinkedList in Java ArrayList vs Vector in Java Java Set Interface HashSet in Java LinkedHashSet in Java TreeSet in Java Java Queue Interface PriorityQueue in Java ArrayDeque in Java Java Map Interface HashMap in Java LinkedHashMap in Java TreeMap in Java Dictionary in Java Hashtable in Java Properties in Java Collections class in Java Java Comparable Java Comparator Comparable vs Comparator in Java

Java Generics

Generics in Java

Java Annotations

Annotations in Java


Java JDBC Tutorial

Java Differences

Java vs JavaScript Python vs Java Kotlin vs Java Java vs C++ C# vs Java Static vs Non-static in Java C vs Java int vs Integer in Java Stack vs Heap in Java Java Array vs ArrayList

How to

How to run Java program How to set path in Java How to check the Java version in cmd How to install Java in Windows 10 How to run Java program in cmd How to call a method in Java How to sort an array in Java How to iterate HashMap in Java How to write Java program How to create an array in Java How to create a package in Java How to generate random numbers in Java How to input String in Java How to create thread in Java How to find length of String in Java How to sort a string in Java How to use scanner in Java How to achieve multiple inheritance in Java How to run Java program in Eclipse How to call a function in Java How to create array of objects in Java How to create custom exception in Java How to achieve abstraction in Java How to call static method in Java

Java 8 Features

Java 8 Features Lambda Expressions in Java Functional Interface in Java Streams in Java Java Base64 Encoding and Decoding Parallel Arrays Sort in Java

Java 9 Features

Java 9 Tutorial Java 9 Try With Resources Java 9 Interface Private Method

Java Servlet Tutorial

Java Servlets Tutorial

Java JSP Tutorial

Java JSP Tutorial

Hibernate Tutorial

Hibernate Tutorial

Spring Tutorial

Spring Tutorial

Spring MVC Tutorial

Spring MVC Tutorial

Jenkins Tutorial

Jenkins Tutorial

Java Math Methods

Math.abs() Math.acos() Math.addExact() Math.asin() Math.atan () Math.atan2() Math.cbrt() Math.ceil() Math.copysign() Math.cos() Math.cosh() Math.decrementExact() Math.exp() Math.expm1() Math.floor() Math.floorDiv() Math.floorMod() Math.getExponent() Math.hypot() Math.IEEEremainder() Math.incrementExact() Math.log() Math.log10() Math.log1p() Math.max() Math.min() Math.multiplyExact() Math.multiplyFull() Math.negateExact() Math.nextAfter() Math.nextDown() Math.nextUp() Math.pow() Math.random() Math.rint() Math.round() Math.scalb() Math.signum() Math.sin() Math.sinh() Math.sqrt() Math.subtractExact() Math.tan() Math.tanh() Math.toDegrees() Math.toIntExact() Math.toRadians() Math.ulp()

Java String Methods

toCharArray() copyValueOf() endsWith() equals() equalsIgnoreCase() format() getBytes() getChars() hashCode() indexOf() intern() isEmpty() join() lastIndexOf() length() replace() replaceAll() replaceFirst() split() startsWith() subSequence() substring() toLowerCase() toUpperCase() trim() valueOf()

Java Conversion

Java Convert String to int Java Convert int to String Java Convert String to long Java Convert long to String Java Convert String to float Java Convert float to String Java Convert String to double Java Convert double to String Java Convert String to Date Java Convert Date to String Java Convert String to Object Java Convert Object to String Java Convert String to char Java Convert char to String Java Convert int to long Java Convert long to int


Functional Interfaces in Java Singleton class in Java Awesome explanation of Strings in Java Object class in Java Static class in Java All the important string methods in Java String Handling Method in Java What are Array strings in Java Advantages and Disadvantages of Strings in Java Big Decimal class in Java Class definition in Java Char and String differences in Java Difference between String, StringBuffer and StringBuilder in java Replace character in string Java String Coding Interview Questions in Java What is String in Java? String isnullorempty in Java String Matches in Java Trim Method in String Java Bean class in Java Libraries in Java Arithmetic Operations on String in Java Convert Char array to string in java Check whether Java is installed or not How to calculate time difference in Java How to stop execution after a certain time in Java Jagged Array in Java Java ArraylistRemove() Time Complexity Java Swing Time Picker Zigzag Array in Java

Java Swing

Java Swing is the extension of Abstract Windows Toolkit (AWT). Any component designed in Swing will appear the same on any platform.

Problems/Disadvantage of Abstract Windows Toolkit (AWT):

  1. As we know that AWT is internally dependent on C language code and C language is a Platform dependent so in Java, it is not desirable.
  2. Any component developed in AWT, its look and feel changes depending on the platform. For example, if you write code for a push button in AWT, when you run that code in Windows it will display windows type of push button whereas same code executed in UNIX operating system, then it will display UNIX type of push button. So we can’t be sure how a particular screen will look on a particular operating system because its appearance changes from system to system.
  3. Component developed in AWT is very heavy-weight, so it consumes more system resources such as more Memory space, more processor time, etc.

Solution of above (AWT) problems:

To fix the problems of AWT, JavaSoft people redeveloped complete AWT package without internally taking the help of native methods. So all AWT classes extended to form new classes and new class library is created, further this library is called as Java Foundation Classes (JFC). Java Foundation Classes created five main library package which is very popular in GUI designing.
  1. Javax.swing
  2. Javax.accessibility
  3. Javax.swing.plaf
  4. Java.awt.dnd
  5. Java.aet.geon

Advantage of JFC Library for GUI designing:

  1. JFC library classes create a light-weight component, so it consumes less resources (memory, processors) and executes much faster than AWT component.
  2. Any Component created by using JFC library classes appears the same on every platform.
  3. JFC is an extension of AWT, so all the methods that we used in AWT are also applicable in JFC.
Among the five main JFC library, Javax.swing Library is very famous, and it’s used by every programmer.

Let’s Explore “ Javax.swing  :

Its most commonly used JFC library for the graphical user interface (GUI) designing in Java programming. It provides classes to create components such as push button, checkbox, menu list, radio button, etc. Swing Follow Model – View – Controller (MVC) architecture:

Model: It represents the data of any swing component.
View:  It represents the visual appearance of any swing component based on the data model.
Controller: It is the mediator between the model and view. Whenever a user interacts with the swing component, first of all, the controller will understand this and modify the model data accordingly.

Important Classes of “Swing Package”

In Javax.swing package there are lots of important classes. These swing classes are derived from the java.awt package.

How to Create a Frame in swing?

A frame represents a window with the free area which has a Title bar and border. In that free area, we can display any Text, or any component can be displayed. To create a frame we have a JFrame class in swing package.
  •  Create Frame without Title
JFrame frame= new JFrame();
  •  Create a frame with Title
JFrame frame= new JFrame(“ Frame Title ”);
  •  Create a frame with Title and Frame Size
JFrame frame= new JFrame(“ Frame Title ”);
Note: in place of x and y, put some value in pixel.  Such as :

Java Program to create a frame of 200x200 px size :

import javax.swing.*;
class SimpleFrame{
public static void main(String args[]){
// Frame Name
String framename = "Simple Frame";
//Create Frame with Title
JFrame frame= new JFrame(framename);
//set Size of this new frame
frame.setSize(200, 200);
// Now Display the Frame
Output : 


  1. To Close a Swing frame, we need to take help of methods of JFrame Class.
  2. getDefaultCloseOperation(parameter) => it’s method of JFrame Class.
  3. JFrame.EXIT_ON_CLOSE => it closes the frame/application upon clicking on Close button.
import javax.swing.JFrame;
public class CloseFrame extends JFrame {
          public static void main(String[] args) {
                    //Create Frame
                   CloseFrame cframe=new CloseFrame();
                   //set Frame Name
                   cframe.setTitle("Close Frame");
                   //Set Frame Size
      // Close the application upon clicking Close Button

How to Set the Background color of any frame:

To set the background color in frame, we have to set the background color in the Content pane. Content pane is the free area of any frame. Program:
import java.awt.Color;
import java.awt.Container;
import javax.swing.JFrame;
public class SetBackgroundColor extends JFrame  {
          public static void main(String[] args) {
      //Create a Frame
                   SetBackgroundColor setbg=new SetBackgroundColor();
                   //Create Content pane, it's a container
                   Container container=setbg.getContentPane();
                   //Set Background Color
                   //set the size of frame
                   //display the frame
                   //Close application upon clicking Exit button
How To Display Text in Swing Frame/Application? Text can be displayed by using the label. We can use the JLabel class to create label.
  JLabel label=new JLabel(“Any Text”);
import java.awt.Color;
import java.awt.Container;
import java.awt.FlowLayout;
import java.awt.Font;
import javax.swing.JFrame;
import javax.swing.JLabel;
public class TextOnFrame extends JFrame {
          public static void main(String[] args) {
                   JLabel label; //Variable
                   TextOnFrame tframe=new TextOnFrame();
                   tframe.setTitle("Text on Frame");
                   Container container=tframe.getContentPane();
                   container.setLayout(new FlowLayout());
                   //Creating Label with any Text
                   label=new JLabel("Welcome to Swing...");
                   //Set Font for label
                   label.setFont(new Font("Helvetica",Font.BOLD,24));
                   //set color for label
                   //add the label to Content pane

Creating components like Check Box, Radio Button, Text Field, and Text Area:

Check Box: with the help of the JCheckBox class, we can create Check Boxes.
  • Check box without any label or image
JCheckBox bx=new JCheckBox();
  • Check box with a label
JCheckBox bx=new JCheckBox(“label”);
  • Check box with an image
JCheckBox bx=new JCheckBox(ImageIcon image);
Image will be loaded from ImageIcon object
  • Check box with label and Image
JCheckBox bx=new JCheckBox(“label”, ImageIcon image);
Text Field:  Text field can be created with the help of JTextField Class. Text field can accommodate only one line of text.
  • Text Field without any text
JTextField textfield=new   JTextField();
  • Text Field with some text displaying within it
 JTextField textfield=new   JTextField(“Some Text ”);
  • Text Field with a width of 35 character
 JTextField textfield=new   JTextField(35);
  • Text Field with text and width of 35 character
 JTextField textfield=new JTextField(“Some Text ”,35);
Radio Button: Radio Button can be created with the help of JRadioButton Class.
  • Radio Button without any label or image
JRadioButton radio=new JRadioButton ();
  • Radio Button with label
JRadioButton radio=new JRadioButton (“label”);
  • Radio Button with image
JRadioButton radio=new JRadioButton (ImageIcon image);
Image will be loaded from ImageIcon object
  •  Radio Button with label and Image
 JRadioButton radio=new JRadioButton (“Label”, ImageIcon image);
Text Area: Text  Area can display multiple lines of text. With the help of the JTextArea class, we can create a text area.
  • Text Area without any text in it.
JTextArea text=new JTextArea();
  •  Text Area with Some Text in it.
JTextArea text=new JTextArea(“ Some Text”);
  • Text Area with 10 rows and 30 characters on each row
JTextArea text=new JTextArea(10,30);
  • Text Area with some text, 10 rows and 30 characters on each row
JTextArea text=new JTextArea(“Some Text”, 10,30);

Write a Program to Implement “Radio Button, Check Box and Text Area”:

import java.awt.Container;
import java.awt.FlowLayout;
import java.awt.event.ActionEvent;
import java.awt.event.ActionListener;
import javax.swing.ButtonGroup;
import javax.swing.JCheckBox;
import javax.swing.JFrame;
import javax.swing.JRadioButton;
import javax.swing.JTextArea;
public class RadioCheckboxTextAreaDemo extends JFrame implements ActionListener {     
               JCheckBox cbox1, cbox2;
               JRadioButton rbutton1, rbutton2;
               JTextArea tarea;
               ButtonGroup bg;
               String message="";
                public RadioCheckboxTextAreaDemo() {
                      //create container pane
            Container container=getContentPane();
            //set Layout
            container.setLayout(new FlowLayout());
            //create text row in that 15 row and each row has 30 character
            tarea=new JTextArea(15,30);
            //Create two checkbox with label and status
            cbox1=new JCheckBox("Spring", true);
            cbox2=new JCheckBox("Hiberate");       
            //create two radio button with label and status
            rbutton1=new JRadioButton("Boy Batch",true);
            rbutton2 =new JRadioButton("Girl Batch");        
            //Create Button group
            bg=new ButtonGroup();
            //add these all check box, radio button, text area in to the container
            //Now add the action listener on radio button and checkbox
            //Close the Frame or application upon Close button clicking
          public void actionPerformed(ActionEvent e) {
                   //Check which component is selected by user
                             message +="\n Spring";
                             message +="\n Hibernate";
                             message +="\n Boy Batch";
                   }else {
                             message +="\n Girl Batch";
                   //set the selected message in text area
                   //clear the message with empty string
          public static void main(String[] args) {
                    ///create frame
                   RadioCheckboxTextAreaDemo frame=new RadioCheckboxTextAreaDemo();
                   frame.setTitle("Checkbox and Radio button demo");

How To Create Menu in Swing frame/Application:

Menu is collection of similar types of group of items. With the help of JMenu class, we can create a menu in Swing frame/application.
  • We can create menu Bar by this:
JMenuBar menubar=new JMenuBar();
  • We can create separate menus to attach them on Menu bar:
JMenu  menulist=new JMenu(“File”);
Now attach this file to menu bar:
  • With JMenuItem Class, we can create group of menu items.
JMenuItem save=new JMenuItem(“Save”);
Now add it to menulist:
Program:  Creating a Sample Menu List.
package pkg1;
import java.awt.BorderLayout;
import java.awt.Color;
import java.awt.Container;
import java.awt.event.ActionEvent;
import java.awt.event.ActionListener;
import javax.swing.JCheckBoxMenuItem;
import javax.swing.JFrame;
import javax.swing.JMenu;
import javax.swing.JMenuBar;
import javax.swing.JMenuItem;
public class SwingMenuModule extends JFrame implements ActionListener {
           JMenuBar jmbar;
           JMenu file,edit,font;
           JMenuItem op,sa,cl,cp,pt,f1,f2;                  
             public SwingMenuModule() {
                   //create container
                      Container container=getContentPane();
                      container.setLayout(new BorderLayout());
                      //Create a Menu bar
                      jmbar=new JMenuBar();                     
                      //add member to container
                      container.add("North", jmbar);                     
                      //create the File and Edit menu and attach them to menu bar
                      file=new JMenu("File");
                      edit=new JMenu("Edit");
                      //Create Menu Items
                      op=new JMenuItem("Open");
                      sa=new JMenuItem("Save");
                      cp=new JMenuItem("Copy");
                      pt=new JMenuItem("Paste");
                      cl=new JMenuItem("Close");                     
                      //add Open, Save, Close to file Menu and Copy, Paste to edit menu
                      //add  separator (horizontal line) to File menu
                      //Create Font SubMenu and add it to file menu
                        font=new JMenu("Font");
                        //Create submenu items
                        f1=new JMenuItem("Arial");
                        f2=new JMenuItem("Times New Roman");
                        //Add item to submenu
                        //Attach action listener to all menu items
                        //Close Application upon Close Button Click
             //it will execute when menu item is clicked.
                   public void actionPerformed(ActionEvent e) {
                                      System.out.println("Open is Selected");
                                      System.out.println("save is Selected");
                                      System.out.println("Close is selected");
                                      System.out.println("Paste is selected");
                                      System.out.println("Arial Font is selected");
                                      System.out.println("Times New Roman is selected");
          public static void main(String[] args) {                 
                    //Create the frame
               SwingMenuModule menu=new SwingMenuModule();
               menu.setTitle("Menu List");


How to Create Progress Bar in Swing ?

Progress Bar is visual representation of any task completion. It represent that how much any particular or a group of task has been completed. With the help of JProgressBar class, we can create Progress Bar.
  • By default horizontal progress bar will create:
JProgressBar progress=new JProgressBar();
  • But you can create Horizontal and Vertical Progress Bar
new JProgressBar(Choice)

package com.pramodsoft;
import java.awt.Color;
import java.awt.Container;
import java.awt.FlowLayout;
import java.awt.event.ActionEvent;
import java.awt.event.ActionListener;
import javax.swing.JButton;
import javax.swing.JFrame;
import javax.swing.JProgressBar;
public class Progressbar extends JFrame  implements ActionListener {
            JButton b;
            JProgressBar pbar;        
            public Progressbar() {                  
                     Container container=getContentPane();
                     container.setLayout(new FlowLayout());
                     //Create a button
                     b=new JButton("Click Again...");                  
                     //Create Progress bar
                     pbar=new JProgressBar();                 
                     //set foreground colour
                     //display the percentage starting
                     // add progress bar and button to container
                     //add action listener to progress bar
                   public void actionPerformed(ActionEvent e) {                            
                             //on every button click.. Progress bar will increase 10%
          public static void main(String[] args) {                   
                   Progressbar progress=new Progressbar();
                    progress.setTitle("Progress Bar");

Note: Swing is a big topic, so in 1000 words we can’t explain every feature. It’s a 1900 word Article.