Python Tutorial

Introduction Python Features Python Applications Python System requirements Python Installation Python Examples Python Basics Python Indentation Python Variables Python Data Types Python IDE Python Keywords Python Operators Python Comments Python Pass Statement

Python Conditional Statements

Python if Statement Python elif Statement Python If-else statement Python Switch Case

Python Loops

Python for loop Python while loop Python Break Statement Python Continue Statement Python Goto Statement

Python Arrays

Python Array Python Matrix

Python Strings

Python Strings Python Regex

Python Built-in Data Structure

Python Lists Python Tuples Python Lists vs Tuples Python Dictionary Python Sets

Python Functions

Python Function Python min() function Python max() function Python User-define Functions Python Built-in Functions Python Recursion Anonymous/Lambda Function in Python apply() function in python Python lambda() Function

Python File Handling

Python File Handling Python Read CSV Python Write CSV Python Read Excel Python Write Excel Python Read Text File Python Write Text File Read JSON File in Python

Python Exception Handling

Python Exception Handling Python Errors and exceptions Python Assert

Python OOPs Concept

OOPs Concepts in Python Classes & Objects in Python Inheritance in Python Polymorphism in Python Python Encapsulation Python Constructor Python Super function Python Static Method Static Variables in Python Abstraction in Python

Python Iterators

Iterators in Python Yield Statement In Python Python Yield vs Return

Python Generators

Python Generator

Python Decorators

Python Decorator

Python Functions and Methods

Python Built-in Functions Python String Methods Python List Methods Python Dictionary Methods Python Tuple Methods Python Set Methods

Python Modules

Python Modules Python Datetime Module Python Math Module Python Import Module Python Time ModulePython Random Module Python Calendar Module CSV Module in Python Python Subprocess Module

Python MySQL

Python MySQL Python MySQL Client Update Operation Delete Operation Database Connection Creating new Database using Python MySQL Creating Tables Performing Transactions

Python MongoDB

Python MongoDB

Python SQLite

Python SQLite

Python Data Structure Implementation

Python Stack Python Queue Python Linked List Python Hash Table Python Graph

Python Advance Topics

Speech Recognition in Python Face Recognition in Python Python Linear regression Python Rest API Python Command Line Arguments Python JSON Python Subprocess Python Virtual Environment Type Casting in Python Python Collections Python Attributes Python Commands Python Data Visualization Python Debugger Python DefaultDict Python Enumerate

Python 2

What is Python 2

Python 3

Anaconda in Python 3 Anaconda python 3 installation for windows 10 List Comprehension in Python3

How to

How to Parse JSON in Python How to Pass a list as an Argument in Python How to Install Numpy in PyCharm How to set up a proxy using selenium in python How to create a login page in python How to make API calls in Python How to run Python code from the command prompt How to read data from com port in python How to Read html page in python How to Substring a String in Python How to Iterate through a Dictionary in Python How to convert integer to float in Python How to reverse a string in Python How to take input in Python How to install Python in Windows How to install Python in Ubuntu How to install PIP in Python How to call a function in Python How to download Python How to comment multiple lines in Python How to create a file in Python How to create a list in Python How to declare array in Python How to clear screen in Python How to convert string to list in Python How to take multiple inputs in Python How to write a program in Python How to compare two strings in Python How to create a dictionary in Python How to create an array in Python How to update Python How to compare two lists in Python How to concatenate two strings in Python How to print pattern in Python How to check data type in python How to slice a list in python How to implement classifiers in Python How To Print Colored Text in Python How to open a file in python How to Open a file in python with Path How to run a Python file in CMD How to change the names of Columns in Python How to Concat two Dataframes in Python How to Iterate a List in Python How to learn python Online How to Make an App with Python How to develop a game in python How to print in same line in python How to create a class in python How to find square root in python How to import numy in python How to import pandas in python How to uninstall python How to upgrade PIP in python How to append a string in python How to comment out a block of code in Python How to change a value of a tuple in Python How to append an Array in Python How to Configure Python Interpreter in Eclipse How to plot a Histogram in Python How to Import Files in Python How to Download all Modules in Python How to get Time in seconds in Python How to Practice Python Programming How to plot multiple linear regression in Python How to set font for Text in Python How to Convert WhatsApp Chat Data into a Word Cloud using Python How to Install Tweepy in Python How to Write a Configuration file in Python How to Install Scikit-Learn How to add 2 lists in Python How to assign values to variables in Python and other languages How to build an Auto Clicker using Python How to check if the dictionary is empty in Python How to check the version of the Python Interpreter How to convert Float to Int in Python How to Convert Int to String in Python How to Define a Function in Python How to Install Pandas in Python How to Plot Graphs Using Python How to Program in Python on Raspberry pi How to Reverse a number in Python How to Sort a String in Python How to build a Virtual Assistant Using Python How to Fix an EOF Error in Python How to make a firewall in Python How to clear screen in Python How to Create User Defined Exceptions in Python How to determine if a binary tree is height-balanced How to Import Kaggle Datasets Directly into Google Colab How to Install Python in Kali Linux

Sorting

Python Sort List Sort Dictionary in Python Python sort() function Python Bubble Sort

Programs

Factorial Program in Python Prime Number Program in Python Fibonacci Series Program in Python Leap Year Program in Python Palindrome Program in Python Check Palindrome In Python Calculator Program in Python Armstrong Number Program in Python Python Program to add two numbers Anagram Program in Python Number Pattern Programs in Python Even Odd Program in Python GCD Program in Python Python Exit Program Python Program to check Leap Year Operator Overloading in Python Pointers in Python Python Not Equal Operator Raise Exception in Python Salary of Python Developers in India

Questions

What is a Script in Python What is the re.sub() function in Python After Python What Should I Learn What Does the Percent Sign (%) Mean in Python What is online python free IDE What is Python online compiler What are the Purposes of Python What is Python compiler GDB What is Ipython shell What does base case mean in recursion What does the if __name__ == "__main__" do in Python What is Sleeping Time in Python What is Collaborative Filtering in ML, Python What is the Python Global Interpreter Lock What is None Literal in Python What is the Output of the bool in Python Is Python Case-sensitive when Dealing with Identifiers Is Python Case Sensitive Is Python Object Oriented Programming language

Differences

Difference between Perl and Python Difference between python list and tuple Difference between Input() and raw_input() functions in Python Difference between Python 2 and Python 3 Difference Between Yield And Return In Python Important Difference between Python 2.x and Python 3.x with Example Difference between Package and Module in Python Difference between Expression and Statement in Python Difference between For Loop and While Loop in Python Difference between Module and Package in Python Difference between Sort and Sorted in Python Difference between Overloading and Overriding in Python Python vs HTML Python vs R Python vs Java Python vs PHP While vs For Loop in Python Python Iterator vs Iterable Set Vs List Python

Python Kivy

Kivy Architecture Kivy Buttons Kivy Layouts Kivy Widgets What is Kivy in Python

Python Tkinter

Application to get live USD/INR rate Using Tkinter in Python Application to Search Installed Application using Tkinter in Python Compound Interest GUI Calculator using Tkinter in Python Create a Table Using Tkinter in Python Create First GUI Application using Tkinter in Python File Explorer using Tkinter in Python GUI Calendar using Tkinter in Python GUI to extract lyrics from a song Using Tkinter in Python GUI to Shut down, Restart and Logout from the PC using Tkinter in Python Loan calculator using Tkinter in Python Make Notepad using Tkinter in Python Rank Based Percentile GUI Calculator using Tkinter in Python Screen Rotation app Using Tkinter in Python Spell Corrector GUI using Tkinter in Python Standard GUI Unit Converter using Tkinter in Python Text detection using Tkinter in Python To Do GUI Application using Tkinter in Python Weight Conversion GUI using Tkinter in Python Age calculator using Tkinter Create a Digital Clock Using Tkinter Create a GUI Marksheet using Tkinter Simple GUI Calculator Using Tkinter Simple Registration form using Tkinter Weight Conversion GUI Using Tkinter Color Game Using Tkinter in Python File Explorer in Python using Tkinter Making of Notepad Using Tkinter Python Simple FLAMES Game Using Tkinter Python ToDo GUI Application Using Tkinter Python

Python PyQt5

Compound Interest GUI Calculator using PyQt5 in Python Create Table Using PyQt5 in Python Create the First GUI Application using PyQt5 in Python GUI Calendar using PyQt5 in Python Loan Calculator using PyQt5 in Python Rank Based Percentile GUI Calculator using PyQt5 in Python Simple GUI calculator using PyQt5 in Python Standard GUI Unit Converter using PyQt5 in Python

Misc

Introduction to Scratch programming SKLearn Clustering SKLearn Linear Module Standard Scaler in SKLearn Python Time Library SKLearn Model Selection Standard Scaler in SKLearn Accuracy_score Function in Sklearn Append key Value to Dictionary in Python Cross Entropy in Python Cursor in Python Data Class in Python Imread Python Parameter Passing in Python Program of Cumulative Sum in Python Python Program for Linear Search Python Program to Generate a Random String Read numpy array in Python Scrimba python Sklearn linear Model in Python Scraping data in python Accessing Key-value in Dictionary in Python Find Median of List in Python Linear Regression using Sklearn with Example Problem-solving with algorithm and data structures using Python Python 2.7 data structures Python Variable Scope with Local & Non-local Examples Arguments and parameters in Python Assertion error in python Programs for Printing Pyramid Patterns in Python _name_ in Python Amazon rekognition using python Anaconda python 3.7 download for windows 10 64-bit Android apps for coding in python Augmented reality in python Best app for python Not supported between instances of str and int in python Python comment symbol Python Complex Class Python IDE names Selection Sort Using Python Hypothesis Testing in Python Idle python download for Windows Insertion Sort using Python Merge Sort using Python Python - Binomial Distribution Python Logistic Regression with Sklearn & Scikit Python Random shuffle() method Python variance() function Removing the First Character from the String in Python Adding item to a python dictionary Best books for NLP with Python Best Database for Python Count Number of Keys in Dictionary Python Cross Validation in Sklearn Drop() Function in Python EDA in Python Excel Automation with Python Python Program to Find the gcd of Two Numbers Python Web Development projects Adding a key-value pair to dictionary in Python Python Euclidean Distance Python Filter List Python Fit Transform Python e-book free download Python email utils Python range() Function Python random.seed() function Python PPTX Python Pickle Python Seaborn Python Coroutine Python EOL Python Infinity Python math.cos and math.acos function Python Project Ideas Based On Django Reverse a String in Python Reverse a Number in Python Python Word Tokenizer Python Trigonometric Functions Python try catch exception GUI Calculator in Python Implementing geometric shapes into the game in python Installing Packages in Python Python Try Except Python Sending Email Socket Programming in Python Python CGI Programming Python Data Structures Python abstract class Python Compiler Python K-Means Clustering NSE Tools In Python Operator Module In Python Palindrome In Python Permutations in Python Pillow Python introduction and setup Python Functionalities of Pillow Module Python Argmin Python whois Python JSON Schema Python lock Return Statement In Python Reverse a sentence In Python tell() function in Python Why learn Python? 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Python String

Python String

Python string is considered as the most popular data type present in Python language. In Python, string data type is the collection of characters, letters, white spaces etc. written inside single, double or triple quotation marks.

  • The computer does not understand the characters that we write in our program. Internally, the character or string is encoded in binary language i.e., in the combination of 0s and 1s.
  • Each character that we type on computer is encoded with the ASCII or Unicode character encoding in the computer internally.
  • So that we can also say that Python string are also the collection of Unicode character encoding system.
  • We can create string in our Python program by enclosing the sequence of characters or words in the quotation marks (single, double or triple).
  • The string written inside single, double or triple quotation marks in Python is considered same.

Example: 'Hello Python Developers', "Hello Python Developers" and '"Hello Python Developers"' all three are considered same string in Python.

Syntax of Python String

Using the following syntax, we can define a string in our Python program:

string1 = "Hello Python Developers"

The string1 variable holds the group of characters in quotation marks that is a string basically, so when we will check the data type of string1 it will show us string type.

To check the data type of string1 variable, we have to write the following syntax:

print(type(string1)) # Python will show the output as string type

Note: In Python, group of characters are also considered as string data type. This is because Python don't have character data type. A single character like 'M' written in Python program will be considered as string data type with length 1.

Creating a String in Python:

As we know, we can define strings by enclosing in single, double or triple quotation marks. But generally, we don't use triple quotation marks to define string in Python program. Triple quotation marks are usually used for defining multi-line strings that is called as docstrings in our Python program.

Example

# defining a Python string with single quotation mark
 mkr1 = 'Hello Python Developers !'
 # defining a Python string using double quotation marks
 mkr2 = "Hello Python Developers !"
 # defining a Python string using triple quotation marks
 mkr3 = "'Hello Python Developers!"'
 # checking the data type of all the three strings we have defined above
 print(type(mkr1))
 print(type(mkr2))
 print(type(mkr3))
 # printing all three strings
 print(mkr1)
 print(mkr2)
 print(mkr3) 

Output:

class <str>
 class <str>
 class <str>
 Hello Python Developers !
 Hello Python Developers !
 Hello Python Developers ! 

Creating a Multiline String in Python:

We can define a multiline string in our Python program using the triple quotation marks only. Let's understand this through an example.

Example:

# Creating a multiline string in our Python program using triple quotation marks
 mkr = ""' This syntax with the 5 quotation marks will create a
            multiline string mkr in
            our Python program"'
 # checking data type of multiline string
 print(type(mkr))
 # printing the multiline string as output
 print(mkr) 

Output:

class <mkr>
 This syntax with the 5 quotation marks will create a
 multiline string mkr in
 our Python programs 

Explanation:

In the above code, we have defined a multiline string mkr. We can define a multiline string in Python by adding two extra quotation marks before initiating string with triple quotation marks.

We don't need to add those two extra quotation marks while ending the string. When we print our multiline string i.e., mkr, Python will print the string output in exact number of line that we have used while defining the string. The data type of multiline string defined by us will also be same in Python i.e., string data type.

Indexing string in Python:

Like any other programming languages, the indexing in Python string begins from 0. The first element or character present in a Python string will be denoted by 0th index.

Let us understand this through an example.

Example: Look at the following string "PYTHON" is indexed in the below code:

mkr = "PYTHON"
 # indexing of string mkr
 mkr[0] = 'P'
 mkr[1] = 'Y'
 mkr[2] = 'T'
 mkr[3] = 'H'
 mkr[4] = 'O'
 mkr[5] = 'N' 

This is the indexing of string mkr which we defined above and that's how string elements are indexed in Python program.

Using the index of a string we can print a specific element present inside a string. Consider the following example with the same string mkr:

# define the mkr string
 mkr = "PYTHON"
 # print each element of string mkr using the indexes of element
 print(mkr[0])
 print(mkr[1])
 print(mkr[2])
 print(mkr[3])
 print(mkr[4])
 print(mkr[5])
 # we will try to print an element with 6 index and since there is no element with index 6, Python will through us an error
 print(mkr[6]) 

Output:

 P
 Y
 T
 H
 O
 N 
 Traceback (most recent call last):
   File "C:\Users\Manish\Downloads\code.py", line 11, in <module>
     print(mkr[6])
 IndexError: string index out of range 

Explanation:

In the above code, we have defined an index mkr. Then we printed each element of mkr string one by one using the indexes of the element. After that, we have tried to print the element of whose index not exists in string mkr. Python will show us an index error after running the program.

Negative Indexing of the element:

In Python, we can also print the element by using negative indexes. The negative index starts from last element and denoted by -1 index. Negative index is very helpful in Python strings when we have to print elements from last and we don't know the length of the string.

The -1 index represents last element of a string, -2 represents second last element of that string and so on.

Look at the following example with the string mkr:

mkr = "PYTHON"# negatively indexing of string mkr
 mkr[-6] = 'P'
 mkr[-5] = 'Y'
 mkr[-4] = 'T'
 mkr[-3] = 'H'
 mkr[-2] = 'O'
 mkr[-1] = 'N' 

Using these negative indexes, we can easily call the elements from last of a string.

Example: Look at the following code for how can we print elements from last using the negative indexes:

# define a string
 mkr = "TUTORIALANDEXAMPLE"
 # print elements from last of string mkr using the negative index of the element
 print(mkr[-1])
 print(mkr[-2])
 print(mkr[-3])
 print(mkr[-4])
 print(mkr[-5])
 print(mkr[-6]) 

Output:

 E
 L
 P
 M
 A
 X 

Explanation:

In the above code, we have defined a string mkr with some elements in it. Then we printed the elements from the last using the negative indexes of elements.

The negative Indexing is very helpful when we don't know the exact length of string. We can easily print elements from last using negative indexes without even knowing exact length of the string.

Slicing in Python string:

A slicing operator is used to slice the elements and print a specific number of elements from a string. In Python, slice operator is denoted by []. As we have seen above in indexing of string, how can we access the specific element of a string using this slice operator.

Now, we will learn how to access more than one element from a string using the slice operator. For this, we will use the colon (:) operator inside the slice operator [] to access a substring from the given string.

Let's understand this through an example.

Example:

mkr = "PYTHON"
print(mkr[:]) # This line of code will print the whole string "PYTHON"
 print(mkr[0:]) # This line of code will print the whole string "PYTHON"
 print(mkr[:6]) # This line of code will print the whole string "PYTHON"
 print(mkr[0:3]) # This line of code will print the substring "PYT"
 print(mkr[2:6]) # This line of code will print the substring "THON"
 print(mkr[1:5]) # This line of code will print the substring "YTHO" 

Output:

 PYTHON
 PYTHON
 PYTHON
 PYT
 THON
 YTHO 

Explanation:

 In the above code, we have defined a string mkr with some elements in it. Then we have used the colon operator (:) inside the slice operator ([]) to print the substring from string mkr. Then, we have printed the substring using the indexes of elements from mkr string.

Let's look at another example.

Example:

# define a string with elements in it
 string1 = "TUTORIALANDEXAMPLE"
 # print substring from string1 using the colon operator (:) inside the slice operator ([])
 print(string1[1:6])
 print(string1[2:8])
 print(string1[3:7])
 print(string1[0:4]) 

Output:

 UTORI
 TORIAL
 ORIA
 TUTO 

Negative Slicing of String:

We can also perform the slice operation on Python strings using the negative index. The negative indexing in string starts from the rightmost character present in the string. In the negative slicing, we have to write negative indexes of string inside the slice operator and between colon operator to print the substring.

Let's understand this through an example.

Example 1:

 mkr = "PYTHON"
 print(mkr[-6:]) # It will print the whole string PYTHON
 print(mkr[:-1]) # It will print the substring PYTHO
 print(mkr[-5:-2]) # It will print the substring YTH
 print(mkr[-4:-1]) # It will print the substring THO 

Output:

 PYTHON
 PYTHO
 YTH
 THO 

Let's look at another example of negative slicing.

Example 2:

# define a string
 string1 = "TUTORIALANDEXAMPLE"
 # print the substring from string1 using negative slicing
 print(string1[-12:-3])
 print(string1[-15:-2])
 print(string1[-16:-9])
 print(string1[-13:-4])
 # printing string1 using one negative index in slice operator
 print(string1[:-1]
 print(string1[-19]) 

Output:

 ALANDEXAM
 ORIALANDEXAMP
 TORIALA
 IALANDEXA
 TUTORIALANDEXAMPL 
 Traceback (most recent call last):
 File "C:\Users\Manish\Downloads\code.py", line 3, in <module>
 print(string1[-19])
 IndexError: string index out of range 

Explanation:

In the above code, first of all we defined string1 with elements. Then, we printed the substring from string using the negative indexes using the slice operator. Then, we printed the whole string using only one negative index inside slice operator. In the last line of code, Python will show us index because the index is out of the range from string1.

Reassigning the Python strings:

In Python, the string object doesn't support assignment of new items i.e., The content or elements of a string cannot be partially replaced with new elements. We can replace the content of a defined string with completely new content and the new content can be of different size.

  • Updating the content/elements present in a Python string is simple as defining a new string.
  • Python strings are Immutable in nature i.e., we cannot perform string operations on partial elements of string.

Explanation: we cannot partially update the content or elements of a string.

However, we can completely update or replace the content of string mkr to a completely new content from above example.

Example 2: Look at the following code:

mkr = "TUTORIALANDEXAMPLE"
 print(mkr)
 # replace the content of mkr string with a whole new content
 mkr = "PYTHON"
 # now print the string mkr
 print(mkr) 

Output:

 TUTORIALANDEXAMPLE
 PYTHON 

Explanation: In the above code, we have updated mkr string completely by replacing the content of it by a whole new content. Then we printed the string mkr.

Deleting the String:

As Python strings are immutable in nature, we cannot perform delete operation on partial elements of a string. We cannot delete or remove some specific characters from a string. If we try to delete the specific characters from a string, Python will through as an error.

Let's understand this through an example.

Example 1:

 # define a string with mkr name
 mkr = "PYTHON"
 # let's try to delete a particular character from mkr using the del keyword
 del(mkr[2])
 # print the string mkr to check if delete operation is performed or not
 print(mkr) 

Output:

 Traceback (most recent call last):
   File "C:\Users\Manish\Downloads\code.py", line 4, in <module>
     del(mkr[2])
 TypeError: 'str' object doesn't support item deletion 

Explanation:

When we used del keyword on mkr string, Python through us an error in the output. This is because Python doesn't support delete operation on particular characters of a string.

However, we can delete the complete string from Python.

We can perform delete operation on string and delete it completely from Python memory. We can perform delete operation on Python string using the del keyword on string.

Let's try to delete the entire string mkr from the above example.

Example 2:

mkr = "PYTHON"
 print(mkr)
 # delete the entire string mkr using del keyword
 del(mkr)
 # check if string is deleted or not by try to printing the string
 print(mkr) 

Output:

 PYTHON
 Traceback (most recent call last):
 File "C:\Users\Manish\Downloads\code.py", line 6, in <module>
 print(mkr)
 NameError: name 'mkr' is not defined 

Explanation:

In the above code, we have deleted the entire string mkr from Python memory using del keyword. After that, we have tried to print string mkr and Python will throw an error because no such item is now present in the Python memory.

Operators for Python string

We can perform various operations on string using the given operators in Python. These string operators can concatenate, multiply and do many other operations with string. Following are the list of string operators present in Python:

1. Concatenate operator (+)

2. Repetition operator (*)

3. Slice operator ([])

4. Slice operator with colon ([:])

5. Membership operator ('in' and 'not in')

6. Raw string operator (r/R)

7. String formatting operator (%)

Let's discuss about each of the string of the string operator mentioned above.

1. + Operator (concatenate operator):

The '+' denotes the concatenate operator and perform concatenation operation on strings in Python. The concatenate operator is used to add two or more strings.

We can use the concatenate operator in two following ways:

  • Add two strings and assign its value to a third string
  • Concatenate two string while printing the output

Let's understand this through an example.

Example 1:

# define two strings with some elements in it
mkr1 = "Hello"
mkr2 = "Python Developers"
# define a third string with concatenation of first two strings
mkr = mkr1+mkr2
# print the third string to check if the concatenated value is assigned to it or not
print(mkr) 

Output:

Hello Python Developers

Explanation:

As we can see, we have defined two strings then we have added them and assigned the value to third string i.e., mkr. Then we printed the mkr string. The mkr string holds the concatenated value of two strings.

Example 2:

# define two strings with some elements in it
mkr1 = "Hello"
mkr2 = "Python Developers"
# concatenate the strings mkr1 and mkr2 while printing the output
print(mkr1+mkr2) 

Output:

Hello Python Developers

2. Repetition operator (*):

The '*' symbol denotes the repetition operator in Python and it repeats the strings. The repetition operator is used to repeat the string value. We can also assign the repetition value of a string to another string.

Example: Look at the following code:

# define a string
 mkr = "Hello Python Developers"
 # use the repetition operator on mkr string while printing the output
 print(mkr*4) 

Output:

Hello Python DevelopersHello Python DevelopersHello Python DevelopersHello Python Developers

Explanation: In the above code, we have defined a string mkr and used repetition operator on it. When we used repetition operator on string while printed, Python printed the mkr string 4 times as we have given in code.

3. Slice operator ([]):

As we have discussed earlier about slice operator, it is used for slicing of a string. The close square brackets '[]' represents slice operator in Python. Slice operator is used to print a particular element from a given string. For that we need to specify the index of the element which we want to print in output.

Example: Look at the following code:

mkr = "Hello PYTHON Developers"

Output:

 l
 T
 e 

4. Slice operator with colon ([:]):

The colon is used inside a slice operator to print substring from a given string. We can also use negative indexes inside the slice operator while printing substring with colon.

Example: Look at the following code:

string1 = "TUTORIALANDEXAMPLE" 
# print the substring from string1 using the slice operator with colon
 print(string1[1:6])
 print(string1[2:8])
 # print substring from slice operator while using the negative indexes with colon
 print(string1[-7:-2]) 

Output:

 UTORI
 TORIAL
 EXAMP 

5. Membership operator (in and not in):

We can check the membership of a substring from a string using the membership operator. The membership operators are used to check if a particular substring belongs to the string defined in our program or not. Membership operators are of two types:

(i) 'in' membership operator

(ii) 'not in' membership operator

Let's discuss about both types of membership operator with one example of each.

(i) 'in' membership operator: The 'in' operator is a type of membership operator. It is used to check if a particular substring is present in the string defined in our program. The output given by 'in' operator is same of boolean operator. It gives output as either true or false.

Syntax for 'in' operator:

print(substring 'in' string)

Example: Look at the following code:

 # define a string
 mkr = "TUTORIALANDEXAMPLE"
 # Use 'in' operator to check if 'AND' and 'APE' substrings are present in mkr
 print('AND' in mkr) # It will prints true as AND is present in mkr
 print('APE' in mkr) # It will print false as APE is not present in mkr 

Output:

 True
 False 

(ii) 'not in' membership operator: The 'not in' operator is also a type of membership operator. It is used to check if a particular substring is not present in the string defined in our program. The output given by 'not in' operator is also same of boolean operator. It gives output as either true or false.

The 'not in' operator always gives opposite output of 'in' operator i.e., If 'not in' gives False then 'in' operator will give true in output or vice-versa.

Syntax for 'not in' operator:

print(substring 'not in' string)

Example: Look at the following code:

# define a string
mkr = "TUTORIALANDEXAMPLE"
 # Use 'not in' operator to check if 'ACE' and 'TOR' substrings are not present in mkr
 print('ACE' not in mkr) # It will print true as ACE is not present in mkr
 print('TOR' not in mkr) # It will print false as TOR is present in mkr 

Output:

 True
 False 

6. Raw string operator (r/R):

The raw string operator is used to specify a raw string in our Python program. Raw strings are the strings where we need to print actual or as it is meaning of the escape characters (We will talk about escape characters present in strings later in this section) of string such as "C://Manish/Python" etc.

Syntax for raw string:

 To define any string in as a raw string in Python, the character of string should be followed by 'r' or 'R.'
 r'string' or R'string' 

Let's understand this through an example.

Example:

# printing raw strings with raw string operators i.e., r and R
print(R'C://Python39') # the 'R' keyword makes C://Python39 as raw string and will print it as it is written
print(r'C://Manish/Python') 
# the 'r' keyword makes C://Manish/Python as raw string and will print it as it is written 

Output:

 C://Python39
 C://Manish/Python 

7. String formatting operator (%):

The '%' symbol denotes the string formatting operator in Python. The string formatting operator is used to perform formatting operations on string. The string formatting operator makes use the format specifiers from the C programming languages such as %f or %d etc.

  • The format specifiers are used by string formatting operators to map their values in Python.
  • We will discuss about the how formatting is done through string formatting operator on Python strings.

Example: Look at the following Python program with string formatting operator:

# define a string mkr
 mkr = "Hello Python Developers"
 # use the string formatting operator on mkr while printing the output 
print("The formatted string mkr is : %s"%(mkr)) 
# This line of code will print 'The formatted string mkr is : Hello Python Developers' as string formatting operator is used on mkr

Output:

The formatted string mkr is : Hello Python Developers

Now, we will discuss about Python string formatting and escape characters in Python string in detail.

Python string Formatting

Escape sequence in Python string:

Let's suppose we have to write or print the following string in our Python program:

Mike said, "Hello People, what's going on there?"

The above statement can be written in single or double quotation marks but it will raise the syntaxerror in our program because both single and double quotes are already present in the above statement.

We can't even use triple quotation marks with such sentences because even use of triple quotation marks with such sentences causes 'syntaxerror' while defining strings in our Python program.

Let's use this sentence in a Python program to understand it better.

Example: Look at the following code to understand the concept of use of Python string operators:

# define a string with above given sentence
 mkr= "Mike said, "Hello People, what's going on there?""
 # print the mkr string
 print(mkr) # This will cause a syntaxerror while running the given program 

Output:

SynatxError: The ‘mkr’ string have syntax error in it and not defined properly

We can solve this problem by using triple quotation marks in this sentence. But, use of triple quotation marks is also limited. Triple quotation marks cannot be valid with every given sentences.

Therefore, Python provides us the escape sequence which is very useful in such problems.

The backlash symbol (\) represents the escape sequence present in Python.

We can use this backlash symbol (\) with a special character and it will be interpreted differently in Python.

Different special characters used with escape sequence (\) represents different functionalities and different uses.

Escape sequence (\) escapes the interpretation of some characters, quotation marks (single, double), special characters etc. present in the given sentence.

Now, we will apply both triple quotation marks and escape sequence in the above given sentence and print it as output.

Example: Look at the following code to understand the use of escape sequence in Python program:

# print the sentence using the triple quotation marks in print statement
print('''''Mike said, "Hello People, what’s going on there?"''') 
# print the sentence using the escape sequence with the single quotation mark to escaping single quote in sentence
 print('Mike said, "Hello People, What\'s going on there?"')
 print("Mike said, \"Hello People, What's going on there?\"") 

Output:

 ''Mike said, "Hello People, What's going on there?"
 Mike said, "Hello People, what’s going on there?"
 Mike said, "Hello People, what’s going on there?" 

Explanation:

In the above code, first we printed the given sentence using the triple quotation marks. The triple quotation marks defined the string type in print statement so that single and double quotes both are printed in output without throwing an error in program.

Then, in second print line we used escaping sequence on single quote in sentence. Therefore, we have used single quotation mark while printing the statement. In the last print line, we used escape sequence on double quotation marks for escaping double quotes from sentence.

Therefore, we have used double quotation marks to define the sentence in print statement. Using escape sequence will solve the syntaxerror problem even if we define our sentence with single or double quotes.

Few Special Escape Sequence

As we have mentioned earlier, we can use some special characters with escape sequence and Python will interpret them differently. Using different special characters with escape sequences represents different functionalities of escape sequence and they are used differently according to the need of program.

Following is the list of all escape sequences in Python used with different special characters:

1. \newline

2. \\

3. \'

4. \"

5. \a

6. \b

7. \f

8. \n

9. \r

10. \t

11. \v

12. \ooo

13. \xHH

Here is an example of escape sequence in Python program and how they are used.

Example: Look at the following code:

 # using the '\\' escape sequence in the print statement
 print("C:\\Users\\MANISH ARORA\\Python39\\Code")
 # using the '\n' escape sequence in the print statement
 print("This is a sentence which \n will print in multiline \n in the Python output \n when we will run the program")
 # using the '\xHH' escape sequence in the print statement
 print("This is \x48\x45\x58 representation") 

Output:

 C:\Users\MANISH ARORA\Python39\Code
 This is a sentence which
  will print in multiline
  in the Python output
  when we will run the program
 This is HEX representation 

Now, let's look at the each of escape sequence and their use in Python program.

1. \newline: This escape sequence is used when the code is written in multiple lines. It will ignore the new or multiple lines when used with the line of code. We can use this even in our print statement and then write command in multiple lines.

Example: Look at the following code:

# use the \newline escape sequence in print statement and write command in multiple lines within print statement
 print("Hello \
 Python \
 Developers") 
# The output will be printed in single line as 'Hello Python Developers' 

Output:

Hello Python Developers

2. \\: This print statement is used to print backlash itself in the print statement otherwise Python will ignore the backlash while interpreting the code.

Example: Look at the following code:

 # Use the '\\' escape sequence in print statement to print backlash
 print("\\") # it will print only single backlash symbol
 # use the '\\' in another example
 print("C:\\Users\\MANISH ARORA\\Python39\\Code") 

Output:

C:\Users\MANISH ARORA\Python39\Code

3. \': This escape sequence will print the given sentence and ignore the interpretation of single quote within the sentence. This escape sequence solves the problem of syntax error where both single and multiple quotation marks are given in a sentence.

Example: Look at the following code:

 # use the \' escape sequence in print statement to print single quote
 print('\'') # it will print a single quote (')
 # using the \' escape sequence within a sentence given
 print('Mike said, "Hello People, What\'s going on there?"') 

Output:

'

Mike said, "Hello People, what’s going on there?"

4. \": This escape sequence will print the given sentence and will ignore the interpretation of double quotes given in the sentence.

Example: Look at the following code:

 # use the \" escape sequence in print statement to print single quote
 print("\"") # it will print a single quote (")
 # using the \" escape sequence within a sentence given
 print("Mike said, \"Hello People, what’s going on there?\"") 

Output:

"Mike said, "Hello People, what’s going on there?"

5. \a: This is a special escape sequence. It represents ASCII Bell (Bel). This sequence will print nothing but makes ringing the bell alert sound when used in Python program. (E.g., xterm etc.)

Syntax:

print("\a")

6. \b: This escape sequence is used to represent ASCII backspace (BS) in Python. This escape sequence removes the previous character in a sentence where it is used. As the representation suggestion, it works as a backspace within the print statement.

Example: Look at the following code:

# print a sentence while using \b escape sequence in print statement:
print("Hello\b Python\b Developers”) 
# it will print 'Hello? Python? Developers' as each escape sequence will remove one previous character from sentence.

Output:

HelloPythonDevelopers

7. \f: This escape sequence represents ASCII form feed in Python. It will add white space within the words and print them in separate pages when used in a sentence. We can use \f escape sequence in the print statement.

Example: Look at the following code:

# print a sentence using \f escape sequence in it
print("Hello\fPython\fDevelopers") 
# It will print "Hello Python Developers" in the output and each word in different pages

Output:

 Hello
 Python (in different page)
 Developers (in different page) 

8. \n: This escape sequence represents ASCII linefeed in Python program. It is used to add an extra line in the sentence. We can use this \n escape sequence within a sentence in the print statement to print the sentence in multiple lines as output.

Example: Look at the following code:

 # using the '\n' escape sequence in the print statement to print the given sentence in multiple lines
 print("This is a sentence which \n will print in multiline \n in the Python output \n when we will run the program") 

Output:

 This is a sentence which
  will print in multiline
  in the Python output
  when we will run the program 

9. \r: This \r escape sequence moves all the characters after the beginning of the line while overriding the same number of characters that are moved within print statement. This escape sequence represents ASCII Carriege Return (CR) in Python.

Example: Look at the following code:

# use the \r escape sequence in a sentence within the print statement
print("Hello \rPython Developers!") # It will print Python Developers in the next line of output of the program

Output:

 Hello
 Python Developers 

10. \t: This \t escape sequence is used to represents ASCII horizontal tab in Python program. When we use this escape sequence within a sentence, it will add a tab space between the words of that sentence.

Example: Look at the following code:

# use the '\t' escape sequence in print statement between the words
 print("Hello \t Python \t Developers")
 print("It is an escape \t sequence statement") 
# This line of code will print "It is an escape sequence statement" 

Output:

 Hello    Python            Developers
 It is an escape            sequence statement 

11. \v: This \v escape sequence is used to represents ASCII vertical tab in Python program. When we use this escape sequence within a sentence, it will add a vertical tab space between the words of that sentence. It means \v escape sequence add an extra line between the words where it is used in sentence.

Example: Look at the following code:

# use the '\t' escape sequence in print statement between the words
print("Hello Python \v Developers") 
# This line of code will print "Hello Python (In next line) Developers" because of ASCII Vertical tab formatting

Output:

Hello Python
 Developers

12. \ooo: This escape sequence is used to decode the words that are encoded in octal value format. The sentence or words are written in octal value format and \ooo escape sequence decodes them in alphabetical words and prints the output after decoding.

Let's understand the working of \ooo escape sequence through an example.

Example:

 # use the '\ooo' escape sequence in print statement so that octal values can be decoded and printed as words in output
 print("\110\145\154\154\157") 
# This octal value format will be decoded and printed as "Hello" in output after decoding 

Output:

Hello

13. \xHH: The '\xHH' escape sequence works very similar to the \ooo escape sequence. This escape sequence is used to decode the characters that are encoded in the hex value formats. The sentence or words are written in hex value format and \xHH escape sequence decodes them in alphabetical words and prints the output after decoding.

Let's understand the working of \xHH escape sequence through an example.

Example:

 # use the '\xHH' escape sequence in print statement so that hex values can be decoded and printed as words in output
 print("\x48\x65\x6c\x6c\x6f") 
# This hex value format will be decoded and printed as "Hello" in output after decoding
 print("This is \x48\x45\x58 representation") 
# This line of code will print "This is hex representation" in the output after decoding 

Output:

 Hello
 This is HEX representation 

The String format() method:

The string format() method is the very helpful and flexible method in formatting of strings within a Python program. In the format method, we use curly braces as the placeholders inside the print statement or string and formatting is done by replacement using format() method argument.

The format() method of string in Python is very helpful when we want to modify string just before printing it in output.

Let's look at an example of format() method argument.

Example:

# Using the format() method on a string while using curly braces as placeholders
 print("{} and {} both are best friend since 6th class of school".format("Manish Arora","Gaurav Panwar")) 
# The string will be printed only after formatting done by format() method 

Output:

Manish Arora and Gaurav Panwar both are best friend since 6th class of school

Explanation:

In the above code, we have used the format() method on string within the print statement. We used curly braces as placeholders in the string and then we placed values from format i.e., "Manish Arora" & "Gaurav Panwar". Python printed the output string after performing format() string argument on curly braces.

We can use the curly braces in two ways as placeholders in the string while using format() method argument. The two ways of using curly braces as placeholders are following:

1. Using digits inside curly braces for positional argument in format() method:

In this method, we use numerical digits inside curly braces to perform positional argument on string with format method() in print statement.

Example: Look at the following code:

# performing positional argument on string while using numerical values inside curly braces for format() method
 print("{1} and {0} both are best cricket players in all of men cricketer right now".format("Virat Kohli","Steve Smith")) 

Output:

Steve Smith and Virat Kohli both are best cricket players in all of men cricketer right now

2. Using alphabets inside curly braces for keyword argument in format() method:

In this method, we use alphabets value inside curly braces to perform keyword argument on string with format() method in print statement. We will assign element value to alphabets in the format() method to use them in curly braces.

Example: Look at the following code:

print("{a} and {b} both are living in the same city since they were born".
format(a = "Vizag Kans",b = "Steven Rogers"))
 # while printing the string in output Python will a with Vizag kans and b with Steve rogers 

Output:

Vizag Kans and Steven Rogers both are living in the same city since they were born

Formatting of Python string using the '%' operator:

In Python, we are allowed to use the string format specifiers that we use in printf statement in C to format a particular string. The format specifiers that we use with strings in Python are treated or operated in the same way as they are treated in C language. The '%' operator is called as format specifier in Python. We use keywords with it perform operation on Python string with format specifiers.

  • Moreover, Python provides an extra operator i.e., the '%' operator.
  • The '%' operator is used as an interface between the format specifiers of Python strings and value allocated to them.
  • It means we can say that the '%' operator binds format specifiers of Python strings to their values allocated.

Let's understand the concept of '%' operator through an example.

Example: Look at the following code:

# define an integer value variable
 Integer_value = 24;
 # define a float value variable   
 Float_value = 22.983
 # define a string value variable   
 String_value = "TUTORIALANDEXAMPLE"
 # use the '%' operator in the print statement to print the integer, float and string value in the output of code   
 print("Hello I am an Integer variable ... The value assigned to me is %d\nHello I am a float variable ... The value assigned to me is %f\nHello I am a string variable ... The value assigned to me is %s"%(Integer_value,Float_value,String_value)) 

Output:

 Hello I am an Integer variable ... The value assigned to me is 24
 Hello I am a float variable ... The value assigned to me is 22.983000
 Hello I am a string variable ... The value assigned to me is TUTORIALANDEXAMPLE 

Explanation: In the above code, firstly we have defined three variables with integer, float and string values respectively. Then, we printed the variables with the print statement using the % operator. The % operator assigned the variables to respective sentences in the print statement as we can see that. The % operator is also used to define the data-types of variable while assigning variables to respective sentences.

Python String Functions

Like many popular programming languages, Python also provides various built-in functions for strings. These built-in functions are used for string handling in Python. Following are the many built-in string functions that are present in Python:

capitalize()The 'capitalize()' function capitalize the first character of the given string. The 'capitalize()' function for string is deprecated in Python 3.x versions.
carefold()The 'carefold()' function returns the versions of s suitable for care-less comparisons between strings and assigned values.
rpartition()The 'rpartition()' function spilits a given Python string from the last occurrence of separator substring of given parameter. This method returns a tuple after performing split operation on the given string.
centre(width,fillchar)The 'centre(width,fillchar)' function returns a space padded string after performing operation on it. This method returns a space padded string that is centred with equal number of spaces on left and right of string.
zfill(width)The 'zfill(width)' function returns the original string on which operation is performed leftpaded with zeroes to a total width character given in the function. This function retains any sign given in tje the string (less one zero) that is intended for numbers only.
count(string name, begin, end)This 'count()' function is used to count the total number of occurrences of a substring in the given string inside the function. This function counts the occurrence of substring between the beginning and end index we defined in the function.
upper()The 'upper()' function in Python is used to convert or change all the characters of the given string in the upper case form.
decode(encoding = 'UTF8', errors = 'strict')The 'decode(encoding = 'UTF8', errors = 'strict')' function decodes the given string using the codec registered for encoding form of string.
translate(table,deletechars = *)The 'translate(table,deletechars = *)' function translates a given string according to the translation table that we have passed in the function.
encode()The 'encode()' function encodes the given string using the codec registered for encoding of strings in Python. The default codec registered for encoding of Python string is 'UTF-8'.
title()The 'title()' function is used to convert the given string inside the function to a title-case form. The given string PaLWal will be converted to Palwal.
endswith(suffix,begin = 0,end = len(string))The 'endswith(suffix,begin = 0,end = len(string))' function returns a boolean value i.e., True or False if the given string in the function terminates with the suffix given between the begin and end of function value.
swapcase()The 'swapcase()' function is used to inverts case all the characters of the given string in the function. The string Palwal will be sorted to lawlaP in swapcase().
expandtabs(tabsize = 8)The 'expandtabs(tabsize = 8)' function define tha tabs in the given string to multiple spaces. The default space value inside this function is 8 for a string.
strip([chars])The 'strip([chars])' function is used to perform lstrip() and rstrip() function on the given string in Python program.
find(substring, beginIndex, endIndex)The 'find(substring, beginIndex, endIndex)' function returns the index value of the string where the given substring in the function is find in the string on which operation is performed. The operation is performed on the string from the begin Index and end Index defined inside the function.
startswith(string,begin = 0,end = length(string))The 'startswith(string,begin = 0,end = length(string))' function returns a boolean value if the given string starts with the 'string' value defined in the function between the beginning and end of index.
format(value)The 'format(value)' function returns the formatted version of the given string using the passed value defined in the function.
splitlines(num=string.count('\n'))The 'splitlines(num=string.count('\n'))' function returns the total list of string present in each line with the newline removed from the string after performing operation on it.
index(substring, beginIndex, endIndex)The 'index(substring, beginIndex, endIndex)' function throws an exception if the given substring is not found in the given string between the begin index and end index defined inside the function. This function works same as of 'find(substring, beginIndex, endIndex)' function.
split(str, num = string.count(str))The 'split(str, num = string.count(str))' function splits the given string according to the delimiter str we have defined within the function. The string is splited according to the space in string if the delimiter is not provided in the function. This function returns list of substrings concatenated with the delimiter provided inside the function.
isalnum()The 'isalnum()' function return true after performing operation if the given characters in the string are in the form of alphanumeric values. There should be alteast one character in string for the function to return true in output. Otherwise, in all other cases, this function will return false in output.
rsplit(sep = None, maxsplit = -1)The 'rsplit(sep = None, maxsplit = -1)' function works in the same process as of 'split(str, num = string.count(str))' function but this function process the given string from the backward direction. This function returns the list of total words present in the given string. If the separator is not specified within the function, then the function splits the string according to the white-space present in the string.
isalpha()The 'isalpha()' function returns true in output only if all the characters present in the given string are alphabets and there should be at least one character is present in the string. Otherwise, this function will return false in the output.
rstrip()The 'rstrip()' function removes all the trailing white spaces present in the given string. This function is also used to remove a particular character in trailing of the given string.
isdecimal()The 'isdecimal()' function returns true in the output if all the characters present inside the given string are decimals. Otherwise, this function will return false in output.
rjust(width,[fillchar])The 'rjust(width,[fillchar])' function returns a space padded string in the output if having the original string right justified to the total numbers of characters specified in the given original string.
isdigit()The 'isdigit()' function returns true in the output if all the characters present in the given string are digits and there should be atleast one character is present in the string. Otherwise, this function will return false in the output.
rindex(str,begin = 0,end = length(str))The 'rindex(str,begin = 0,end = length(str))' function works same as of index() function but this function also transverse the given string in the backward direction in the output.
isidentifier()The 'isidentifier()' function returns true in the output if the given string in the function is a valid identifier.
rfind(str,begin = 0,end = length(str))The 'rfind(str,begin = 0,end = length(str))' function works very similar to the find() function works on string but this function transverse the given string in backward direction after performing the operation on it.
islower()The 'islower()' function returns true in the output if all the characters present in the given string are in lower case form ,otherwise it will return false in the output.
replace(old,new[,count])The 'replace(old,new[,count])' function replaces the old sequence of character present in the given string to the new sequence of characters defined in function. The maximum character are replaced from the string if max is given in the function.
isnumeric()The 'isnumeric()' function returns true in output only if the given string contains all the characters are in numeric form otherwise, this function will print false in output.
maketrans()The 'maketrans()' function return a translation table in the output according to the given string that to be used in the translate function.
isprintable()The 'isprintable()' function return true in output if all the characters of given string in function are printable or the given string is empty, otherwise this function will print false in output.
partition()The 'partition()' function searches for the separator sep in the given string 'S' inside the function and returns the part of the string before the separator, the separator 'sep' itself and the part after the separator in output. If the separator 'sep' is not found in the given string then this function will return the original string S and two empty strings in the output.
isupper()The 'isupper()' function returns true in output if all the characters of the given string in function are in the upper-case form, otherwise this function will return false in output.
Istrip()The 'Istrip()' function removes all the leading white spaces present in the given string in function. This function is also used to remove a particular character in the given string from leading.
isspace()The 'isspace()' function returns true in output if the given string in function only contains white spaces in it, otherwise this function will return false in output.
istitle()The 'istitle()' function return true in output only if the given string in function is in proper titled form, otherwise this function will return false in output. This function will return true for Palwal string but false for all other form of it (palwal, PALWAL etc.)
lower()The 'lower()' function is used to change all the characters of the given string in function in the lower case form.
upper()The 'upper()' function is used to change all the characters of the given string in function in the upper case form.
join(seq)The 'join(seq)' function used to merge the given string's representation in the given sequence provided in the function.
Ijust(width[,fillchar])The 'Ijust(width[,fillchar])' function returns the space padded string in the output with the original string given is left justified to the given width provided in the function.
len(string)The 'len(string)' function returns the length of the given string provided in the function in the output.