Java Tutorial Index

Java Tutorial Java Features C++ vs Java Java History Java Hello World Java Development Kit Java Runtime Environment Java Virtual Machine Difference between JDK, JRE, and JVM Memory Areas in Java Java Operators Java Keywords Primitive Data Types Variables

Java Loops

Java Do While Loop Java While Loop Java For Loop Java Enhanced For Loop

Java Programs

Java Basic Programs Factorial Program in Java Fibonacci Series Program in Java Prime Number Program in Java Palindrome Number Program in Java Armstrong Number Program in Java Anagram Program in Java Pattern Programs in Java Calculator Program in Java Leap Year Program in Java Addition Program in Java Number Pattern Programs in Java Star Pattern Programs in Java Package Program in Java Pyramid Program in Java Sorting Program in Java String Palindrome Program in Java Even Odd Program in Java For Loop Program in Java If Else Program in Java Switch Case Program in Java GCD Program in Java LCM Program in Java Hello Program in Java Matrix Program in Java Menu Driven Program in Java Series Program in Java Client Server Program in Java Swapping Program in Java Pig Latin Program in Java Tower of Hanoi Program in Java Recursion Program in Java Matrix Multiplication Program in Java Perfect Number Program in Java Classes and Objects in Java Example Programs String Programs in Java Array Programs in Java Constructor Program in Java Inheritance Program in Java Abstract class Program in Java Interface Program in Java Encapsulation Program in Java Polymorphism Program in Java Exception Handling Program in Java Multithreading Program in Java Thread Program in Java Collection Programs in Java ArrayList Program in Java Stack Program in Java Applet Program in Java Swing Program in Java JDBC Program in Java Program to find and replace characters on string in java Program to find the duplicate characters in a string Program to check whether a given character is present in a string or not Java Program to Print Permutations of String Java program to find frequency of characters in a string Java Program to remove duplicate characters in a string Java Program to Sort an Array of 0's, 1's, and 2’s | Dutch National Flag Problem in Java Java Program to print even and odd numbers using 2 threads Java Program to generate binary numbers Java program to count the occurrences of each character Java Program to Add Digits Until the Number Becomes a Single Digit Number Program to Implement FLAMES Game in Java Packages Program in java Pangram Program in Java Java program to print matrix in Z form CRC Program in Java Star Program in Java Structure of Java Program RMI program in Java Caesar Cipher Program in Java Java Programming certification Round Robin Scheduling Program in Java Java Program to find the smallest element in a tree Program to Find Square Root of a Number Without sqrt Method in Java Program to Find the Common Elements between two Arrays in Java Automorphic Number Program in Java Multiple Inheritance Programs in Java Prime Number Program in Java Using a Scanner Program to Reverse a Number in Java Fibonacci series program in java using multithreading

Java Sorting

Sorting Algorithms in Java Merge Sort in Java Quick Sort in Java Bubble Sort in Java Insertion Sort in Java Selection Sort in Java Heap Sort in Java Radix Sort in Java Topological Sort in Java Bucket Sort in Java Counting Sort in Java Java Program to Create Set of Pairs Using HashSet

Java OOPs Concepts

OOPs - Object Oriented Programming Objects and Classes in Java Methods in Java Java Naming Conventions Constructors in Java Java this keyword Java static keyword Inheritance in Java Aggregation in Java Java super keyword Constructor Chaining and Constructor Overloading Java Polymorphism Static and Dynamic Binding in Java Java Abstraction Abstract class in Java Interface in Java Difference between Abstract class and Interface Java final keyword Packages in Java Access Modifiers in Java Java Wrapper classes Java Numbers Java Characters Java Integer Java Boolean Java Arrays Java Command Line Arguments Java strictfp Keyword Java Enumeration Java Math

Java Strings

Java Strings Java String Methods StringBuilder in Java StringBuffer in Java Java Regular Expressions StringBuffer vs StringBuilder String vs StringBuffer String vs StringBuilder String Manipulation in Java Java String Concatenation How to Reverse a String in Java String Array in Java How to Compare Two Strings in Java How to Concatenate Two Strings in Java Why String in Immutable in Java java.lang.NumberFormatException for Input String String Pool in Java Java Generate Random String How to take String Input in Java Java String Interview Questions

Java Exceptions

Exception Handling in Java Java try catch Java throw Java throws Difference between throw and throws Java finally Java Custom Exception Java Exception Propagation

Garbage Collection

Automatic Resource Management in Java Java Garbage Collection Java finalize() Java gc() Difference between final, finally and finalize Java Garbage Collection Interview Questions


Multithreading in Java Process and Thread in Java Basic Terms in Multithreading Java Thread creation Thread Scheduler in Java Java Thread class DeadLock in Java

Java IO

Java IO Java Read File Java file Reader Java Buffer Reader Java file Writer Java BufferedWriter Java InputStreamReader Scanner in Java Java StringReader Java StringReader Class Java StringWriter Class Java PrintWriter Java File Java Read File Line By Line Java FileInputStream Java FileOutputStream Java Create File Java Delete File Java Open File Java Read File to String Java copy file Jar File in Java Java FileNotFoundException


Java Serialization Java transient


Java Network Programming Java Socket Programming Java URL Java URLConnection HttpURLConnection in Java Java InetAddress Java DatagramSocket and Java DatagramPacket


Java AWT


Swing in Java

Java Collections

Collections in Java Java List Interface ArrayList in Java LinkedList in Java Vector in Java Stack in Java ArrayList vs LinkedList in Java ArrayList vs Vector in Java Java Set Interface HashSet in Java LinkedHashSet in Java TreeSet in Java Java Queue Interface PriorityQueue in Java Deque in Java ArrayDeque in Java Java Map Interface HashMap in Java LinkedHashMap in Java TreeMap in Java Dictionary in Java Hashtable in Java Properties in Java Collections class in Java Java Comparable Java Comparator Comparable vs Comparator in Java

Java Generics

Generics in Java

Java Annotations

Annotations in Java


Java JDBC Tutorial JDBC Architecture Types of JDBC Drivers JDBC vs ODBC Java Database Connectivity with MySQL Java Database Connectivity with Oracle Statements in java Prepared statement in Java Resultset in java Java ResultSetMetaData DatabaseMetaData in Java Callable Statement in Java Transaction Management in Java Design of JDBC

Java Differences

Java vs DotNET Java vs JavaScript Kotlin vs Java Java vs C++ C# vs Java Java float vs double Java vs Scala Java vs Go Java vs Golang Java Extends vs Implements Java vs Node.js Static vs Non-static in Java int vs Integer in Java Java protected vs private Java vs Dot Net Stack vs Heap in Java Java Array vs ArrayList Java SE vs EE Class vs Object in Java Java vs Bedrock Difference between = = and equals ( ) in java Difference between C, C++, java HashMap Vs HashTable Checked vs Unchecked Exceptions in Java Difference between print() and println() in Java Differences between Lock and Monitor in Java Concurrency Differences between Set and List in Java Char and String differences in Java Difference between String, StringBuffer and StringBuilder in java Difference between String and Char Array in Java Differences between Byte Code and Machine Code Difference between String Tokenizer and split Method in Java Difference between JIT and JVM in Java Difference Between Data Hiding and Abstraction in Java Difference Between BufferedReader and FileReader Difference Between Thread.start() and Difference between Aggregation and Composition in Java Difference between Constructor and Method in Java Difference between next() and nextline() in Java Difference between Static and Instance Methods in Java Differences and Similarities between HashSet, LinkedHashSet and TreeSet in Java Different Ways to Print Exception Message in Java Different Ways to Take Input from User in Java Difference Between Access Specifiers and Modifiers in Java Difference Between Java and PHP Difference Between replace() and replaceall() in Java Difference between this and super in Java Generics vs Wildcard in Java Array Vs ArrayList in Java Difference between Fork Join Framework and Executor Service in Java Difference between Jdeps Jdeprscan in Java Difference between Wait and Notify in Java

How to

How to convert String to String array in Java How to find length of integer in Java How to get Day Name from Date in Java How to open the Java control panel How to resolve Illegal state exceptions in Java How to reverse a linked list in java How to encrypt password in Java How to calculate time complexity of any program in Java How to check version of java in Linux How to enable java in chrome How to run Java program How to set path in Java How to check the Java version in cmd How to install Java in Windows 10 How to run Java program in cmd How to add double quotes in a string in Java How to convert list to String in Java How to call a method in Java How to Set Environment Variables for Java How to sort an array in Java How to Create Immutable Classes in Java How to iterate HashMap in Java How to write Java program How to create an array in Java How to create a package in Java How to generate random numbers in Java How to input String in Java How to Create Singleton Class in Java How to sort a string in Java How to use scanner in Java How to achieve multiple inheritance in Java How to find the length of an Array in Java How to Read Java JSON file How to run Java program in Eclipse How to call a function in Java How to create array of objects in Java How to import packages in Java How to run applet Program in Java How to take Array Input in Java How to call static method in Java How to compare characters in Java How to compare dates in Java How to create a linked list in Java How to download Eclipse for Java How to get ASCII value of char in Java How to get the current date and time in Java How to handle NullPointerException in Java How to initialize string array in Java How to Install Java on MAC How to run java program in ubuntu How to find characters with the maximum number of times in a string java How to Set Java_home in Linux How to Split the String in Java with Delimiter How to take Multiple String Input in Java using Scanner class How to uninstall the Java in Ubuntu How to Update Java How to add Elements in Array in Java How to avoid deadlock in java How to Split String by Comma in Java How to remove special characters from String in Java How to remove last character from String in Java How to Read XML Files in Java How to download and install Eclipse in Windows How to Create an API in Java How to Round Double Float up to Two Decimal Places in Java How to create a mirror image of a 2D array in Java How to set timer in Java How to make Java Projects How to Create Different Packages for Different Classes in Java How to run Java program in command prompt How to run Java program in Eclipse How to calculate time difference in Java How to stop execution after a certain time in Java How to check data type in Java How to Reduce Time Complexity in Java How to check if date is valid in Java How many ways to create object in Java How to add 4 Hours to the Current Date in Java How to add 4 Years to the Current Date in Java How to add 6 Months to the Current Date in Java How to add 24 Hours to Date in Java How to Assign Static Value to Date in Java How to check Date is Greater in Java How to check Date Null in Java How to check valid date in Java How to Iterate List in Java How to increment and decrement date using Java How to Create a Generic List in Java How to compare two dates in different format in Java How to compare three dates in Java How to override toString() method in Java How to Solve the Deprecated Error in Java How to Return Value from Lambda Expression Java How to Read CSV Files in Java How to Change the Day in the Date using Java How to Calculate Week Number From Current Date in Java How to Calculate Time Difference Between Two Dates in Java How to Calculate the Time Difference between Two Dates in Java How Many Ways to Create an Object in Java How to Develop Programming Logic in Java How can we achieve abstraction in Java How to create abstract class in Java How to use api in Java

Java 8 Features

Java 8 Features Lambda Expressions in Java Functional Interface in Java Streams in Java Java Base64 Encoding and Decoding Type Annotations in Java Java Stringjoiner Class Parallel Arrays Sort in Java Bifunction in java 8 Java 8 filters list Java 8 Consumer Interface in Java

Java 9 Features

Java 9 Tutorial Java 9 Try With Resources Java 9 Interface Private Method

Java 12

What’s new in Java 12

Java 13

Java 13 New Features

Java 14

New Features of Java 14

Java 15

What’s New in Java 15

Java 16

Java 16

Java 17

What is new in Java 17

Java Math Methods

Math.abs() Math.acos() Math.addExact() Math.asin() Math.atan () Math.atan2() Math.cbrt() Math.ceil() Math.copysign() Math.cos() Math.cosh() Math.decrementExact() Math.exp() Math.expm1() Math.floor() Math.floorDiv() Math.floorMod() Math.fma() Math.getExponent() Math.hypot() Math.IEEEremainder() Math.incrementExact() Math.log() Math.log10() Math.log1p() Math.max() Math.min() Math.multiplyExact() Math.multiplyFull() Math.negateExact() Math.nextAfter() Math.nextDown() Math.nextUp() Math.pow() Math.random() Math.rint() Math.round() Math.scalb() Math.signum() Math.sin() Math.sinh() Math.sqrt() Math.subtractExact() Math.tan() Math.tanh() Math.toDegrees() Math.toIntExact() Math.toRadians() Math.ulp() Math.multiplyExact()

Java String Methods

toCharArray() copyValueOf() endsWith() equals() equalsIgnoreCase() format() getBytes() getChars() hashCode() indexOf() intern() isEmpty() join() lastIndexOf() length() replace() replaceAll() replaceFirst() split() startsWith() subSequence() substring() toLowerCase() toUpperCase() trim() valueOf()

Java Conversion

Java Convert String to int Java Convert int to String Java Convert String to long Java Convert long to String Java Convert String to float Java Convert float to String Java Convert String to double Java Convert double to String Java Convert String to Date Java Convert Date to String Java Convert String to Object Java Convert Object to String Java Convert String to char Java Convert char to String Java Convert int to long Java Convert long to int

Java Keywords

Reserved Keywords in Java Java Case Keyword Java Class Keyword Java Continue Keyword Java Default Keyword Java Double Keyword Java Else Keyword Java Enum Keyword Java Extends keyword Java Finally Keyword Java Char Keyword Contextual keywords in Java Java Break Keyword Volatile keyword in Java Java Boolean Keyword Java Byte Keyword The final Keyword in Java Java For Keyword Java Float Keyword Java Instanceof Keyword Java If Keyword Java Int Keyword Java Import Keyword Java Package Keyword Java Static Keyword Java Public Keyword Java Implements Keyword Java Private keyword Java Protected Keyword Java Short Keyword Java Long Keyword Java Interface Keyword Java Try Keyword Java New Keyword Java Return Keyword Java Null Keyword this keyword in Java Java Strictfp Keyword Java Switch Keyword Java Transient Keyword Java Volatile Keyword Java While Keyword Java Throw and Throws Keyword Synchronized Keyword in Java Java Super Keyword

Java Problems

3N+1 problem program in Java Ad Hoc Problem on Arrays in Java Alice and Bob Problem Java Alien language problem in Java Bin Packing Problem Java flour pack problem in Java Hourglass problem in Java Activity selection problem in Java Bounded buffer problem in Java Diamond problem in Java Dutch National Flag Problem in Java Monsoon Umbrella Problem in Java Producer consumer problem in Java using Synchronised block Coin change problem in dynamic programming Salesman Problem in Java Sleeping Barber Problem in Java Skyline Problem in Java Sliding Window Problem in Java Snake and Ladder Problem in Java Stable Marriage Problem in Java Davis Staircase Problem in Java Graph Problems in Java Sales Tax Problem in Java Stock Span Problem Using Stack in Java

Java Questions

What are Array strings in Java What is String in Java? What is string in Java why it's immutable What is advance Java? What is interpreter in Java? What is anagram in Java? How Many Ways to Create Objects in Java How annotations work in Java What is Core Java Why to use Enum in Java Can we override Private Method in Java Can Abstract Classes have Static Methods in Java What is the ambiguity problem in Java Can we create object of abstract class in Java Why do we use abstract class in Java

Java Interview Questions

Enum Java Interview Questions Java concurrency interview questions String Coding Interview Questions in Java


List all files in a Directory in Java Nonagonal number in Java Null Pointer Exception in Java Package naming convention in Java PriorityBlockingQueue Class in Java Race Condition in Java Repdigit Numbers in Java Rotate matrix by 90 degrees in Java Segment Tree in Java Sierpinski Number in Java Sort Dates in Java Thread Safety and How to Achieve it in Java Normal and Trace of a Matrix in Java Transient variable in Java Tribonacci series in Java Web Crawler in Java Zigzag Traversal of Binary Tree in Java Java Full Stack Java IO filenotfoundexception Java Output Formatting Java Plot Java Pop Java Set to List Java Switch string Java Thread Lifecycle: States and Stages Java Viva Questions and Answers Lazy Propagation in Segment Tree in Java Level order Traversal of a Binary Tree in Java Method chaining in Java Narcissistic Number in Java Java Try-Catch Block Java CountDownLatch Java Editors Java Font Example of Static import in Java Implementing Queue Using Array in Java Instanceof operator in Java Interchange Diagonal elements in Java Java Arrays Fill Convert list to array Java Convert milliseconds to date in Java Copy data/content from one file to another in java Creating a Jar file in Java Crown Pattern in Java Duodecimal in Java Finding middle node of a linked list in Java Group by in Java 8 Hollow Diamond Pattern in Java Java Boyer Moore Catalan number in Java Cosmic Superclass in Java Fall through in Java Figurate Number in Java Java Anon Proxy Java RMI Lazy loading in Java Magnanimous Number in java Shallow copy in Java String to JSON in Java Tetranacci Number in Java Vigesimal in Java Why main method is static in Java Add Time in Java Bellman Ford Algorithm in Java Best Java Libraries Blockchain in Java Blocking Queue in Java Example Bully Algorithm code in Java Convert JSON File to String in Java Determine the Upper Bound of a Two-Dimensional Array in Java Web Service Response Time Calculation in Java Functional Interfaces in Java Singleton class in Java Awesome explanation of Strings in Java Object class in Java Static class in Java All the important string methods in Java String Handling Method in Java Advantages and Disadvantages of Strings in Java Big Decimal class in Java Class definition in Java Replace character in string Java String isnullorempty in Java String Matches in Java Trim Method in String Java Bean class in Java Libraries in Java Arithmetic Operations on String in Java Convert Char array to string in java Check whether Java is installed or not Jagged Array in Java Java ArraylistRemove() Time Complexity Java Swing Time Picker Zigzag Array in Java Array and String based questions in Java Array and String with Examples in Java Best Practices to use String Class in Java Java String Java String Inbuilt functions Java String Matches vs Contains Sum of digits in string in java Check the presence of Substring in a String in java Java import packages Interfaces and Classes in Strings in Java Maximum length of string in java Hidden classes in Java Class memory in Java public static void main string args meaning in java Reverse a String in Java String Concatenation in Java Buffer reader to read string in Java Split String into String Array in Java Reverse a String using Collections in Java Upcasting and Downcasting in Java String Declaration in Java Method Overloading In Java Java Solid Principles Java Architecture Binary Search Java Java Type Casting Java Pass-by-Reference Java Framework List Java Destructors Java Control Statements Java Byte Code Java Beans Java Identifiers Character Array in Java Java Applications Java Substring Java Session Non-primitive data types in Java Matrix Multiplication in Java JIT in Java Java Tokens Java Externalization Default Virtual Behaviour in C++ vs Java Why we use static in Java Session Tracking in Java Knapsack problem in Java Java Logo Java exception list Java Iterator Java instance variable Frugal number in Java Fork Join in Java Date time API in java Compile time vs Runtime in java Compare time in java AES 256 Encryption in Java Advanced Java skills User Defined Exception in Java Upcasting in Java Tree Implementation in Java Special Operators in Java Reentrant Lock in Java Perfect Number in Java Java logger Java LinkedList vs ArrayList File Operation in Java Constructor Overloading in Java Conditional operator in Java Concurrent Linked Deque in Java with Examples Command Class in Java Best Java IDE Association in Java Access specifiers in Java AbstractSet Class in Java Adapter class in Java Composition in Java Mutable and Immutable in Java Static() Function in Java Traverse through HashMap in Java Vectors in Java Creation of Multi Thread in java Compile-time Error in Java Java Get Time in UTC Java.sql.Time Format Thread Concept in Java Enterprise Java Beans POJO in Java Java Constant Collection Interfaces in Java with Examples Deadlock Prevention and avoidance in Java Java List Implementations Java Xml Parser Method Overriding in Java Virtual Function in Java Advanced Java Viva Questions Application of Array in Java Economical number in Java Iterate JSON array in Java Java callable example Java Command not found Java Date add Days Java File Extension Java Location Java Trim User Defined Custom Exceptions in Java Java array list remove time complexity Java.lang.Exception.NoRunnableMethods Java Map Example Java Obfuscator Java Pi Java Queue Java time local date Java Xmx Uses of Java Applet Life Cycle in Java Best Java Security Framework BigDecimal toString() in Java Jdoodle Java Literals in Java MVC in Java Powerful Number in Java Read the XLSX file in Java Relatively Prime in Java Root exception in java Accessors and Mutator in Java Bottom view of a binary tree in Java Convert List to String in Java Equidigital in Java IdentityHashMap in Java Java Clone Array Java LDAP Authentication Java List Node Java Password Generator Magic Square in Java Pancake Sorting in Java Practical Number in Java Sublime Number in Java Sudoku in Java Compare Two Times in Java Diffie Hellman Algorithm in Java Java calculate age Map of Map in Java Minimum XOR value pair in Java Palindrome Partitioning problem in Java Pernicious Number in Java Prime Points in Java Rectangular Numbers in Java Sleep Time in Java Types of Statements in Java Unicode System in Java Zig Zag star and Number Pattern in Java Balanced Prime Number in Java ConcurrentSkipListSet in Java Construct the Largest Number from the Given Array in Java CopyOnWriteArrayList in Java Cyclic Barrier in Java Dangling Else problem in Java Display Unique Rows in a Binary Matrix in Java Empty Statement in Java Factorial of a Large Number in Java Facts about null in Java Rehashing in Java Singleton Design Pattern in Java Zebra Puzzle Problem in Java XOR of Array Elements Except Itself in Java Types of Sockets in Java Thread Synchronization in Java Set Up the Environment in Java Method and Block Synchronization in Java Fibodiv Number in Java House Numbers in Java GCD of Different SubSequences in Java Hogben Numbers in Java Decagonal Numbers in Java Converting Roman to Integer Numerals in java Check if the given array is mirror inverse in Java Block Swap Algorithm for array rotation in Java Java Binary Tree Binary Strings Without Consecutive Ones in Java Beautiful Array in Java Balanced Parentheses in Java Arithmetic exception in Java Add numbers represented by Linked Lists in Java Two Decimal Places Java Intersection Point of two linked list in Java Find next greater number with same set of digits in Java Getter and Setter Method in Java Example Java Binary to Hexadecimal Java Calculate Average of List Iccanobif Numbers in Java Java delete directory Tug of War in Java Types of Events in Java MessageDigest in Java Longest Odd Even Subsequence in Java Java Variable Declaration Java Technologies List Java Localization Java Linters Java Macros Java Future Example Nth node from the end of the Linked list in Java Moran Numbers in Java Missing Number in an Arithmetic Progression in Java Minimum Window Subsequence in Java Minimum Number of Taps to Open to Water a Garden in Java Minimum Number of Platforms Required for a Railway Station Minimum Difference Between Groups of Size Two in Java Java SHA256 Java Snippets Java Speech Recognition Java Subtract Days from Current Date Java Project Ideas Majority Element in Java Longest Arithmetic Progression Sequence in Java Object Definition in Java Print Matrix Diagonally in Java Print Pencil Shape Pattern in Java Sparse Numbers in Java Split the Number String into Primes in Java Sylvester Sequence in Java Three Partition Problems in Java Banking Application in Java Brilliant Number in Java Convert Integer to Roman Numerals in Java Chromatic Number in Java Convert JSON to Map in Java Arrow Operator in Java Converting Long to Date in Java Count of Range Sum Problem in Java Finding Odd Occurrence of a Number in Java Generic queue in Java Hamming Code in Java Hashing Algorithm in Java Heap Implementation in Java Hybrid Inheritance in Java Internal Working of ArrayList in Java Java Binary Operators Java BLOB Java Coding Software Maximizing Profit in Stock Buy Sell in Java Median Of Stream Of Running Integers in Java Misc Operators in Java Nth Term of Geometric Progression in Java Self-Descriptive Numbers in Java Permutation Coefficient in Java Minimum Lights to Activate Java Snippet Class Java Console Java Developer Java Get File Size Java Image Java Interface Lock Java OCR Least Operator to Express Number in Java List of Constants in Java Loose Coupling in Java Order of Execution of Constructors in Java Inheritance Shift right zero Fill Operator in Java and Operator Shifting Shopping Bill in Java Sort Elements by Frequency in Java Spliterator in Java 8 Static Array in Java Ternary Operator in Java Tetris Game in Java Cast Operator in Java This Operator Using in Java Thread States in Java Tilde operator in Java Timestamp Operation in Java Untouchable Number in Java Various Operation on Queue using Linked List in Java Various operations on HashSet in Java Why are generics used in Java XOR Binary Operator in Java Anonymous Function in Java Flag Pattern in Java Ganesha’s Pattern in Java Heart Pattern in Java Getting Synchronized Set from Java HashSet India Map Pattern in Java InputMismatchException in Java Java Generate UUID Java Lock Java Thread Priority in Multithreading Lombok Java Morris Traversal for Inorder in Java Morris Traversal for Preorder in Java Ordinal Number in Java Polygonal Number in Java Sealed Class in Java Set Matrix Zeros in Java Swastika Pattern in Java Centered Square Numbers in Java Array Slicing in Java Block Swap Algorithm for Array Rotation in Java Bouncy Number in Java Byte to Hex in Java Camel Case in Java Bad Operand types for Binary Operator Java Comparetoignorecase in Java Creating API Document Javadoc tool Advantages of Generics in Java Computing Digit Sum of all Numbers from 1 to n in Java ConcurrentModificationException in Java Check Whether A Number Is A Power Convert IP to Binary in Java Creating a Custom Generic Class in Java Get year from date in Java Gregorian Calendar Java Current Date Grepcode Java util date Hierarchy of operators in Java Highest precedence in Java Java Map Generic Java Lambda foreach Java copy constructor Example Java Imageio Java Generics Questions Java extend multiple classes Getting the Day from the Date in Java Get yesterdays date by no of days in Java Dining Philosophers problem in Java Display List of TimeZone with GMT and UTC in Java Equilibrium Index of an Array in Java Find the Frequency of Each Element in the Array in Java Find Unique Elements in Array Java Stone Game in Java System Class in Java The Diamond Operator in Java 7 The Maximum Rectangular Area in a Histogram in Java Three-way operator in Java Types of Assignment Operators in Java Trimorphic numbers in Java Types of Bitwise Operators in Java Types of Garbage Collector in Java Types of Logical Operators in Java Union in Java URLConnection class in Java Use Of Adapter class in Java Various operations on the Queue using Stack in Java XNOR operator in Java Zygodromes in Java Memory Leak in Java Java Worker Class Java Sort String Local Minima in Java Mutable class in Java MOOD Factors to Assess a Java Program Model Class in Java Manachers Algorithm in Java Logger class in Java && operator in Java nth Prime Number in Java SHA Decrypt in Java Producer Consumer Problem in Java Using Synchronized Block Ramanujan Number or Taxicab Number in Java Undo and Redo Operations in Java Second Smallest Number in an Array in Java Set Value to Enum in Java Java Code Coverage Tools Console Errors in Java Java md5 Hash Example If Condition in Lambda Expression Java Java Code Optimization Java Enum Java Error Stack Trace Java Flags Enum Java Heap Space Out of Memory Error Java Thread Dump Analyzer Kong Java Client Nested Enum in Java Switch Case with Enum in Java Time Class Operation in Java Delete a Cycle from a Linked List in Java Java Append Data to File Java RandomAccessfile Java Rename File Java Swings Java Try Resource Java Write File Java Maven Silicon Modules in Golang Creating a file using multithreading in Java Different ways to do multithreading in Java File handling using multithreading in Java Four player card game Java Multithreading Getting first date of month in Java Implicit Typecasting in Java Importance of thread synchronization in Multithreading in Java Java lambda filter example Java Memory Model Multithreading Java Sleep Java tricky code snippets Multithreaded lru cache in Java Neon Number in Java Prime number using multithreading in Java Read large xml file in Java multithreaded Role of join function in multithreading in Java String reverse preserving white spaces in Java Use of abstract method in Java Java Abstract factory pattern Java Single Linkedlist Abstract Declaration in Java Abstract Factory in Java Abstract for java mini project Abstract for Java project Advantages of abstraction in Java AWS Lambda Java Maven Adding Manychat Java Snippet to Thrive Theme Abstract implement interface in Java Addition Program Call by Reference Using Multithreading in Java Advanced Java Code Snippets Advantages of Multithreading Over Multitasking in Java Apache Camel Multithreading in Java Array of Class Objects in Java Autobiographical Number in Java AWS lambda Java example api gateway AWS Lambda Java Gradle AWS Lambda Java SDK AWS Lambda Java Spring Boot AWS Lambda Java Tutorial AWS Lambda REST API Java Benefits of Multithreading in Java Boundary Value Problem ODE in Java 2d Array Sorting in Java A Group Chat Application in Java Access Modifiers For Classes or Interfaces in Java Card Flipping Game in Java Duplicate Class Error in Java Giuga Numbers in Java Java Integer Reverse Method Methods Of GSon in Java Selection Statement in Java Dead Code in Java Find the index of an Array Element in Java K Closest Points to a Given Target Point in Java Last Non Zero Digit of a Factorial in Java Meta Class in Java Unreachable Code Error in Java

Graph Problems in Java

A graph is a special type of data structure used in programming that is made up of edges connecting each set of finitely many nodes, or vertices, to each other. The vertices connected to the same edge might be called adjacent vertices. A graph is only a graphic depiction of vertices and edges connecting. Even though there are numerous graph algorithms, some of which you may be aware of, only a few are used. The simple explanation is that traditional graph algorithms are built to answer millions of problems with just a few lines of logically programmed code.

Components of Graph


The basic building blocks of a graph are called vertices. Vertices are sometimes referred to as nodes or vertices. Any node or vertex can have a label or not.


In a graph, edges are lines that link two nodes together. In a directed graph, it may be an ordered pair of nodes. Edges can connect any two nodes in any manner. No regulations exist. Edges are sometimes also referred to as arcs. Any edge may be labeled or left unlabelled. 

Many problems in everyday life can be resolved with graphs. Networks are depicted using graphs. The networks could be telephone, circuit, or city-wide path networks.

Graph Problems in Java

1. BFS Traversal

Most graph theory issues can be resolved via breadth-first search. To find a node in a tree or graph data structure that meets a set of requirements, the breadth-first search (BFS) technique is used. Before moving on to the nodes at the following depth level, it originates at the tree's root or graph and searches/visits every node at the current depth level.

The only problem with this is that graphs might have cycles, unlike trees, so we might keep going back to the same node. We categorize the vertices into two groups to avoid processing a node twice:

  • visited
  • unvisited

The visited vertices are noted using a boolean visited array. All vertices are considered to be reachable from the initial vertex for simplicity. For traversal, BFS employs a queue data structure.


Breadth-first_search (graph, A) //Here, X is the source node, and Graph is the graph we already have. 

Using Q as the queue 
Marking the source node A as visited by calling 

While ( Q is not empty ) ( Q is not empty ) 
The front node is eliminated from the queue when Y = Q.dequeue(). 
Process each neighbour of Y and each neighbour of Z of Y. 
Enqueue(Z) //Stores Z in Q if Z is not visited. 
Mark Z has traveled


// BFS traversal from a specified source vertex is printed by a Java program. 
//BFS(int s) travels between vertices that can be reached from s.
import java. util.*;
// the graphs representation using the adjacency list
class Graphs {
	private int Vertex; // denoting the no of vertices
	private LinkedList<Integer> adjacent[]; // The Adjacent lists
	Graphs(int ve)
		Vertex = ve;
		adjacent = new LinkedList[ve];
		for (int i = 0; i < ve; ++i)
			adjacent[i] = new LinkedList();
	// the method which will add an edge to the graph
	void addEdges(int ve, int we) 
	// the result of the bfs traversal of the graph
	void BFS(int so)
		//The unvisited nodes are marked as false by default.
		boolean visiteds[] = new boolean[Vertex];
		// The queue for storing the values that will come next
		LinkedList<Integer> queues = new LinkedList<Integer>();
		// Mark the current node as visited and enqueue it
		visiteds[so] = true;
		while (queues.size() != 0) {
			// the vertex value is removed from the queue
			so = queues.poll();
			System.out.print(so + " ");
			// Get each of the dequeued vertex's surrounding vertices. 
			//If an adjacent node hasn't been visited, 
			//mark this as visited and add it to the queue.
			Iterator<Integer> in = adjacent[so].listIterator();
			while (in.hasNext()) {
				int num =;
				if (!visiteds[num]) {
					visiteds[num] = true;

	//Main section of the program
	public static void main(String args[])
		Graphs gr = new Graphs(4);

		gr.addEdges(0, 1);
		gr.addEdges(0, 2);
		gr.addEdges(1, 2);
		gr.addEdges(2, 0);
		gr.addEdges(2, 3);
		gr.addEdges(3, 3);

		System.out.println( "The Breadth First Traversal for the given nodes “ + "(The initial node is at 2): ");



The Breadth First Traversal for the given nodes (The initial node is at 2)
2 0 3 1 

Time Complexity: O(V+E)

Space Complexity: O(V)

2. DFS Traversal

Graph Problems in Java

Multiple DFS traversals are possible for a graph. A graph's Depth First Traversal (or Search) is comparable to a tree's Depth First Traversal. The main problem with this is that, unlike trees, graphs can also contain cycles (a node may be visited twice). Use a boolean visited array to prevent processing a node twice.

An algorithm for traveling or searching through tree or graph data structures is called depth-first search. The algorithm begins at the root node (choosing an arbitrary node to serve as the root of the tree in the case of a graph) and proceeds to investigate each branch as far as it can go before turning around.

Thus, the basic concept is to begin at the root or any other random node, mark that node, then advance to the next nearby node that is not marked. This process is repeated until there are no more unmarked adjacent nodes. Then go back and look for more unmarked nodes to cross. Print the path's nodes, and lastly.

To solve the problem, follow the instructions listed below:

  • Make a recursive function that accepts a visited array and the node's index.
  • Print the node and indicate that it has been visited.
  • Using the index of the adjacent node as the argument, traverse all nearby and unmarked nodes before calling the recursive method.


//Java Program for finding the DFS path of the graph
import java.util.*;
// The class consists of DFS adjacency lists
class DfsGraph {
	private int Vertex; // denotes the number of vertices in the graph
	// An array for storing the adjacency lists
	private LinkedList<Integer> adjacent[];
	@SuppressWarnings("unchecked") DfsGraph(int ve)
		Vertex = ve;
		adjacent = new LinkedList[ve];
		for (int i = 0; i < ve; ++i)
			adjacent[i] = new LinkedList();
	//the function for adding the vertex
	void addEdges(int ve, int we)
		adjacent[ve].add(we); // The we is added the list
	// The logic of DFS
	void DFSUtils(int ve, boolean visiteds[])
		// The node visited is then marked and is printed
		visiteds[ve] = true;
		System.out.print(ve + " ");
		//The recurrence will follow all the vertices left
		Iterator<Integer> in = adjacent[ve].listIterator();
		while (in.hasNext()) {
			int num =;
			if (!visiteds[num])
				DFSUtils(num, visiteds);
	// the recursive function of DFS
	void DFS(int ve)
		// The unvisited nodes are marked as false
		boolean visiteds[] = new boolean[Vertex];
		// The recursive will print the path
		DFSUtils(ve, visiteds);
	// Main section of the program
	public static void main(String args[])
	    DfsGraph gr = new DfsGraph(4);
		gr.addEdges(0, 1);
		gr.addEdges(0, 2);
		gr.addEdges(1, 2);
		gr.addEdges(2, 0);
		gr.addEdges(2, 3);
		gr.addEdges(3, 3);
		System.out.println( "The Depth First Traversal” + "( The initial vertex is 2)");
		// the function calling


The Depth First Traversal( The initial vertex is 2)
2 0 1 3

Time Complexity: O(V+E)

Where V is the vertex and  E is the Edges of the graph.

Space Complexity: O(V)

3. Dijkstra’s Shortest Path for the given Graph

Problem statement:

Find the shortest routes between a source vertex and each vertex in the provided graph, the graph, and the source vertex.

Graph Problems in Java

Dijkstra's algorithm and Prim's approach for the minimum spanning tree are extremely similar.

Create an SPT (shortest path tree) using the specified source as the root, similar to Prim's MST. Maintain two sets, one of which contains vertices already included in the shortest-path tree and the other of which contains yet to be included. Locate a vertex with a minimum distance to the source that is also a member of the other set and is present at each iteration of the method.

To solve that problem, follow the instructions listed below:

  • Make a set called sptSet (shortest tree sets) that records the vertices that are part of the shortest-path tree, meaning that their minimum distance from the source has been determined and is definitive. This set is initially empty.
  • Give each vertex in the input network a distance value. Set the source vertex's distance value to 0 to ensure it is chosen first. Set all distance values to INFINITE at the beginning.
  • While not all vertices are present in sptSet

 Choose a vertex u with a minimum distance value absent from the sptSet.

Add you to the sptSet.

 Update all vertices of u's neighboring triangle's distance value after that.

 If the distance value of v for a given neighboring vertex is less than the total distance value of u (from the source) and the weight of the   

edge u-v, then the distance value of v should be updated. Repeat this process for all neighboring vertices to update the distance values.

The collection of vertices that make up SPT is represented by the boolean array sptSet[]. Vertex v is included in SPT if sptSet[v] has a true value; otherwise, it is not. The shortest distance measurements of each vertex are kept in the array dist[].

Java Program for the above implementation


//Java program for the single source shortest route algorithm developed by Dijkstra. 
//The program represents a graph using an adjacency matrix.
import java.lang.*;
import java.util.*;
class ShortestPaths{
	//A useful function that searches the set of vertices not yet contained in the //shortest path tree for the vertex with the lowest distance value.
	static final int Vertex = 9;
	int minDistance(int distance[], Boolean sptSets[])
		// the min value is initialized
		int minimum = Integer.MAX_VALUE, min_indexs = -1;

		for (int ve = 0; ve < Vertex; ve++)
			if (sptSets[ve] == false && distance[ve] <= minimum) {
				minimum = distance[ve];
				min_indexs = ve;
		return min_indexs;
	// a function for the distance calculation
	void printSolution(int distance[])
			"The Vertex \t\t The Distance from the Source Vertex");
		for (int i = 0; i < Vertex; i++)
			System.out.println(i + " \t\t " + distance[i]);
	// Adjacency matrix representation of a graph //with Dijkstra's single source algorithm //for shortest paths implemented
	void dijkstras(int graphs[][], int srcs)
		int distance[] = new int[Vertex]; //  the result array
			//The shortest path from src to I will be held by dist[i]. 
            //,If vertex I am part of the shortest path tree or the finalized//shortest path from source to vertex I then sptSet[i] would be true.
		Boolean sptSets[] = new Boolean[Vertex];
		// the initial distance is used
		for (int i = 0; i < Vertex; i++) {
			distance[i] = Integer.MAX_VALUE;
			sptSets[i] = false;
		// the distance from the source itself is 0
		distance[srcs] = 0;

		// the loop for the shortest path 
		for (int counts = 0; counts < Vertex - 1; counts++) {
			// Choose the unprocessed vertex with the smallest distance from the collection. 
			//In the initial iteration, u1 is always identical to src.
			int u1 = minDistance(distance, sptSets);
			//The vertex that has been visited is marked off
			sptSets[u1] = true;
			// the value of the current vertex is updated
			for (int ve = 0; ve < Vertex; ve++)
				// Refresh distance[ve] Only if it is not in sptSets, there is a //path from u1 to ve, and the weight of all paths     
                                            from src //to ve through u1 is less than the value of distacen[ve] at the moment.
				if (!sptSets[ve] && graphs[u1][ve] != 0
					&& distance[u1] != Integer.MAX_VALUE
					&& distance[u1] + graphs[u1][ve] < distance[ve])
					distance[ve] = distance[u1] + graphs[u1][ve];
		// The array is created
	// Main section of the program
	public static void main(String[] args)
		// An example graph of the above values
		int graphs[][]
			= new int[][] { { 0, 4, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 8, 0 },
							{ 4, 0, 8, 0, 0, 0, 0, 11, 0 },
							{ 0, 8, 0, 7, 0, 4, 0, 0, 2 },
							{ 0, 0, 7, 0, 9, 14, 0, 0, 0 },
							{ 0, 0, 0, 9, 0, 10, 0, 0, 0 },
							{ 0, 0, 4, 14, 10, 0, 2, 0, 0 },
							{ 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 2, 0, 1, 6 },
							{ 8, 11, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 0, 7 },
							{ 0, 0, 2, 0, 0, 0, 6, 7, 0 } };
		ShortestPaths te = new ShortestPaths();

		// Function call
		te.dijkstras(graphs, 0);


The Vertex 		 The Distance from the Source Vertex
0 		 0
1 		 4
2 		 12
3 		 19
4 		 21
5 		 11
6 		 9
7 		 8
8 		 14

Time Complexity: O(V*2)

Space Complexity: O(V)


  • The code determines the shortest path. However, it doesn't determine the distance. To display the shortest path from the source to several vertices, make a parent array, update it as the distance changes (similar to how prim implemented this), and then use it.
  • Although the Dijkstra function is used in the code for undirected graphs, it may also be used for directed graphs.
  • The code determines which vertices are closest to the source. When the chosen lowest distance vertex is identical to the target, break them for a loop if we are only interested in the smallest route between the source and a single target.

4. Find the shortest routes from a particular source vertex (src) to every vertex within the provided graph. Negative weight edges could be present in the graph using the bellman-ford Algorithm.

Graph Problems in Java

Bellman-Ford applies to negatively weighted graphs, although Dijkstra is not. Dijkstra is more complicated than Bellman-Ford, which is why it works well for distributed systems.

The Bellman-Ford algorithm's steps for determining the shortest path from the source to each vertex are as follows:

  • This step initializes the source's distance to every vertex as infinite and the source's distance as zero.
    Make an array dists[] of size |Vs. | except for dists[src]—the source vertex—having all values set to infinite.
  • The shortest distances are computed in this stage. Where |V| is the number of vertices in the given graph, perform the following |V|-1 times. Apply the following to each edge. u-v
    Update dists[v] to dists[v] = dists[u] + weight of edge uv if dists[v] > dists[u] + weight of edge UV.
  • If a negative weight cycle is present on the graph, the following step displays it. Repeat the process for each edge, performing the steps u-v with each edge. The statement "Graph has negative weight cycle" is true if dist[v] > dist[u] + weight of edge UV.  The logic behind step 3 is that if the graph does not have a negative weight cycle, step 2 ensures the shortest distances. Obtaining a shorter path for every vertex after iterating through all edges once more results in a negative weight cycle.


//Program for finding the shortest path using BellmanFord Algorithm
//importing packages
import java.lang.*;
import java.util.*;
//A class for representing the vertices and edges of the graph
class BellmanFordGraph {

	// Graph which describes the edges
	class Edges {
		int srcs, dests, weights;
		Edges() { srcs = dests = weights = 0; }

	int Vs, Es;
	Edges edge[];

	// Creates a graph with V vertices and E edges
	BellmanFordGraph(int v1, int e1)
		Vs = v1;
		Es = e1;
		edge = new Edges[e1];
		for (int i = 0; i < e1; ++i)
			edge[i] = new Edges();

	// the primary function that applies the Bellman-Ford algorithm to discover the shortest distances between 
	// src and all other vertices. Additionally, the function may identify negative weight cycles.
	void BellmanFord(BellmanFordGraph graph, int srcs)
		int Vs = graph.Vs, Es = graph.Es;
		int dists[] = new int[Vs];

		// the initial vertex is initialized and all set to infinite
		for (int i = 0; i < Vs; ++i)
			dists[i] = Integer.MAX_VALUE;
		dists[srcs] = 0;

		// Step 2: Relax all edges |Vs| - 1 times. A simple
		// shortest of the path from srcs to any other vertex can
		// have an at-most |Vs| - 1 edge
		for (int i = 1; i < Vs; ++i) {
			for (int j = 0; j < Es; ++j) {
				int u1 = graph.edge[j].srcs;
				int v1 = graph.edge[j].dests;
				int weights = graph.edge[j].weights;
				if (dists[u1] != Integer.MAX_VALUE
					&& dists[u1] + weights < dists[v1])
					dists[v1] = dists[u1] + weights;

		// Step 3: Look for negative weight cycles.
		//The above procedure ensures the shortest distances if a graph doesn't contain negative weight cycles. 
		//There is a cycle if we obtain a shorter path.
		for (int j = 0; j < Es; ++j) {
			int u1 = graph.edge[j].srcs;
			int v1 = graph.edge[j].dests;
			int weights = graph.edge[j].weights;
			if (dists[u1] != Integer.MAX_VALUE
				&& dists[u1] + weights < dists[v1]) {
					"The Graph has negative weights cycle");
		printArrs(dists, Vs);

	//A function for printing the result
	void printArrs(int dists[], int Vs)
		System.out.println("The Distance of the vertex from the source");
		for (int i = 0; i < Vs; ++i)
			System.out.println(i + "\t\t" + dists[i]);

	//Main section of the program
	public static void main(String[] args)
		int Vs = 5; // Declaring the number of vertices in the graph
		int Es = 8; // Declaring the number of edges in the graph

		BellmanFordGraph graph = new BellmanFordGraph(Vs, Es);
		// the edges are added to the graph
		graph.edge[0].srcs = 0;
		graph.edge[0].dests = 1;
		graph.edge[0].weights = -1;

		// the edges are added to the graph
		graph.edge[1].srcs = 0;
		graph.edge[1].dests = 2;
		graph.edge[1].weights = 4;

		//the edges are added to the graph
		graph.edge[2].srcs = 1;
		graph.edge[2].dests = 2;
		graph.edge[2].weights = 3;

		// the edges are added to the graph
		graph.edge[3].srcs = 1;
		graph.edge[3].dests = 3;
		graph.edge[3].weights = 2;

		//the edges are added to the graph
		graph.edge[4].srcs = 1;
		graph.edge[4].dests = 4;
		graph.edge[4].weights = 2;

		// the edges are added to the graph
		graph.edge[5].srcs = 3;
		graph.edge[5].dests = 2;
		graph.edge[5].weights = 5;

		// the edges are added to the graph
		graph.edge[6].srcs = 3;
		graph.edge[6].dests = 1;
		graph.edge[6].weights = 1;

		//the edges are added to the graph
		graph.edge[7].srcs = 4;
		graph.edge[7].dests = 3;
		graph.edge[7].weights = -3;
		// Function calling
		graph.BellmanFord(graph, 0);


The Distance of the vertex from the source
0		0
1		-1
2		2
3		-2
4		1

5. Find the size of the largest region in the Boolean Matrix


Consider a matrix in which each cell is either a "0" or a "1," with every cell having a 1 being referred to as a "filled cell." A connection exists between two cells when they are placed next to one another either horizontally, vertically, or diagonally. A region is created when several connected filled cells become one. Identify the biggest region's size.

Approach: DFS

To find the solution, according to the directions provided:

  • In a 2D matrix, a cell can connect to a maximum of 8 neighbors.
  • Make recursive calls to the cell's eight neighbors in DFS.
  • To keep track of all visited cells, establish a visited Hash-map.
  • Additionally, update the maximum size region and keep a record of the visited 1s in each DFS.


Input: M[][5] = { {1, 0, 1, 1, 0}, {1, 0, 1, 1, 0}, {0, 1, 0, 0, 1}, {0, 1, 0, 0, 1}}

Output: 5

The example has only 2 regions; one has  1 as size, and the other has 5 in size.


// Java Program for finding the largest region length in a 2-D matrix
//importing packages
import java. util.*;
class LargestRegion{
	static int ROWS, COLS, counts;
	// a function to determine whether a specific cell (row, col) 
	// can be used in DFS
	static boolean isSafes(int[][] M1, int rows, int cols, boolean[][] visiteds)
		// the value is 1 and has not yet been visited, and the rows.
		//number and column number are both in the range.
		return (
			(rows >= 0) && (rows < ROWS) && (cols >= 0)
			&& (cols < COLS)
			&& (M1[rows][cols] == 1 && !visiteds[rows][cols]));

	// a useful function for performing DFS on a 2D boolean matrix. 
	//It merely considers the eight neighbors as "adjacent nodes."
	static void DFS(int[][] M1, int rows, int cols,boolean[][] visiteds)
		// These fields are used to retrieve the row and column/numbers
		//of a particular cell's eight neighbors.
		int[] rowNbrs = { -1, -1, 1, 0, 0, 1, 1, 1 };
		int[] colNbrs = { -1, 0, 1, -1, 1, -1, 0, 1 };

		//Marking the visited node
		visiteds[rows][cols] = true;
		// Recurrence of all connected nodes
		for (int ks = 0; ks < 8; ks++) {
			if (isSafes(M1, rows+ rowNbrs[ks], cols + colNbrs[ks],
					visiteds)) {
				// The region is then incremented to 1
				DFS(M1, rows + rowNbrs[ks], cols + colNbrs[ks],

	// The primary function of a given boolean 2D matrix that returns the longest length region is
	static int largestRegion(int[][] M1)
		// Create a boolean array to record the visited cells. 
		//At first, none of the cells are visited.
		boolean[][] visiteds = new boolean[ROWS][COLS];
		// Declare the results as 0 and iterate through 
		// all of the cells in the provided matrix
		int results = 0;
		for (int i = 0; i < ROWS; i++) {
			for (int j = 0; j < COLS; j++) {

				// checking with 1
				if (M1[i][j] == 1 && !visiteds[i][j]) {
					//after that, a new region was discovered.
					counts = 1;
					DFS(M1, i, j, visiteds);

					// maximum region
					results = Math.max(results, counts);
		return results;
	//Main section of the program
	public static void main(String args[])
		int M1[][] = { { 1, 0, 1, 1, 0 },
					{ 1, 0, 1, 1, 0 },
					{ 0, 1, 0, 0, 1 },
					{ 0, 1, 0, 0, 0 } };
		ROWS = 4;
		COLS = 5;

		// Function calling