Java Tutorial Index

Java Tutorial Java Features C++ vs Java Java History Java Hello World Java Development Kit Java Runtime Environment Java Virtual Machine Difference between JDK, JRE, and JVM Memory Areas in Java Java Operators Java Keywords Primitive Data Types Variables

Java Loops

Java Do While Loop Java While Loop Java For Loop Java Enhanced For Loop

Java Programs

Java Basic Programs Factorial Program in Java Fibonacci Series Program in Java Prime Number Program in Java Palindrome Number Program in Java Armstrong Number Program in Java Anagram Program in Java Pattern Programs in Java Calculator Program in Java Leap Year Program in Java Addition Program in Java Number Pattern Programs in Java Star Pattern Programs in Java Package Program in Java Pyramid Program in Java Sorting Program in Java String Palindrome Program in Java Even Odd Program in Java For Loop Program in Java If Else Program in Java Switch Case Program in Java GCD Program in Java LCM Program in Java Hello Program in Java Matrix Program in Java Menu Driven Program in Java Series Program in Java Client Server Program in Java Swapping Program in Java Pig Latin Program in Java Tower of Hanoi Program in Java Recursion Program in Java Matrix Multiplication Program in Java Perfect Number Program in Java Classes and Objects in Java Example Programs String Programs in Java Array Programs in Java Constructor Program in Java Inheritance Program in Java Abstract class Program in Java Interface Program in Java Encapsulation Program in Java Polymorphism Program in Java Exception Handling Program in Java Multithreading Program in Java Thread Program in Java Collection Programs in Java ArrayList Program in Java Stack Program in Java Applet Program in Java Swing Program in Java JDBC Program in Java How to run Java program in command prompt How to run Java program in Eclipse Program to find and replace characters on string in java Program to find the duplicate characters in a string Program to check whether a given character is present in a string or not Java Program to Print Permutations of String Java program to find frequency of characters in a string Java Program to remove duplicate characters in a string

Java Sorting

Sorting Algorithms in Java Merge Sort in Java Quick Sort in Java Bubble Sort in Java Insertion Sort in Java Selection Sort in Java Heap Sort in Java Radix Sort in Java Topological Sort in Java Bucket Sort in Java Counting Sort in Java

Java OOPs Concepts

OOPs - Object Oriented Programming Objects and Classes in Java Methods in Java Java Naming Conventions Constructors in Java Java this keyword Java static keyword Inheritance in Java Aggregation in Java Java super keyword Constructor Chaining and Constructor Overloading Java Polymorphism Static and Dynamic Binding in Java Java Abstraction Abstract class in Java Interface in Java Difference between Abstract class and Interface Java final keyword Packages in Java Access Modifiers in Java Java Wrapper classes Java Numbers Java Characters Java Integer Java Boolean Java Arrays Java Command Line Arguments Java strictfp Keyword Java Math

Java Strings

Java Strings Java String Methods StringBuilder in Java StringBuffer in Java Java Regular Expressions StringBuffer vs StringBuilder String vs StringBuffer String vs StringBuilder String Manipulation in Java Java String Concatenation How to Reverse a String in Java String Array in Java How to Compare Two Strings in Java How to Concatenate Two Strings in Java Why String in Immutable in Java java.lang.NumberFormatException for Input String String Pool in Java Java Generate Random String How to take String Input in Java Java String Interview Questions

Java Exceptions

Exception Handling in Java Java try catch Java throw Java throws Difference between throw and throws Java finally Java Custom Exception Java Exception Propagation

Garbage Collection

Automatic Resource Management in Java Java Garbage Collection Java finalize() Java gc() Difference between final, finally and finalize


Multithreading in Java Process and Thread in Java Basic Terms in Multithreading Java Thread creation Thread Scheduler in Java Java Thread class DeadLock in Java

Java IO

Java IO Java Read File Java file Reader Java Buffer Reader Java file Writer Java BufferedWriter Java InputStreamReader Scanner in Java Java StringReader Java StringReader Class Java StringWriter Class Java PrintWriter Java File Java Read File Line By Line Java FileInputStream Java FileOutputStream Java Create File Java Delete File Java Open File Java Read File to String Java copy file Jar File in Java Java FileNotFoundException


Java Serialization Java transient


Java Network Programming Java Socket Programming Java URL Java URLConnection HttpURLConnection in Java Java InetAddress Java DatagramSocket and Java DatagramPacket


Java AWT


Swing in Java

Java Collections

Collections in Java Java List Interface ArrayList in Java LinkedList in Java Vector in Java Stack in Java ArrayList vs LinkedList in Java ArrayList vs Vector in Java Java Set Interface HashSet in Java LinkedHashSet in Java TreeSet in Java Java Queue Interface PriorityQueue in Java Deque in Java ArrayDeque in Java Java Map Interface HashMap in Java LinkedHashMap in Java TreeMap in Java Dictionary in Java Hashtable in Java Properties in Java Collections class in Java Java Comparable Java Comparator Comparable vs Comparator in Java

Java Generics

Generics in Java

Java Annotations

Annotations in Java


Java JDBC Tutorial JDBC Architecture Types of JDBC Drivers JDBC vs ODBC Java Database Connectivity with MySQL Java Database Connectivity with Oracle Statements in java Prepared statement in Java Resultset in java Java ResultSetMetaData DatabaseMetaData in Java Callable Statement in Java Transaction Management in Java Design of JDBC

Java Differences

Java vs DotNET Java vs JavaScript Python vs Java Kotlin vs Java Java vs C++ C# vs Java Java float vs double Java vs Scala Java vs Go Java vs Golang Java Extends vs Implements Java vs Node.js Static vs Non-static in Java C vs Java int vs Integer in Java Java protected vs private Java vs Dot Net Stack vs Heap in Java Java Array vs ArrayList Java SE vs EE Class vs Object in Java Java vs Bedrock Difference between = = and equals ( ) in java Difference between C, C++, java HashMap Vs HashTable Checked vs Unchecked Exceptions in Java Difference between print() and println() in Java Differences between Lock and Monitor in Java Concurrency Differences between Set and List in Java How to calculate time difference in Java Char and String differences in Java Difference between String, StringBuffer and StringBuilder in java Difference between String and Char Array in Java Differences between Byte Code and Machine Code Difference between String Tokenizer and split Method in Java Difference between JIT and JVM in Java Difference Between Data Hiding and Abstraction in Java Difference between String Tokenizer and Split Method in Java Difference Between BufferedReader and FileReader Difference Between Thread.start() and

How to

How to convert String to String array in Java How to find length of integer in Java How to get Day Name from Date in Java How to open the Java control panel How to resolve Illegal state exceptions in Java How to reverse a linked list in java How to encrypt password in Java How to calculate time complexity of any program in Java How to check version of java in Linux How to enable java in chrome How to run Java program How to set path in Java How to check the Java version in cmd How to install Java in Windows 10 How to run Java program in cmd How to add double quotes in a string in Java How to convert list to String in Java How to call a method in Java How to Set Environment Variables for Java How to sort an array in Java How to Create Immutable Classes in Java How to iterate HashMap in Java How to write Java program How to create an array in Java How to create a package in Java How to generate random numbers in Java How to input String in Java How to Create Singleton Class in Java How to create thread in Java How to find length of String in Java How to sort a string in Java How to use scanner in Java How to achieve multiple inheritance in Java How to find the length of an Array in Java How to Read Java JSON file How to run Java program in Eclipse How to call a function in Java How to create array of objects in Java How to create custom exception in Java How to import packages in Java How to run applet Program in Java How to take Array Input in Java How to achieve abstraction in Java How to call static method in Java How to compare characters in Java How to compare dates in Java How to create a linked list in Java How to download Eclipse for Java How to get ASCII value of char in Java How to get the current date and time in Java How to handle NullPointerException in Java How to initialize string array in Java How to Install Java on MAC How to run java program in ubuntu How to find characters with the maximum number of times in a string java How to Set Java_home in Linux How to Split the String in Java with Delimiter How to take Multiple String Input in Java using Scanner class How to uninstall the Java in Ubuntu How to Update Java How to add Elements in Array in Java How to avoid deadlock in java How to Split String by Comma in Java How to remove special characters from String in Java How to remove last character from String in Java How to Read XML Files in Java How to download and install Eclipse in Windows How to Create an API in Java How to Round Double Float up to Two Decimal Places in Java How to create a mirror image of a 2D array in Java How to set timer in Java

Java 8 Features

Java 8 Features Lambda Expressions in Java Functional Interface in Java Streams in Java Java Base64 Encoding and Decoding Type Annotations in Java Java Stringjoiner Class Parallel Arrays Sort in Java Bifunction in java 8 Java 8 filters list Java 8 Consumer Interface in Java

Java 9 Features

Java 9 Tutorial Java 9 Try With Resources Java 9 Interface Private Method

Java 12

What’s new in Java 12

Java 13

Java 13 New Features

Java 14

New Features of Java 14

Java 15

What’s New in Java 15

Java 16

Java 16

Java 17

What is new in Java 17

Java Servlet Tutorial

Java Servlets Tutorial

Java JSP Tutorial

Java JSP Tutorial

Hiberate Tutorial

Hibernate Tutorial

Spring Tutorial

Spring Tutorial

Spring MVC Tutorial

Spring MVC Tutorial

Jenkins Tutorial

Jenkins Tutorial Jenkins java net socket connection time out

Java Math Methods

Math.abs() Math.acos() Math.addExact() Math.asin() Math.atan () Math.atan2() Math.cbrt() Math.ceil() Math.copysign() Math.cos() Math.cosh() Math.decrementExact() Math.exp() Math.expm1() Math.floor() Math.floorDiv() Math.floorMod() Math.fma() Math.getExponent() Math.hypot() Math.IEEEremainder() Math.incrementExact() Math.log() Math.log10() Math.log1p() Math.max() Math.min() Math.multiplyExact() Math.multiplyFull() Math.negateExact() Math.nextAfter() Math.nextDown() Math.nextUp() Math.pow() Math.random() Math.rint() Math.round() Math.scalb() Math.signum() Math.sin() Math.sinh() Math.sqrt() Math.subtractExact() Math.tan() Math.tanh() Math.toDegrees() Math.toIntExact() Math.toRadians() Math.ulp()

Java String Methods

toCharArray() copyValueOf() endsWith() equals() equalsIgnoreCase() format() getBytes() getChars() hashCode() indexOf() intern() isEmpty() join() lastIndexOf() length() replace() replaceAll() replaceFirst() split() startsWith() subSequence() substring() toLowerCase() toUpperCase() trim() valueOf()

Java Conversion

Java Convert String to int Java Convert int to String Java Convert String to long Java Convert long to String Java Convert String to float Java Convert float to String Java Convert String to double Java Convert double to String Java Convert String to Date Java Convert Date to String Java Convert String to Object Java Convert Object to String Java Convert String to char Java Convert char to String Java Convert int to long Java Convert long to int


List all files in a Directory in Java Nonagonal number in Java Null Pointer Exception in Java Package naming convention in Java Packages Program in java Pangram Program in Java PriorityBlockingQueue Class in Java Race Condition in Java Repdigit Numbers in Java Reserved Keywords in Java Rotate matrix by 90 degrees in Java Segment Tree in Java Sierpinski Number in Java Sort Dates in Java Thread Safety and How to Achieve it in Java Normal and Trace of a Matrix in Java Transient variable in Java Tribonacci series in Java Web Crawler in Java Zigzag Traversal of Binary Tree in Java Java Full Stack Java IO filenotfoundexception Java Output Formatting Java Plot Java Pop Java program to print matrix in Z form Java Set to List Java Switch string Java Thread Lifecycle: States and Stages Java Viva Questions and Answers Lazy Propagation in Segment Tree in Java Level order Traversal of a Binary Tree in Java Method chaining in Java Narcissistic Number in Java Java Case Keyword Java Try-Catch Block Java Class KeywordJava concurrency interview questions Java Continue Keyword Java CountDownLatch Java Default Keyword Java Double Keyword Java Editors Java Else Keyword Java Enum Keyword Java Extends keywordJava Finally Keyword Java Font Example of Static import in Java How Many Ways to Create Objects in Java Implementing Queue Using Array in Java Instanceof operator in Java Interchange Diagonal elements in Java Java Arrays Fill Java Char Keyword Convert list to array Java Convert milliseconds to date in Java Copy data/content from one file to another in java CRC Program in Java Creating a Jar file in Java Crown Pattern in Java Difference Between Access Specifiers and Modifiers in Java Difference Between Java and PHP Difference Between replace() and replaceall() in Java Duodecimal in Java Finding middle node of a linked list in Java Group by in Java 8 Hollow Diamond Pattern in Java How annotations work in Java Java Boyer Moore Catalan number in Java Cosmic Superclass in Java Difference between this and super in Java Fall through in Java Figurate Number in Java Java Anon Proxy Java RMI Lazy loading in Java Magnanimous Number in java Shallow copy in Java String to JSON in Java Tetranacci Number in Java Vigesimal in Java Why main method is static in Java Add Time in Java Bellman Ford Algorithm in Java Best Java Libraries Blockchain in Java Blocking Queue in Java Example Bully Algorithm code in Java Contextual keywords in Java Convert JSON File to String in Java Determine the Upper Bound of a Two-Dimensional Array in Java Web Service Response Time Calculation in Java Functional Interfaces in Java Singleton class in Java Awesome explanation of Strings in Java Object class in Java Static class in Java All the important string methods in Java String Handling Method in Java What are Array strings in Java Advantages and Disadvantages of Strings in Java Big Decimal class in Java Class definition in Java Replace character in string Java String Coding Interview Questions in Java What is String in Java? String isnullorempty in Java String Matches in Java Trim Method in String Java Bean class in Java Libraries in Java Arithmetic Operations on String in Java Convert Char array to string in java Check whether Java is installed or not How to stop execution after a certain time in Java Jagged Array in Java Java ArraylistRemove() Time Complexity Java Swing Time Picker Zigzag Array in Java Array and String based questions in Java Array and String with Examples in Java Best Practices to use String Class in Java What is string in Java why it's immutable Java String Java String Inbuilt functions Java String Matches vs Contains Sum of digits in string in java Check the presence of Substring in a String in java Java import packages Interfaces and Classes in Strings in Java Maximum length of string in java Hidden classes in Java Class memory in Java public static void main string args meaning in java Reverse a String in Java String Concatenation in Java Buffer reader to read string in Java Split String into String Array in Java Reverse a String using Collections in Java Upcasting and Downcasting in Java String Declaration in Java Method Overloading In Java Java Solid Principles Java Architecture Binary Search Java Star Program in Java Java Type Casting Java Pass-by-Reference Java Framework List Java Destructors Java Control Statements Java Byte Code Java Beans Java Identifiers Character Array in Java Java Applications Java Substring Java Session Non-primitive data types in Java Matrix Multiplication in Java JIT in Java Java Tokens Java Externalization Default Virtual Behaviour in C++ vs Java Why we use static in Java Session Tracking in Java Knapsack problem in Java Java Logo Java exception list Java Iterator Java instance variable Frugal number in Java Fork Join in Java Date time API in java Compile time vs Runtime in java Compare time in java AES 256 Encryption in Java Advanced Java skills What is advance Java? User Defined Exception in Java Upcasting in Java Tree Implementation in Java Special Operators in Java Reentrant Lock in Java Perfect Number in Java Java logger Java LinkedList vs ArrayList File Operation in Java Constructor Overloading in Java Conditional operator in Java Concurrent Linked Deque in Java with Examples Command Class in Java Java Break Keyword Best Java IDE Association in Java Access specifiers in Java AbstractSet Class in Java Adapter class in Java Composition in Java Mutable and Immutable in Java Static() Function in Java Traverse through HashMap in Java Vectors in Java Creation of Multi Thread in java Java Enumeration Compile-time Error in Java Java Get Time in UTC Java.sql.Time Format Structure of Java Program Thread Concept in Java Creation of Multi-Thread in Java Enterprise Java Beans POJO in Java Volatile keyword in Java Java Constant Collection Interfaces in Java with Examples Deadlock Prevention and avoidance in Java Java Boolean Keyword Java Byte Keyword Java List Implementations Java Xml Parser Method Overriding in Java RMI program in Java Virtual Function in Java What is interpreter in Java? Advanced Java Viva Questions Application of Array in Java Economical number in Java Iterate JSON array in Java Java callable example Java Command not found Java Date add Days Java File Extension Java Location Java Trim User Defined Custom Exceptions in Java Java array list remove time complexity Java.lang.Exception.NoRunnableMethods Java Map Example Java Obfuscator Java Pi Java Queue Java time local date Java Xmx Uses of Java Applet Life Cycle in Java Best Java Security Framework BigDecimal toString() in Java Jdoodle Java Literals in Java MVC in Java Powerful Number in Java Read the XLSX file in Java Relatively Prime in Java Root exception in java What is anagram in Java? Accessors and Mutator in Java Bottom view of a binary tree in Java Convert List to String in Java Equidigital in Java How to check data type in Java IdentityHashMap in Java Java Clone Array Java LDAP Authentication Java List Node Java Password Generator Magic Square in Java Pancake Sorting in Java Practical Number in Java Sublime Number in Java Sudoku in Java Compare Two Times in Java Diffie Hellman Algorithm in Java How to Reduce Time Complexity in Java Java calculate age Map of Map in Java Minimum XOR value pair in Java Palindrome Partitioning problem in Java Pernicious Number in Java Prime Points in Java Rectangular Numbers in Java Sleep Time in Java The final Keyword in Java Types of Statements in Java Unicode System in Java Zig Zag star and Number Pattern in Java Balanced Prime Number in Java ConcurrentSkipListSet in Java Construct the Largest Number from the Given Array in Java CopyOnWriteArrayList in Java Cyclic Barrier in Java Dangling Else problem in Java Display Unique Rows in a Binary Matrix in Java Empty Statement in Java Factorial of a Large Number in Java Facts about null in Java Rehashing in Java Singleton Design Pattern in Java Zebra Puzzle Problem in Java XOR of Array Elements Except Itself in Java Types of Sockets in Java Thread Synchronization in Java Set Up the Environment in Java Method and Block Synchronization in Java Fibodiv Number in Java House Numbers in Java GCD of Different SubSequences in Java Hogben Numbers in Java Decagonal Numbers in Java Converting Roman to Integer Numerals in java Check if the given array is mirror inverse in Java Caesar Cipher Program in Java Block Swap Algorithm for array rotation in Java Java Binary Tree Binary Strings Without Consecutive Ones in Java Beautiful Array in Java Balanced Parentheses in Java Arithmetic exception in Java Add numbers represented by Linked Lists in Java Two Decimal Places Java Intersection Point of two linked list in Java Find next greater number with same set of digits in Java Getter and Setter Method in Java Example Java Binary to Hexadecimal Java Calculate Average of List Iccanobif Numbers in Java Java delete directory Java For Keyword Java Float Keyword Java Instanceof Keyword Java If Keyword Java Int Keyword Java Import Keyword Java Package Keyword Java Static Keyword Java Public Keyword Java Implements Keyword Java Private keyword Java Protected Keyword Java Short Keyword Java Long Keyword Java Interface Keyword Java Try Keyword Java New Keyword Java Return Keyword Tug of War in Java Types of Events in Java

Java concurrency interview questions

During technical interviews, one of the most challenging and sophisticated subjects is concurrency in Java. This page offers responses to some of the related interview questions you might come across.

1. The distinction between a process and a thread

Both processes and threads are concurrently operating system (CPU) units, however processes and threads differ significantly in that they share a shared memory, but threads do not.

A process is an autonomous piece of running software that has its own virtual memory space according to the operating system. To prevent one malfunctioning process from slowing down all other processes by scrambling common memory, any multitasking operating system (which includes practically any modern operating system) must split processes in memory.

The processes are typically segregated as a result, and they cooperate through a mechanism known as inter-process communication (IPC), which the operating system defines as a type of intermediary API.

On the other hand, a thread is an application component that, along with other threads from the same application, has a shared memory. Using common memory enables you to reduce a significant amount of overhead, design the threads to work together, and communicate data between them much more quickly.

2. In Java Concurrency, describe Countdownlatch.

One thread can wait for one or more other threads to finish processing by using Java's Countdownlatch synchronizer. In server-side Java applications, it is significant.

Using Countdownlatch, we can place the thread that is currently running in the waiting state if one or more events are being used by other threads, but we want to use them in the one that is presently running.

3. What Sets the Runnable Interface Apart from the Callable Interface? How Do They Get Used?

One run method exists for the Runnable interface. It stands for a compute unit that demands its thread of execution. This method is not permitted by the Runnable interface to return a value or to raise unchecked exceptions.

A job with a value is represented by the Callable interface, which only has one call function. In light of this, the call method returns a value. It has the ability to throw exceptions. Typically, ExecutorService instances use Callable to initiate an asynchronous job and then use the returned Future instance to retrieve its value.

4. Describe Java Concurrency's Cyclicbarrier.

The Cyclicbarrier idea is utilized, just like the Countdownlatch, to put the thread in the waiting state. The CyclicBarrier places the threads in a state of anticipation while they wait for one another to cross a shared barrier. When each thread hits the barrier, we must invoke the await() method on the Cyclicbarrier object.

5. In Java Concurrency, describe Cyclicbarrier.

The Cyclicbarrier notion is used to place the thread in the waiting state, just the way the Countdownlatch is. The CyclicBarrier places the threads in a condition of waiting until they all hit a single barrier point. When each thread hits the barrier, we must use the Cyclicbarrier objects await() method.

Curiously, the message may not be printed if you run this as a component of the main() method. This might occur if the main() thread were to exit before the daemon has finished writing the message. Since daemon threads won't even be able to complete their final blocks and close the resources if abandoned, you should generally avoid performing any I/O in them.

6. Consider a countdownlatch that has the value 3 as its initial value (3). Does the countdown need to have three threads?

It is not necessary to have three threads, or rather we should say that the countdown does not require the same number of threads.

7. What Does the Interrupt Flag on the Thread Mean? How Can You Check It and Set It? What Connection Does It Have to the InterruptedException?

An internal Thread flag called the interrupt flag, often known as the interrupt status, is set when the thread is interrupted. Use the thread object's thread.interrupt() method to set it.

This function immediately throws InterruptedException if a thread is currently inside one of the methods that throw InterruptedException (wait, join, sleep, etc.). This exception may be handled in any way the thread sees fit.

If thread.interrupt() is called while a thread is not inside the procedure, nothing unusual occurs. Using the static Thread.interrupted() or instance isInterrupted() methods, the thread has the duty to periodically check the interrupt status. The static Thread.interrupted() method clears the interrupt flag, whereas isInterrupted() does not. This is how both methods differ from one another.

8. In Java Concurrency, describe Phaser.

In order to keep threads synchronized over one or more phases of activity, a phaser is crucial. When synchronizing a single phase, the Phaser behaves as a Cyclicbarrier. Its use is quite versatile and reusable.

9. What Are the Terms Executor and ExecutorService? What Distinctions Exist Between These Interfaces?

The Java.util.concurrent framework's Executor and ExecutorService interfaces are related. With only one execute method that accepts Runnable instances, the Executor interface is incredibly straightforward. Your task-executing code should typically be dependent on this interface.

ExecutorService adds extra methods to the Executor interface for handling and monitoring the lifecycle of a concurrent task execution service (such as methods for terminating tasks in the event of shutdown) as well as methods for handling more advanced asynchronous tasks like Futures.

A Guide to Java ExecutorService is a good resource for more information on using Executor and ExecutorService.

10. In Java Concurrency, describe Exchanger.

It has to do with exchanging something, as the name would imply. When exchanging data between two threads, the exchanger is crucial. Exchanger streamlines the process of data sharing between threads. A synchronization point is a location that the exchanger makes available for these threads to pair up and swap elements.

11. Which Executorservice Implementations in the Standard Library Are Available?

Three standard implementations of the ExecutorService interface exist:

Tasks can be carried out using a pool of threads by using the ThreadPoolExecutor. A thread returns to the pool after it has completed the task. If every thread in the pool is occupied, the task must wait for its turn.

When a thread is available, the ScheduledThreadPoolExecutor enables scheduling task execution rather than immediately executing it. Tasks with a predetermined rate or fixed delay can also be scheduled.

ForkJoinPool is a unique ExecutorService designed to handle jobs involving recursive algorithms. Recursive algorithms need the usage of a standard ThreadPoolExecutor, and you will rapidly discover that all of your threads are occupied as you wait for the lower levels of recursion to complete.

The so-called work-stealing mechanism, which is implemented by the ForkJoinPool, enables it to employ available threads more effectively.

12. Explain Java concurrency's use of semaphore.

The Java.util concurrent package has a class called Semaphore. It functions essentially as a set of permissions maintained by a semaphore.

To obtain access to the shared resource, the thread utilizes the acquire() method to acquire permissions. While this is happening, the count value of the semaphore will be reduced by one and granted permission if it is not equal to 0. In the absence of a permit, the thread will be blocked. When finished utilizing the shared resources, the thread releases them using the release() method.

13. Java Memory Model (JMM): What Is It? Describe Its Goal and Fundamental Principles.

Chapter 17.4 of the Java language specification describes the Java Memory Model. It describes how several threads in a concurrent Java application access shared memory and how data changes performed by one thread are made available to other threads. JMM is brief and to the point, but without a solid mathematical foundation, it could be challenging to understand.

Because your Java code accesses data differently from what occurs at lower levels, a memory model is required. As long as the observable outcome of these reads and writes is the same, memory writes and reads may be reordered or optimized by the Java compiler, JIT compiler, or even CPU.

Because the majority of these optimizations are designed with a single thread of execution in mind, they can produce unexpected outcomes when your application is scaled to multiple threads (the cross-thread optimizers are still extremely hard to implement). The fact that current systems have tiered memory is another major issue. Since different processor cores may hold some non-flushed data in their caches or read/write buffers, this might have an impact on how the memory is perceived by other cores.

The fact that there are several memory access architectures would violate Java's promise of "write once, execute everywhere," which would make matters worse. It's good news for programmers that the JMM provides a few assurances you may rely on when creating multithreaded programs. Programmers can build multithreaded code that is reliable and portable across different architectures by adhering to these criteria.

14. Explain the Java Concurrency Reentrantlock.

In its simplest form, the ReentrantLock is just a class that implements the Lock interface. Methods receive synchronization when a thread makes use of shared resources. The ReentrantLock on a resource allows the thread to enter the lock more than once.

15. What Exactly Is a Volatile Field, and What Constraints Does the JMM Hold for One?

According to the Java Memory Model, a volatile field has specific characteristics. A volatile variable's reads and writes are synchronization operations, which means they have a complete ordering (all threads will observe a consistent order of these actions). It is guaranteed that a read of a volatile variable will reflect the order of the last write to the variable.

There is little assurance as to what a certain thread would read from a field that is accessed by numerous threads and has at least one thread writing to it, thus you should think about making it volatile.

The atomicity of writing and reading 64-bit values is another assurance of volatility (long and double). Without a volatile modifier, someone reading such a field might see a value that had been partially written by another thread.

16. Readwritelock in Java Concurrency: Describe.

Java multi-threading programs heavily rely on the Readwritelock. Multiple read and write operations can take place concurrently for a shared resource in multi-threading applications. It is typically utilized when there are two simultaneous writes or when "read and write" operations take place. There is a possibility of writing and reading the incorrect value in the read and write scenario. To increase performance, Readwritelock primarily locks either read or write operations.

17. What Particular Guarantees Does the Jmm Hold for the Final Fields of a Class?

In essence, JVM assures that the final fields of a class will be initialized before any thread grabs control of the object. Without this guarantee, reordering or other optimizations may cause a reference to an object to be published, or made visibly, to a different thread before all of its fields have been populated. Rogue access to these fields might result from this.

For this reason, even if a field cannot be accessed via getter methods, it should always be made final when building an immutable object.

18. Reentrantreadwritelock in Java Concurrency explained.

It is a ReadWriteLock interface class that gives us a read-write lock pair by implementing the interface. The readWrite.readLock.lock() and readWrite.writeLock.lock() methods are used, respectively, to obtain the read and write locks. A Reentrantreadwritelock instance is being used in this case for the readWrite. ReentrantReadWriteLock further permits a writing lock downgrade to a read lock.

19. Could One of These Threads Block If Two Threads Call a Synchronized Method on Different Object Instances at the Same Time? What Happens If the Process Is Static?

When a method is an instance method, the instance serves as a method monitor. No one gets stopped since two threads invoking the procedure on different instances obtain different monitors.

The class object is the monitor if the method is static. Since the monitor is the same for both threads, one of them will likely block and wait for the other to exit the synchronized procedure.

20. Concurrenthashmap in Java Concurrency explained.

Similar to the HashMap is the concurrenthashmap. The locking method employed by Concurrenthashmap is the only distinction between HashMap and it. Each method in the Concurrenthashmap is not synchronized to a single lock.

21. Describe the conditions of starvation, deadlock, and livelock. Give an explanation of the potential causes of these conditions.

Deadlock is a situation in which a group of threads is unable to advance because each thread must obtain a resource that has already been acquired by another thread in the group. The simplest scenario is when two threads need to lock both resources in order to move forward, but only one thread has already locked the first resource and the other thread has locked the second. These threads will never advance because they will never get a lock on either resource.

Multiple threads reacting to circumstances or events that they have independently created is known as livelock. A thread must process an event that occurs in that thread in another thread. A new event arises during this processing that must be handled by the first thread, and so on. Such threads are active and unblocked, but they are clogged with pointless work from one another, which prevents them from moving forward.

A thread can go into starvation if another thread (or threads) takes up too much of its resources or have a higher priority than it does. A thread is unable to advance and can thus not carry out useful tasks.

22. In Java Concurrency, describe Lock Striping.

With each lock locking on a different size group of independent objects, the Lock Striping idea is used to segregate locks for a section of a data structure.

23. Give an explanation of the Fork/Join Framework's goals and use cases.

Parallelizing recursive algorithms is possible with the fork/join framework. The biggest issue with parallelizing recursion is that you might quickly run out of threads because each recursive step would need its thread, while the threads up the stack would be idle and waiting.

The ForkJoinPool class, an ExecutorService implementation, serves as the entry point for the fork/join framework. In order to "steal" work from active threads, the work-stealing algorithm is implemented. This makes it possible to use fewer threads than would otherwise be necessary to complete the calculations by distributing them among several threads.

24. How does Java concurrency work with Copywritearraylist?

A class that carries out the List interface is called Copywritearraylist. List and Copywritearraylist are fundamentally different from one another in that Copywritearraylist is thread-safe whereas List is not. When the lint has undergone more iterations than mutations, it performs better.

25. Describe the distinctions between an ArrayList and a CopywriteArraylist in Java concurrency.

The ArrayList is not thread-safe and is not recommended for use in a multi-threaded environment, which is the main distinction between the two. Because the Copywritearraylist is thread-safe, it can be used in a multi-threaded context. Both ArrayList and CopyOnWriteArrayList return iterators that are fail-safe and fail-fast, respectively.

26. What is ConcurrentLinkedQueue in Java concurrency?

The unconstrained and thread-safe queue is called ConcurrentLinkedQueue. The elements are saved as linked nodes. It adheres to the FIFO principle (First In First Out).

27. Explain Java concurrency's ConcurrentLinkedDequeue.

The ConcurrentLinkedDequeue is an unbounded thread-safe deque, just as ConcurrentLinkedQueue. It utilizes the Deque interface, which makes insertion and deletion feasible from either end possible.

28. What do Java Concurrency blocking methods do?

Methods classified as blocking are those that carry out the allocated task without transferring control to the other threads.

29. Concurrency in Java: LinkedBlockingQueue explanation.

The LinkedBlockingQueue uses linked nodes internally for storage while drawing support from the BlockingQueue interface. The LinkedBlockingQueue is optionally bound, unlike the ArrayBlockingQueue.

30. Give a Java Concurrency PriorityBlockingQueue explanation.

The PriorityBlockingQueue uses the BlockingQueue interface's support and saves the elements in the same order in which they are ordinarily arranged. The comparator, which is offered at queue construction time, also determines the order of the items.