Python Tutorial

Introduction Python Features Python Applications System requirements for Python Python Installation Python Basics Python Variables Python Data Types Python IDE Python Keywords Python Operators Python Comments Python Pass Statement

Python Conditional Statements

Python if Statement Python elif Statement Python If-else statement Python Switch Case

Python Loops

Python for loop Python while loop Python Break Statement Python Continue Statement Python Goto Statement

Python Arrays

Python Array Python Matrix

Python Strings

Python Strings Python Regex

Python Built-in Data Structure

Python Lists Python Tuples Python Lists vs Tuples Python Dictionary Python Sets

Python Functions

Python Function Python min() function Python max() function Python User-define Functions Python Built-in Functions Anonymous/Lambda Function in Python

Python File Handling

Python File Handling Python Read CSV Python Write CSV Python Read Excel Python Write Excel Python Read Text File Python Write Text File Read JSON File in Python

Python Exception Handling

Python Exception Handling Python Errors and exceptions Python Assert

Python OOPs Concept

OOPs Concepts in Python Classes & Objects in Python Inheritance in Python Polymorphism in Python Python Encapsulation Python Constructor Static Variables in Python Abstraction in Python

Python Iterators

Iterators in Python Yield Statement In Python

Python Generators

Python Generator

Python Decorators

Python Decorator

Python Functions and Methods

Python Built-in Functions Python String Methods Python List Methods Python Dictionary Methods Python Tuple Methods Python Set Methods

Python Modules

Python Modules Python Datetime Module Python Calendar Module  

Python MySQL

Python MySQL Python MySQL Update Operation Python MySQL Delete Operation

Python MongoDB

Python MongoDB

Python Data Structure Implementation

Python Stack Python Queue Python Hash Table Python Graph

Python Advance Topics

Speech Recognition in Python Face Recognition in Python Python Rest API Python Command Line Arguments Python JSON Python Virtual Environment Type Casting in Python Collections in python Python Enumerate Python Debugger Python DefaultDict


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How to

How to convert integer to float in Python How to reverse a string in Python How to take input in Python How to install Python in Windows How to install Python in Ubuntu How to install PIP in Python How to call a function in Python How to download Python How to comment multiple lines in Python How to create a file in Python How to create a list in Python How to declare array in Python How to clear screen in Python How to convert string to list in Python How to take multiple inputs in Python How to write a program in Python How to compare two strings in Python How to create a dictionary in Python How to create an array in Python How to update Python How to compare two lists in Python How to concatenate two strings in Python How to print pattern in Python How to check data type in python How to slice a list in python How to implement classifiers in Python How To Print Colored Text in Python How to develop a game in python How to print in same line in python How to create a class in python How to find square root in python How to import numy in python How to import pandas in python How to uninstall python How to upgrade PIP in python How to append a string in python How to open a file in python


Python Sort List Sort Dictionary in Python Python sort() function Python Bubble Sort


Factorial Program in Python Prime Number Program in Python Fibonacci Series Program in Python Leap Year Program in Python Palindrome Program in Python Check Palindrome In Python Calculator Program in Python Armstrong Number Program in Python Python Program to add two numbers Anagram Program in Python Even Odd Program in Python GCD Program in Python Python Exit Program Python Program to check Leap Year Operator Overloading in Python Pointers in Python Python Not Equal Operator Raise Exception in Python Salary of Python Developers in India What is a Script in Python Singleton design pattern in python

Python Modules

Python Modules

The Python module is a collection of definition and statements. It can contain functions, classes, and variables.  Combining the related code into a module makes the code easier to understand and use. In the simple words, a Python file which consists the runnable code is treated as the module.

Modules provide flexibility, reusability to our program. It can organize the code in a logical order. To use the functionality of the module to another program, we must import the specific module. Consider the below example:

We create the module named as

def fun(a,b):
    c = a+b
    return c

We need to import this file into another code, which can be done using the following ways:

  1. The import statement
  2. The from-import statement

The import statement:

The import statement is used to load all the functionality of one module into another. We can use any Python file to import into another Python source file. The syntax is the following:


import module1, module2…module3

Since, we need to call fun (a,b) defined in the file, we have to import that file as a module into our code. For example:

import module
z =,30) # file name with its function name
print("The sum is:",z)


The sum is: 50

The from-import statement

A module can contain various attributes, and if we require a specific attribute of a module, then it can be done by the from-import statement.           

from module_name import attribute_name

def sum(a,b):
    c = a+b
    return c
def sub(a,b):
    c = a-b
    return c
def mul(a,b):
    c = a*b
    return c
def div(a,b):
    c = a/b
    return c

from module import mul
z = mul(20,30)
print("The multiplication is:",z)


The multiplication is: 600

In the above code, we have imported the into current working with the specific function name. If we already know about the attribute which needs to be import then from-import statement is always good.

We can also import all attributes of the module. The syntax is given below:


from  import*


from module import*
x = mul(20,30)
y = sum(20,30)
z = sub(20,30)
a= div(100,4)
sum is:",y)
sub is:",z)
multiplication is:",x)
division is:",a)


The sum is: 50
The sub is: -10
The multiplication is: 600
The division is: 25.0 

Renaming a module (Name Alias)

Python provides flexibility to provide a specific name to the module. It can be done by using as keyword. The syntax is given below:


import module as mod
x = mod.mul(20,30)
y = mod.sum(20,30)
z = mod.sub(20,30)
a= mod.div(100,4)
sum is:",y)
sub is:",z)
multiplication is:",x)
division is:",a)


The sum is: 50
The sub is: -10
The multiplication is: 600
The division is: 25.0 

Searching Module Location

When we import the module, the Python interpreter searches for the module in the following sequence:

  • It searches in the current directory first.
  • If the module is not found in each directory in the shell variable PYTHONPATH, and if all searches fail, Python checks the default path.

The dir() function

The dir() function is a built-in  function which returns a list of strings containing the names defined by a module.

The list consists of the names of all the modules, variables, and functions that are defined in a module. Following is an example –

import math
x = dir(math)


['__doc__', '__loader__', '__name__', '__package__',
'__spec__', 'acos', 'acosh', 'asin', 'asinh', 'atan', 'atan2', 'atanh', 'ceil',
'copysign', 'cos', 'cosh', 'degrees', 'e', 'erf', 'erfc', 'exp', 'expm1',
'fabs', 'factorial', 'floor', 'fmod', 'frexp', 'fsum', 'gamma', 'gcd', 'hypot',
'inf', 'isclose', 'isfinite', 'isinf', 'isnan', 'ldexp', 'lgamma', 'log',
'log10', 'log1p', 'log2', 'modf', 'nan', 'pi', 'pow', 'radians', 'remainder',
'sin', 'sinh', 'sqrt', 'tan', 'tanh', 'tau', 'trunc']

The reload() function

The reload() function reloads a previously imported method.  When we import the module into source file, the code in the top-level portion of a module executes only once.

Therefore, if we want to re-execute the top-level code in a module, we can use the reload() function.


Scope of Variable

There are two types of the scope of variable in Python. These scopes are:

  • Local Scope: Variables that are defined inside the function contain a local scope and these variable can be accessed only inside the function. We cannot access them globally.
  • Global Scope: Variables that are defined outside the function have a global scope. If the local variable and global variable have the same name, then local variable will shadow the global variable.

Packages in Python

A package is a classified file directory structure that describes a single Python application environment which consists of modules and sub-package, sub sub-package, and so on. The packages are used to categories level code efficiency

Let’s create a package name Students in home directory. Consider the following steps:

  1. Create a directory with name Students on path /home.
  2. Create a python source file with name on the path /home/Student.

        def stuNames():
            list = ['Abhinay','Himanshu','Tushar','Raman']
            return list
  • Similarly we can create ECdepartment and BCAdepartment files and can create a functions getECnames() and getBCAnames().
  •  In the first step, a directory Students which contains two python modules. To make this directory in a package; we need to create one more file here named as This contains the import statements of the module defined in this directory.

     from CSdepartment import stuNames
     from ECdepartment import getECnames

  • Now, the directory Students has become the package. We must create inside the directory to convert this directory into package.
  • Create a source file at our home directory (/home) to use the modules defined inside the package Student. We must import this in our python source file.

import Students



We have sub package inside the packages. We can include sub-packages inside packages up to any level according to requirements of application.

The following image shows the directory structure of an application Library management system which contains three sub-packages as Admin, Librarian, and Student. The sub-packages include the python modules.

Python Modules