Java Tutorial Index

Java Tutorial Java Features C++ vs Java Java History Java Hello World Java Development Kit Java Runtime Environment Java Virtual Machine Difference between JDK, JRE, and JVM Memory Areas in Java Java Operators Java Keywords Primitive Data Types Variables

Java Loops

Java Do While Loop Java While Loop Java For Loop Java Enhanced For Loop

Java Programs

Java Basic Programs Factorial Program in Java Fibonacci Series Program in Java Prime Number Program in Java Palindrome Number Program in Java Armstrong Number Program in Java Anagram Program in Java Pattern Programs in Java Calculator Program in Java Leap Year Program in Java Addition Program in Java Number Pattern Programs in Java Star Pattern Programs in Java Package Program in Java Pyramid Program in Java Sorting Program in Java String Palindrome Program in Java Even Odd Program in Java For Loop Program in Java If Else Program in Java Switch Case Program in Java GCD Program in Java LCM Program in Java Hello Program in Java Matrix Program in Java Menu Driven Program in Java Series Program in Java Client Server Program in Java Swapping Program in Java Pig Latin Program in Java Tower of Hanoi Program in Java Recursion Program in Java Matrix Multiplication Program in Java Perfect Number Program in Java Classes and Objects in Java Example Programs String Programs in Java Array Programs in Java Constructor Program in Java Inheritance Program in Java Abstract class Program in Java Interface Program in Java Encapsulation Program in Java Polymorphism Program in Java Exception Handling Program in Java Multithreading Program in Java Thread Program in Java Collection Programs in Java ArrayList Program in Java Stack Program in Java Applet Program in Java Swing Program in Java JDBC Program in Java How to run Java program in command prompt How to run Java program in Eclipse Program to find and replace characters on string in java Program to find the duplicate characters in a string Program to check whether a given character is present in a string or not Java Program to Print Permutations of String Java program to find frequency of characters in a string Java Program to remove duplicate characters in a string

Java Sorting

Sorting Algorithms in Java Merge Sort in Java Quick Sort in Java Bubble Sort in Java Insertion Sort in Java Selection Sort in Java Heap Sort in Java Radix Sort in Java Topological Sort in Java Bucket Sort in Java Counting Sort in Java

Java OOPs Concepts

OOPs - Object Oriented Programming Objects and Classes in Java Methods in Java Java Naming Conventions Constructors in Java Java this keyword Java static keyword Inheritance in Java Aggregation in Java Java super keyword Constructor Chaining and Constructor Overloading Java Polymorphism Static and Dynamic Binding in Java Java Abstraction Abstract class in Java Interface in Java Difference between Abstract class and Interface Java final keyword Packages in Java Access Modifiers in Java Java Wrapper classes Java Numbers Java Characters Java Integer Java Boolean Java Arrays Java Command Line Arguments Java strictfp Keyword Java Math

Java Strings

Java Strings Java String Methods StringBuilder in Java StringBuffer in Java Java Regular Expressions StringBuffer vs StringBuilder String vs StringBuffer String vs StringBuilder String Manipulation in Java Java String Concatenation How to Reverse a String in Java String Array in Java How to Compare Two Strings in Java How to Concatenate Two Strings in Java Why String in Immutable in Java java.lang.NumberFormatException for Input String String Pool in Java Java Generate Random String How to take String Input in Java Java String Interview Questions

Java Exceptions

Exception Handling in Java Java try catch Java throw Java throws Difference between throw and throws Java finally Java Custom Exception Java Exception Propagation

Garbage Collection

Automatic Resource Management in Java Java Garbage Collection Java finalize() Java gc() Difference between final, finally and finalize

Multithreading

Multithreading in Java Process and Thread in Java Basic Terms in Multithreading Java Thread creation Thread Scheduler in Java Java Thread class DeadLock in Java

Java IO

Java IO Java Read File Java file Reader Java Buffer Reader Java file Writer Java BufferedWriter Java InputStreamReader Scanner in Java Java StringReader Java StringReader Class Java StringWriter Class Java PrintWriter Java File Java Read File Line By Line Java FileInputStream Java FileOutputStream Java Create File Java Delete File Java Open File Java Read File to String Java copy file Jar File in Java Java FileNotFoundException

Serialization

Java Serialization Java transient

Networking

Java Network Programming Java Socket Programming Java URL Java URLConnection HttpURLConnection in Java Java InetAddress Java DatagramSocket and Java DatagramPacket

AWT

Java AWT

Swing

Swing in Java

Java Collections

Collections in Java Java List Interface ArrayList in Java LinkedList in Java Vector in Java Stack in Java ArrayList vs LinkedList in Java ArrayList vs Vector in Java Java Set Interface HashSet in Java LinkedHashSet in Java TreeSet in Java Java Queue Interface PriorityQueue in Java Deque in Java ArrayDeque in Java Java Map Interface HashMap in Java LinkedHashMap in Java TreeMap in Java Dictionary in Java Hashtable in Java Properties in Java Collections class in Java Java Comparable Java Comparator Comparable vs Comparator in Java

Java Generics

Generics in Java

Java Annotations

Annotations in Java

Java JDBC

Java JDBC Tutorial JDBC Architecture Types of JDBC Drivers JDBC vs ODBC Java Database Connectivity with MySQL Java Database Connectivity with Oracle Statements in java Prepared statement in Java Resultset in java Java ResultSetMetaData DatabaseMetaData in Java Callable Statement in Java Transaction Management in Java Design of JDBC

Java Differences

Java vs DotNET Java vs JavaScript Python vs Java Kotlin vs Java Java vs C++ C# vs Java Java float vs double Java vs Scala Java vs Go Java vs Golang Java Extends vs Implements Java vs Node.js Static vs Non-static in Java C vs Java int vs Integer in Java Java protected vs private Java vs Dot Net Stack vs Heap in Java Java Array vs ArrayList Java SE vs EE Class vs Object in Java Java vs Bedrock Difference between = = and equals ( ) in java Difference between C, C++, java HashMap Vs HashTable Checked vs Unchecked Exceptions in Java Difference between print() and println() in Java Differences between Lock and Monitor in Java Concurrency Differences between Set and List in Java How to calculate time difference in Java Char and String differences in Java Difference between String, StringBuffer and StringBuilder in java Difference between String and Char Array in Java Differences between Byte Code and Machine Code Difference between String Tokenizer and split Method in Java Difference between JIT and JVM in Java Difference Between Data Hiding and Abstraction in Java Difference between String Tokenizer and Split Method in Java Difference Between BufferedReader and FileReader Difference Between Thread.start() and Thread.run()

How to

How to convert String to String array in Java How to find length of integer in Java How to get Day Name from Date in Java How to open the Java control panel How to resolve Illegal state exceptions in Java How to reverse a linked list in java How to encrypt password in Java How to calculate time complexity of any program in Java How to check version of java in Linux How to enable java in chrome How to run Java program How to set path in Java How to check the Java version in cmd How to install Java in Windows 10 How to run Java program in cmd How to add double quotes in a string in Java How to convert list to String in Java How to call a method in Java How to Set Environment Variables for Java How to sort an array in Java How to Create Immutable Classes in Java How to iterate HashMap in Java How to write Java program How to create an array in Java How to create a package in Java How to generate random numbers in Java How to input String in Java How to Create Singleton Class in Java How to create thread in Java How to find length of String in Java How to sort a string in Java How to use scanner in Java How to achieve multiple inheritance in Java How to find the length of an Array in Java How to Read Java JSON file How to run Java program in Eclipse How to call a function in Java How to create array of objects in Java How to create custom exception in Java How to import packages in Java How to run applet Program in Java How to take Array Input in Java How to achieve abstraction in Java How to call static method in Java How to compare characters in Java How to compare dates in Java How to create a linked list in Java How to download Eclipse for Java How to get ASCII value of char in Java How to get the current date and time in Java How to handle NullPointerException in Java How to initialize string array in Java How to Install Java on MAC How to run java program in ubuntu How to find characters with the maximum number of times in a string java How to Set Java_home in Linux How to Split the String in Java with Delimiter How to take Multiple String Input in Java using Scanner class How to uninstall the Java in Ubuntu How to Update Java How to add Elements in Array in Java How to avoid deadlock in java How to Split String by Comma in Java How to remove special characters from String in Java How to remove last character from String in Java How to Read XML Files in Java How to download and install Eclipse in Windows How to Create an API in Java How to Round Double Float up to Two Decimal Places in Java How to create a mirror image of a 2D array in Java How to set timer in Java

Java 8 Features

Java 8 Features Lambda Expressions in Java Functional Interface in Java Streams in Java Java Base64 Encoding and Decoding Type Annotations in Java Java Stringjoiner Class Parallel Arrays Sort in Java Bifunction in java 8 Java 8 filters list Java 8 Consumer Interface in Java

Java 9 Features

Java 9 Tutorial Java 9 Try With Resources Java 9 Interface Private Method

Java 12

What’s new in Java 12

Java 13

Java 13 New Features

Java 14

New Features of Java 14

Java 15

What’s New in Java 15

Java 16

Java 16

Java 17

What is new in Java 17

Java Servlet Tutorial

Java Servlets Tutorial

Java JSP Tutorial

Java JSP Tutorial

Hiberate Tutorial

Hibernate Tutorial

Spring Tutorial

Spring Tutorial

Spring MVC Tutorial

Spring MVC Tutorial

Jenkins Tutorial

Jenkins Tutorial Jenkins java net socket connection time out

Java Math Methods

Math.abs() Math.acos() Math.addExact() Math.asin() Math.atan () Math.atan2() Math.cbrt() Math.ceil() Math.copysign() Math.cos() Math.cosh() Math.decrementExact() Math.exp() Math.expm1() Math.floor() Math.floorDiv() Math.floorMod() Math.fma() Math.getExponent() Math.hypot() Math.IEEEremainder() Math.incrementExact() Math.log() Math.log10() Math.log1p() Math.max() Math.min() Math.multiplyExact() Math.multiplyFull() Math.negateExact() Math.nextAfter() Math.nextDown() Math.nextUp() Math.pow() Math.random() Math.rint() Math.round() Math.scalb() Math.signum() Math.sin() Math.sinh() Math.sqrt() Math.subtractExact() Math.tan() Math.tanh() Math.toDegrees() Math.toIntExact() Math.toRadians() Math.ulp()

Java String Methods

toCharArray() copyValueOf() endsWith() equals() equalsIgnoreCase() format() getBytes() getChars() hashCode() indexOf() intern() isEmpty() join() lastIndexOf() length() replace() replaceAll() replaceFirst() split() startsWith() subSequence() substring() toLowerCase() toUpperCase() trim() valueOf()

Java Conversion

Java Convert String to int Java Convert int to String Java Convert String to long Java Convert long to String Java Convert String to float Java Convert float to String Java Convert String to double Java Convert double to String Java Convert String to Date Java Convert Date to String Java Convert String to Object Java Convert Object to String Java Convert String to char Java Convert char to String Java Convert int to long Java Convert long to int

Misc

List all files in a Directory in Java Nonagonal number in Java Null Pointer Exception in Java Package naming convention in Java Packages Program in java Pangram Program in Java PriorityBlockingQueue Class in Java Race Condition in Java Repdigit Numbers in Java Reserved Keywords in Java Rotate matrix by 90 degrees in Java Segment Tree in Java Sierpinski Number in Java Sort Dates in Java Thread Safety and How to Achieve it in Java Normal and Trace of a Matrix in Java Transient variable in Java Tribonacci series in Java Web Crawler in Java Zigzag Traversal of Binary Tree in Java Java Full Stack Java IO filenotfoundexception Java Output Formatting Java Plot Java Pop Java program to print matrix in Z form Java Set to List Java Switch string Java Thread Lifecycle: States and Stages Java Viva Questions and Answers Lazy Propagation in Segment Tree in Java Level order Traversal of a Binary Tree in Java Method chaining in Java Narcissistic Number in Java Java Case Keyword Java Try-Catch Block Java Class KeywordJava concurrency interview questions Java Continue Keyword Java CountDownLatch Java Default Keyword Java Double Keyword Java Editors Java Else Keyword Java Enum Keyword Java Extends keywordJava Finally Keyword Java Font Example of Static import in Java How Many Ways to Create Objects in Java Implementing Queue Using Array in Java Instanceof operator in Java Interchange Diagonal elements in Java Java Arrays Fill Java Char Keyword Convert list to array Java Convert milliseconds to date in Java Copy data/content from one file to another in java CRC Program in Java Creating a Jar file in Java Crown Pattern in Java Difference Between Access Specifiers and Modifiers in Java Difference Between Java and PHP Difference Between replace() and replaceall() in Java Duodecimal in Java Finding middle node of a linked list in Java Group by in Java 8 Hollow Diamond Pattern in Java How annotations work in Java Java Boyer Moore Catalan number in Java Cosmic Superclass in Java Difference between this and super in Java Fall through in Java Figurate Number in Java Java Anon Proxy Java RMI Lazy loading in Java Magnanimous Number in java Shallow copy in Java String to JSON in Java Tetranacci Number in Java Vigesimal in Java Why main method is static in Java Add Time in Java Bellman Ford Algorithm in Java Best Java Libraries Blockchain in Java Blocking Queue in Java Example Bully Algorithm code in Java Contextual keywords in Java Convert JSON File to String in Java Determine the Upper Bound of a Two-Dimensional Array in Java Java.net.ConnectionException Java.net.SocketException Web Service Response Time Calculation in Java Functional Interfaces in Java Singleton class in Java Awesome explanation of Strings in Java Object class in Java Static class in Java All the important string methods in Java String Handling Method in Java What are Array strings in Java Advantages and Disadvantages of Strings in Java Big Decimal class in Java Class definition in Java Replace character in string Java String Coding Interview Questions in Java What is String in Java? String isnullorempty in Java String Matches in Java Trim Method in String Java Bean class in Java Libraries in Java Arithmetic Operations on String in Java Convert Char array to string in java Check whether Java is installed or not How to stop execution after a certain time in Java Jagged Array in Java Java ArraylistRemove() Time Complexity Java Swing Time Picker Zigzag Array in Java Array and String based questions in Java Array and String with Examples in Java Best Practices to use String Class in Java What is string in Java why it's immutable Java String Java String Inbuilt functions Java String Matches vs Contains Sum of digits in string in java Check the presence of Substring in a String in java Java import packages Interfaces and Classes in Strings in Java Maximum length of string in java Hidden classes in Java Class memory in Java public static void main string args meaning in java Reverse a String in Java String Concatenation in Java Buffer reader to read string in Java Split String into String Array in Java Reverse a String using Collections in Java Upcasting and Downcasting in Java String Declaration in Java Method Overloading In Java Java Solid Principles Java Architecture Binary Search Java Star Program in Java Java Type Casting Java Pass-by-Reference Java Framework List Java Destructors Java Control Statements Java Byte Code Java Beans Java Identifiers Character Array in Java Java Applications Java Substring Java Session Non-primitive data types in Java Matrix Multiplication in Java JIT in Java Java Tokens Java Externalization Default Virtual Behaviour in C++ vs Java Why we use static in Java Session Tracking in Java Knapsack problem in Java Java Logo Java exception list Java Iterator Java instance variable Frugal number in Java Fork Join in Java Date time API in java Compile time vs Runtime in java Compare time in java AES 256 Encryption in Java Advanced Java skills What is advance Java? 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Advanced Java Viva Questions Application of Array in Java Economical number in Java Iterate JSON array in Java Java callable example Java Command not found Java Date add Days Java File Extension Java Location Java Trim User Defined Custom Exceptions in Java Java array list remove time complexity Java.lang.Exception.NoRunnableMethods Java Map Example Java Obfuscator Java Pi Java Queue Java time local date Java Xmx Uses of Java Applet Life Cycle in Java Best Java Security Framework BigDecimal toString() in Java Jdoodle Java Literals in Java MVC in Java Powerful Number in Java Read the XLSX file in Java Relatively Prime in Java Root exception in java What is anagram in Java? 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ConcurrentSkipListSet in Java

ConcurrentSkipListSet is a class that is a part of collection framework in Java.It has been available since Java version 1.6.

ConcurrentSkipListSet  is a scalable concurrent NavigableSet implementation based on a ConcurrentSkipListMap.The elements of the set are kept sorted according to their natural ordering, or by a Comparator provided at set creation time, depending on which constructor are used.

It provides a scalable and concurrent version of NavigableSet in Java.The ConcurrentSkipListSet  is an asynchronous set.

The ConcurrentSkipListSet working is similar to NavigableSet.

Most of the methods used in ConcurrentSkipListSet  have same methods as in Navigable Set.

Reason

The ConcurrentSkipListSet  Implements Navigable Set Interface.
So, the ConcurrentSkipListSet  contains all the properties of Navigable Set Interface.

The methods used in ConcurrentSkipListSet  takes O(log n) in average case time complexity.These operations are executed safely and concurrently using multiple threads.

The name ConcurrentSkipListSet  is assigned because the different methods execution is done concurrently.

Here object data type refers to Wrapper Class names to

  • String
  • Integer
  • Float
  • Byte

Different Methods used in ConcurrentSkipListSet

Method NamePurpose
add(value)add is used to add elements to the created ConcurrentSkipListSet
contains(value)contains is used to check whether the prescribed element inside the parameter is present or not
first()first method prints the first value of the created ConcurrentSkipListSet
last()last method prints the last value of the created ConcurrentSkipListSet
remove(value)remove method used to remove the prescribed value from the created ConcurrentSkipListSet If the prescribed element is not present, then an error and false is returned If present true is returned
pollFirst()pollFirst method is used to remove the first element of the created ConcurrentSkipListSet
pollLast()pollFirst method is used to remove the last element of the created ConcurrentSkipListSet
size()size method is used to return the size of created ConcurrentSkipListSet.

Creation of ConcurrentSkipListSet

Syntax

ConcurrentSkipListSet<data type of to be created object>Object Name=
ConcurrentSkipListSet<data type of to be created object>();

Java Program Rules

  • The name of the program must same as the name of class with main method.
  • All class, interface names must start with capital Letter.
  • Every statement ends with a semi colon(;).

Example Program

File Name: ConCreate.java

// A program for ConcurrentSkipListSet creation
import java.util.*;
import java.util.concurrent.ConcurrentSkipListSet;
  
class ConCreate{
    public static void main(String[] args)
    {
  


        ConcurrentSkipListSet< String >con=new ConcurrentSkipListSet<String>();
        System.out.println("ConcurrentSkipListSet is created: ");
        System.out.println(“ConcurrentSkipListSet is empty now: " + con);   
        
  
       
    }
}

Output:

ConcurrentSkipListSet is created: 
ConcurrentSkipListSet is empty now: [ ]

add() Method

As the name suggests the add() method is used.This method helps us to insert the certain data type element into the created ConcurrentSkipListSet.

Syntax

Set object name.add(element to be added);

Let us explain this above method using an example program

Example Program

File Name: ConAdd.java

// A program for adding elements into the ConcurrentSkipListSet 
import java.util.*;
import java.util.concurrent.ConcurrentSkipListSet;
  
class ConAdd 
{
    public static void main(String[ ] args)
    {
  


        ConcurrentSkipListSet<  String > con = new ConcurrentSkipListSet<  String >();
        System.out.println(“ConcurrentSkipListSet is created: ");
        System.out.println(“ConcurrentSkipListSet is empty now: " + con);




  
        con.add("Joe Root");
        con.add("James Anderson");
        con.add("Rahul Dravid");
        con.add("Kumara Sangakkara");
        con.add("Cheteshwar Pujara");
  
        System.out.println(“ConcurrentSkipListSet: " + con);
  
       
    }
}

Output

ConcurrentSkipListSet is created: 
ConcurrentSkipListSet is empty now: [ ]
ConcurrentSkipListSet: [Cheteshwar Pujara, James Anderson, Joe Root, Kumara Sangakkara, Rahul Dravid]

Iteration

The elements in ConcurrentSkipListSet are usually stored in square brackets([ ]).    

Iteration is the process of getting all the elements in a sequential manner.

There might be a case where there are huge numbers of elements stored in the ConcurrentSkipListSet. In this case we use iteration for finding the required element from the all set of elements.

This iteration method prevents manual searching of certain element from the created ConcurrentSkipListSet.

The majority of concurrent Collection implementations(including the majority of Queues) deviate from standard java.util practices in that their Iterators and Spliterators offer weakly consistent traversal rather than fast-fail traversal:

  • They could go on while other operations are ongoing.
  • They will never throw ConcurrentModificationException
  • They are guaranteed to traverse each element exactly once as it was at the time of construction, and they may or may not reflect changes made afterward.

The iteration of Ascending order lists are faster than the descending order.

Reason

The reason for the above statement is that all ConcurrentSkipListSet are always sorted.
So, all the elements are stored in ascending order.
Because, the iteration is done straight from the beginning
In case of descending order lists the iterator has to move to the end and then perform iteration in reverse order.

The iteration can be done using:

  • for each loop
  • iterator

for each loop

It is special kind of loop used in Java. This loop does not require loop steps like initialization, condition, and updation.

This loop requires a loop variable and collection framework name.

Syntax

for(data type variable name : Collection Framework Name);
Example
for(int i  : vector)
{
// block of statements
}

Example program

File Name: ConFor.java

// A program for iterating elements of ConcurrentSkipListSet  using for each loop
import java.util.*;
import java.util.concurrent.ConcurrentSkipListSet;
  
class ConFor 
{
    public static void main(String[ ] args)
    {
  


        ConcurrentSkipListSet<  Integer > con = new ConcurrentSkipListSet<  Integer >();
        System.out.println(“ConcurrentSkipListSet is created now ");
        System.out.println(“ConcurrentSkipListSet is empty now: " + con);




  
        con.add(256000);
        con.add(53410);
        con.add(457820);
        con.add(000004);
        con.add(50104);
        con.add(304884);




  
        System.out.println(“ConcurrentSkipListSet: " + con);
        
        System.out.println(“Iteration using for each loop");
        
        for(int i : con)
        {
            System.out.println(“The ConcurrentSkipListSet  element is: "+i);
        }
        
  
       
    }
}

Output

ConcurrentSkipListSet is created now  
ConcurrentSkipListSet is empty now: [ ]
ConcurrentSkipListSet: [4, 50104, 53410, 256000, 304884, 457820]
Iteration using for each loop
The ConcurrentSkipListSet  element is: 4
The ConcurrentSkipListSet  element is: 50104
The ConcurrentSkipListSet  element is: 53410
The ConcurrentSkipListSet  element is: 256000
The ConcurrentSkipListSet  element is: 304884
The ConcurrentSkipListSet  element is: 457820

Iterator

The Iterator is an in-built method that is used as a substitute to for each loop. This iteration concept is always used for collection frameworks. This Iterator concept is always better for these types of heavy collection framework concepts. The Iterator is a class which is present in the java.util package. Iterator is a method present in the Iterator class.

Iteration Syntax

Iterator<data type of to be created object>Iterator object name = 
Collection Framework Object Name.iterator();

Example Program

File Name: ConIt.java

// A program for iterating elements of ConcurrentSkipListSet  using basic iterator concept
import java.util.*;
import java.util.concurrent.ConcurrentSkipListSet;
  
class ConIt
{
    public static void main(String[ ] args)
    {
  


        ConcurrentSkipListSet<  Integer > con = new ConcurrentSkipListSet<  Integer >();
        System.out.println(“ConcurrentSkipListSet is created now  ");
        System.out.println(“ConcurrentSkipListSet is empty now: " + con);




  
        con.add(256000);
        con.add(53410);
        con.add(457820);
        con.add(000004);
        con.add(50104);
        con.add(304884);




  
        System.out.println(“ConcurrentSkipListSet: " + con);
        
        System.out.println(“Iteration using for iterator");
        
        Iterator < Integer > Itrn = con.iterator();
        
        while(Itrn.hasNext())
        {
            System.out.println(“The ConcurrentSkipListSet  Elements are: "+Itrn.next());
        }
        
        
        
  
       
    }
}

Output

ConcurrentSkipListSet is created now  
ConcurrentSkipListSet is empty now: [ ]
ConcurrentSkipListSet: [4, 50104, 53410, 256000, 304884, 457820]
Iteration using for iterator
The ConcurrentSkipListSet  Elements are: 4
The ConcurrentSkipListSet  Elements are: 50104
The ConcurrentSkipListSet  Elements are: 53410
The ConcurrentSkipListSet  Elements are: 256000
The ConcurrentSkipListSet  Elements are: 304884
The ConcurrentSkipListSet  Elements are: 457820

Reverse Order

The iteration done in the above process is in straight form. We also have the opportunity to iterate the elements of ConcurrentSkipListSet in reverse order too. But this process requires much time than the normal iteration.

Descending Iterator

The method which is used for iterating the elements in reverse manner or way is known as Descending Iterator. This descending Iterator is also the part of Iterator class.

Syntax

ConcurrentSkipListSet< The data type of prescribed object>Reverse order object name =
Collection Framework Object Name. descendingIterator();

Example Program

File Name: ConDesc.java

// A program for iterating elements of ConcurrentSkipListSet  using basic descending iterator concept
// The iteration is done in reverse order 
import java.util.*;
import java.util.concurrent.ConcurrentSkipListSet;
  
class ConDesc
{
    public static void main(String[ ] args)
    {
  


        ConcurrentSkipListSet<  Integer > con = new ConcurrentSkipListSet<  Integer >();
        System.out.println(“ConcurrentSkipListSet is created now  ");
        System.out.println(“ConcurrentSkipListSet is empty now: " + con);




  
        con.add(256000);
        con.add(53410);
        con.add(457820);
        con.add(000004);
        con.add(50104);
        con.add(304884);




  
        System.out.println(“The ConcurrentSkipListSet: " + con);
        
        System.out.println(“Iteration using for descending iterator");
        
      
         Iterator < Integer > Itrn = con.descendingIterator();
        
        while(Itrn.hasNext())
        {
            System.out.println(“The ConcurrentSkipListSet  Elements in reverse order are: "              	+Itrn.next());
        }
}


}

Output

ConcurrentSkipListSet is created now  
ConcurrentSkipListSet is empty now: [ ]
The ConcurrentSkipListSet: [4, 50104, 53410, 256000, 304884, 457820]
Iteration using for descending iterator
The ConcurrentSkipListSet  Elements in reverse order are: 457820
The ConcurrentSkipListSet  Elements in reverse order are: 304884
The ConcurrentSkipListSet  Elements in reverse order are: 256000
The ConcurrentSkipListSet  Elements in reverse order are: 53410
The ConcurrentSkipListSet  Elements in reverse order are: 50104
The ConcurrentSkipListSet  Elements in reverse order are: 4

Descending Set

This is also the other to get the ConcurrentSkipListSet  elements in reverse order.The descendingSet is method of ConcurrentSkipListSet class.

The unique property of Descending Set is that the descendingSet returns NavigableSet collection framework values.

Syntax

NavigableSet<The data type of prescribed object>object name = 
Collection Framework object name.descendingSet(); 

Example Program

File Name: ConDesc2.java

// A program for ConcurrentSkipListSet  using  descending Set concept
// The process creates a new Descending Set 
import java.util.*;
import java.util.concurrent.ConcurrentSkipListSet;
  
class ConDesc2
{
    public static void main(String[ ] args)
    {
  


        ConcurrentSkipListSet<  Integer > con = new ConcurrentSkipListSet<  Integer >();
        System.out.println(“ConcurrentSkipListSet is created now  ");
        System.out.println(“ConcurrentSkipListSet is empty now: " + con);




  
        con.add(256000);
        con.add(53410);
        con.add(457820);
        con.add(000004);
        con.add(50104);
        con.add(304884);




  
        System.out.println(“The ConcurrentSkipListSet: " + con);
        
        System.out.println(“Creation of new Descending Set which has the properties of    	Naivgable Set");
        
        NavigableSet < Integer > NavSet = con.descendingSet();
        
        System.out.println(“The Descending Set of ConcurrentSkipListSet is : " + NavSet);


}


}

Output

ConcurrentSkipListSet is created now  
ConcurrentSkipListSet is empty now: [ ]
The ConcurrentSkipListSet: [4, 50104, 53410, 256000, 304884, 457820]
Creation of new Descending Set which has the properties of Navigable Set
The Descending Set of ConcurrentSkipListSet is: [457820, 304884, 256000, 53410, 50104, 4]

With the help of this created we can perform all the methods of Navigable Set.Let us understand with the help of an example.

Example Program

File Name: ConSet.java

// Explaining the properties of created Descending Set
import java.util.*;
import java.util.concurrent.ConcurrentSkipListSet;
  
class ConSet
{
    public static void main(String[ ] args)
    {
  


        ConcurrentSkipListSet<  Integer > con = new ConcurrentSkipListSet<  Integer >();
        System.out.println(“ConcurrentSkipListSet is created now  ");
        System.out.println(“ConcurrentSkipListSet is empty now: " + con);




  
        con.add(256000);
        con.add(53410);
        con.add(457820);
        con.add(000004);
        con.add(50104);
        con.add(304884);




  
        System.out.println(“The ConcurrentSkipListSet: " + con);
        
        System.out.println(“Creation of new Descending Set which has the properties of 	Navigable Set");
        
        NavigableSet  < Integer > NavSet = con.descendingSet();
    
        
        System.out.println(“The Descending Set of ConcurrentSkipListSet is : " + NavSet);
        System.out.println(" _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 	_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _  \n");
        NavSet.add(183);
        
        NavSet.add(69);
        System.out.println(“ The Created descending Set after adding the elements 	is:"+NavSet);
        
        NavSet.remove(304884);
        
        System.out.println(“ The Created descending Set after removing the elements 	is:"+NavSet);
        
        System.out.println(“ The Created descending Set size is: "+NavSet.size());




}


}

Output:

ConcurrentSkipListSet is created now  
ConcurrentSkipListSet is empty now: [ ]
The ConcurrentSkipListSet: [4, 50104, 53410, 256000, 304884, 457820]
Creation of new Descending set which has the properties of Navigable Set
The Descending Set of ConcurrentSkipListSet is: [457820, 304884, 256000, 53410, 50104, 4]
 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _  


 The Created descending Set after adding the elements is:[457820, 304884, 256000, 53410, 50104, 183, 69, 4]
 The Created descending Set after removing the elements is:[457820, 256000, 53410, 50104, 183, 69, 4]
 The Created descending Set size is: 7

Deletion of Elements

The process of removing the elements of ConcurrentSkipListSet  by using in built methods is known as deletion of elements.The in built methods used are:

  • remove() method
  • pollFirst() method
  • pollLast() method

remove() method

This is an in built method of java.util package. This method is used for removing the certain elements from the created ConcurrentSkipListSet.

Syntax

ConcurrentSkipListSet  object name.remove(element to be removed);

Note:

If the element prescribed is not present, then we are not going to face error in Java JDK compiler.

Example Program

File Name: ConRem.java

/* A program for removal of certain element from ConcurrentSkipListSet  using remove() method */
import java.util.*;
import java.util.concurrent.ConcurrentSkipListSet;
  
class ConRem
{
    public static void main(String[ ] args)
    {
  


        ConcurrentSkipListSet<  Character > con = new ConcurrentSkipListSet<  Character >();
        System.out.println(“ConcurrentSkipListSet is created now  ");
        System.out.println(“ConcurrentSkipListSet is empty now: " + con);




  
       con.add('x');
        con.add('5');
        con.add('.');
        con.add('p');
        con.add('&');
        con.add('/');




  
        System.out.println(“The ConcurrentSkipListSet before removal: " + con);
        con.remove('/');
        System.out.println(“The ConcurrentSkipListSet after removal: " + con);


}
}

Output:

ConcurrentSkipListSet is created now  
ConcurrentSkipListSet is empty now: [ ]
The ConcurrentSkipListSet before removal: [&, ., /, 5, p, x]
The ConcurrentSkipListSet before removal: [&, ., 5, p, x]

Note point Program

File Name: ConRem.java

// A program for removal of certain element from ConcurrentSkipListSet  using remove() method
import java.util.*;
import java.util.concurrent.ConcurrentSkipListSet;
  
class ConRem
{
    public static void main(String[ ] args)
    {
  


        ConcurrentSkipListSet<  Character > con = new ConcurrentSkipListSet<  Character >();
        System.out.println(“ConcurrentSkipListSet is created now  ");
        System.out.println(“ConcurrentSkipListSet is empty now: " + con);




  
       con.add('x');
        con.add('5');
        con.add('.');
        con.add('p');
        con.add('&');
        con.add('/');




  
        System.out.println(“The ConcurrentSkipListSet before removal: " + con);
        System.out.println(“ The Character ^ is not present in the ConcurrentSkipListSet  ");
        con.remove('^');
        System.out.println(“The ConcurrentSkipListSet after removal: " + con);


}
}

Output

ConcurrentSkipListSet is created now
ConcurrentSkipListSet is empty now: [ ]
The ConcurrentSkipListSet before removal: [&, ., /, 5, p, x]
The Character ^ is not present in the ConcurrentSkipListSet 
The ConcurrentSkipListSet after removal: [&, ., /, 5, p, x]

This output is based on Java JDK Compiler.The result may be different for other kind of compilers.

pollFirst() and pollLast() methods

They are also the in built methods.They are also used to remove the elements.

pollFirst() is used to remove the first element of the set or else returns null if the ConcurrentSkipListSet  is empty.

pollLast() is used to remove the first element of the set or else returns null if the ConcurrentSkipListSet  is empty.

Syntax

ConcurrentSkipListSet  object name.pollFirst();
ConcurrentSkipListSet  object name.pollLast();

Example Program

File Name: ConPoll.java

/* A program for removal of first or last elements from ConcurrentSkipListSet  using some in built methods method */
import java.util.*;
import java.util.concurrent.ConcurrentSkipListSet;
  
class ConPoll
{
    public static void main(String[ ] args)
    {
  


        ConcurrentSkipListSet<  Character > con = new ConcurrentSkipListSet<  Character >();
        System.out.println(“ConcurrentSkipListSet is created now  ");
        System.out.println(“ConcurrentSkipListSet is empty now: " + con);




  
        con.add('x');
        con.add('5');
        con.add('.');
        con.add('p');
        con.add('&');
        con.add('0');
        con.add('1');
        con.add('h');
        con.add('k');






  
        System.out.println(“The ConcurrentSkipListSet before removal: " + con);
        con.pollFirst();
        System.out.println(“The ConcurrentSkipListSet after removal: " + con);
        con.pollLast();
        System.out.println(“The ConcurrentSkipListSet after removal: " + con);
        System.out.println(“The value of first element in ConcurrentSkipListSet which is to be    	removed is : " + con.pollFirst());
        System.out.println(“The value of last element in ConcurrentSkipListSet which is to be 	removed is : " + con.pollLast());




        
        System.out.println(“The ConcurrentSkipListSet after removal: " + con);


}
}

Output

ConcurrentSkipListSet is created now  
ConcurrentSkipListSet is empty now: [ ]
The ConcurrentSkipListSet before removal: [&, ., 0, 1, 5, h, k, p, x]
The ConcurrentSkipListSet after removal: [., 0, 1, 5, h, k, p, x]
The ConcurrentSkipListSet after removal: [., 0, 1, 5, h, k, p]
The value of first element in ConcurrentSkipListSet which is to be removed is : .
The value of last element in ConcurrentSkipListSet which is to be removed is : p
The ConcurrentSkipListSet after removal: [0, 1, 5, h, k]

contains() Method

This is also one of the in-built method used for the ConcurrentSkipListSet.This method is used to get the result of the specified element present in the created ConcurrentSkipListSet.

Syntax

ConcurrentSkipListSet  object name.contains(element to be searched);

Example Program

File Name: ConCon.java

// A program to whether a certain element is present or not using contains() method
import java.util.*;
import java.util.concurrent.ConcurrentSkipListSet;
  
class ConCon
{
    public static void main(String[ ] args)
    {
  


        ConcurrentSkipListSet<  Character > con = new ConcurrentSkipListSet<  Character >();
        System.out.println(“ConcurrentSkipListSet is created now  ");
        System.out.println(“ConcurrentSkipListSet is empty now: " + con);




  
        con.add('x');
        con.add('5');
        con.add('.');
        con.add('p');
        con.add('&');
        con.add('/');




  
        System.out.println(“The element ' 5 ' is present is " + con.contains('5'));
        System.out.println(“The element ' | ' is present is " + con.contains('|'));
        
        
}
}

Output

ConcurrentSkipListSet is created now  
ConcurrentSkipListSet is empty now: [ ]
The element ' 5 ' is present is true
The element ' | ' is present is false

size() Method

This is also one of the in-built method present in the ConcurrentSkipListSet.This method is used to know the size of the created ConcurrentSkipListSet.

Syntax

ConcurrentSkipListSet  object name.size();

Example Program

File Name: ConSize.java

// A program to know the size of the created ConcurrentSkipListSet 
import java.util.*;
import java.util.concurrent.ConcurrentSkipListSet;
  
class ConSize
{
    public static void main(String[ ] args)
    {
  


        ConcurrentSkipListSet<  Character > con = new ConcurrentSkipListSet<  Character >();
        System.out.println(“ConcurrentSkipListSet is created now  ");
        System.out.println(“The size of ConcurrentSkipListSet  is : " + con.size());






  
        con.add('x');
        con.add('5');
        con.add('"');
        System.out.println(“The size of ConcurrentSkipListSet  is : " + con.size());
        System.out.println(“The ConcurrentSkipListSet is : " + con);


        con.add('p');
        con.add('&');
        con.add('/');




  
        System.out.println(“The size of ConcurrentSkipListSet  is : " + con.size());
        System.out.println(“The ConcurrentSkipListSet is : " + con);


        
        
}
}

Output

ConcurrentSkipListSet is created now  
The size of ConcurrentSkipListSet  is: 0
The size of ConcurrentSkipListSet  is: 3
The ConcurrentSkipListSet is: [", 5, x]
The size of ConcurrentSkipListSet  is: 6
The ConcurrentSkipListSet is: [", &, /, 5, p, x]

Some other in built methods used for ConcurrentSkipListSet  are

isEmpty() and clear Method

The isEmpty() method is used to find whether the created ConcurrentSkipListSet  is empty or not.If empty the method return True and other cases returns False.

The clear() method is used to remove all the elements present in the created ConcurrentSkipListSet.

Example Program

File Name: ConMet.java

// A program to know usage of methods isEmpty and clear
import java.util.*;
import java.util.concurrent.ConcurrentSkipListSet;
  
class ConMet
{
    public static void main(String[ ] args)
    {
  


        ConcurrentSkipListSet<  Character > con = new ConcurrentSkipListSet<  Character >();
        System.out.println(“ConcurrentSkipListSet is created now  ");
        System.out.println(“The  ConcurrentSkipListSet  is empty : " + con.isEmpty());






  
        con.add('x');
        con.add('5');
        con.add(' " ');
        System.out.println(“The  ConcurrentSkipListSet  is empty : " + con.isEmpty());


        con.add('p');
        con.add('&');
        con.add('/');




  
        System.out.println(“The size of ConcurrentSkipListSet  is : " + con.size());
        System.out.println(“The ConcurrentSkipListSet is : " + con);
        
        con.clear();
        System.out.println(“The  ConcurrentSkipListSet  is empty : " + con.isEmpty());
        System.out.println(“The size of ConcurrentSkipListSet  is : " + con.size());
        System.out.println(“The ConcurrentSkipListSet is : " + con);


        
        
}
}

Output

ConcurrentSkipListSet is created now  
The ConcurrentSkipListSet  is empty: true
The ConcurrentSkipListSet  is empty: false
The size of ConcurrentSkipListSet  is: 6
The ConcurrentSkipListSet is:  [", &, /, 5, p, x]
The ConcurrentSkipListSet  is empty: true
The size of ConcurrentSkipListSet  is: 0
The ConcurrentSkipListSet is: [ ]

Creation of Subsets in ConcurrentSkipListSet

There are three types of Subsets which can be created using the created ConcurrentSkipListSet. All these Sub Sets are brought into the ConcurrentSkipListSet  from the Navigable Set Interface. So, all the sub sets created have the properties of Navigable Set.

The three different Sub Sets are

  • headSet()
  • tailSet()
  • subSet()

headSet()

This is one of the types of subset of ConcurrentSkipListSet. Head Set creates a new set which has values less than the prescribed element. If the Boolean expression is true then the specified element e will be present in the created Head Set.

Syntax

NavigableSet < data type of created object > object name = 
ConcurrentSkipListSet  Name.headSet(element e, Boolean value);

Example Program

File Name: ConHead.java

// A program to create a Head Set.
import java.util.*;
import java.util.concurrent.ConcurrentSkipListSet;
  
class ConHead
{
    public static void main(String[ ] args)
    {
  


        ConcurrentSkipListSet<  Integer > con = new ConcurrentSkipListSet<  Integer >();
        System.out.println(“ConcurrentSkipListSet is created now  ");
        System.out.println(“The  ConcurrentSkipListSet  is empty : " + con);
        con.add(21);
        con.add(22);
        con.add(23);
        con.add(24);
        con.add(25);
        con.add(26);
        con.add(27);
        con.add(28);
        con.add(29);
        con.add(30);
        System.out.println(“The created ConcurrentSkipListSet  is: " +con);
        
        NavigableSet < Integer > head1 = con.headSet(23,false);
        System.out.println(“The created Head Set 1  is: " +head1);
        
         NavigableSet < Integer > head2 =con.headSet(26,true);
        System.out.println(“The created Head Set 2  is: " +head2);
        
}
}

Output

ConcurrentSkipListSet is created now  
The ConcurrentSkipListSet  is empty: [ ]
The created ConcurrentSkipListSet  is: [21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30]
The created Head Set 1 is: [21, 22]
The created Head Set 2 is: [21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26]

tailSet()

This is also one of the sub set of ConcurrentSkipListSet. This is used to create a sub set which has elements which are greater than the specified element. If the Boolean expression is true then the specified element e will be present in the created Tail Set.

Syntax

NavigableSet < data type of created object > object name = 
ConcurrentSkipListSet  Name.tailSet(element e, Boolean value);

Example Program

File Name: ConTail.java

// A program to create a Tail Set.
import java.util.*;
import java.util.concurrent.ConcurrentSkipListSet;
  
class ConTail
{
    public static void main(String[ ] args)
    {
  


        ConcurrentSkipListSet<  Integer > con = new ConcurrentSkipListSet<  Integer >();
        System.out.println(“ConcurrentSkipListSet is created now  ");
        System.out.println(“The  ConcurrentSkipListSet  is empty : " + con);
        con.add(21);
        con.add(22);
        con.add(23);
        con.add(24);
        con.add(25);
        con.add(26);
        con.add(27);
        con.add(28);
        con.add(29);
        con.add(30);
        System.out.println(“The created ConcurrentSkipListSet  is: " +con);
        
        NavigableSet < Integer > tail1 = con.tailSet(25,false);
        System.out.println("The created Tail Set 1  is: " +tail1);
        
         NavigableSet < Integer > tail2 = con.tailSet(28,true);
        System.out.println("The created Tail Set 2  is: " +tail2);


}
}

Output

ConcurrentSkipListSet is created now  
The ConcurrentSkipListSet  is empty: [ ]
The created ConcurrentSkipListSet  is: [21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30]
The created Tail Set 1 is: [26, 27, 28, 29, 30]
The created Tail Set 2 is: [28, 29, 30]

Sub Set

This is the last type of Sub Set which can be created for ConcurrentSkipListSet.This type of sub set has elements which are between the specified two elements e1, e2. If the Boolean expression is true then the specified elements e1, e2 will be present in the created Sub Set.

Syntax

NavigableSet < data type of created object > object name = 
ConcurrentSkipListSet  Name.subSet 
(element e1, Boolean value1, element e1, Boolean value);

Example Program

File Name: ConSub.java

// A program to create a Sub Set.
import java.util.*;
import java.util.concurrent.ConcurrentSkipListSet;
  
class Main
{
    public static void main(String[ ] args)
    {
  


        ConcurrentSkipListSet<  Integer > con = new ConcurrentSkipListSet<  Integer >();
        System.out.println(“ConcurrentSkipListSet is created now  ");
        System.out.println(“The ConcurrentSkipListSet  is empty : " + con);
        con.add(21);
        con.add(22);
        con.add(23);
        con.add(24);
        con.add(25);
        con.add(26);
        con.add(27);
        con.add(28);
        con.add(29);
        con.add(30);
        System.out.println(“The created ConcurrentSkipListSet  is: " +con);
        
        NavigableSet < Integer > sub1 = con.subSet(25, false, 29, true);
        System.out.println("The created Sub Set 1  is: " +sub1);
        
         NavigableSet < Integer > sub2 = con.subSet(28, true, 30, true);
        System.out.println(“The created  Sub Set 2  is: " +sub2);


}
}

Output

ConcurrentSkipListSet is created now  
The ConcurrentSkipListSet  is empty: [ ]
The created ConcurrentSkipListSet  is: [21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30]
The created Sub Set 1 is: [26, 27, 28, 29]
The created Sub Set 2 is: [28, 29, 30]



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