Computer Fundamentals Index

Computer Introduction Types of computer Characteristics of computer Uses of computer History of Computers

Computer Languages

Low Level language Middle level Language High level language

Computer Generation

Generation of Computers First Generation of Computer Second generation of Computers Third generation of Computers Fourth generation of Computers Fifth generation of Computers Sixth Generation of Computer

Peripheral Devices

Input devices Output device


Block diagram and basic components Control processing unit (CPU) Software Hardware


Computer Memory Registers Memory Hierarchy RAM Vs ROM Understanding file sizes (Bytes, KB, MB, GB, TB, PB, EB, ZB, YB)

Computer Network

Types of Network Types of Area Networks (LAN, WAN, MAN) TCP Flags

Computer Virus

Computer Virus

Computer Ports

Computer Ports


How to hack a computer How much do Computer Programmers make How does a Computer work How to associate a file with a program How does a computer convert text into binary How does a computer process data into information How to fix a CD-ROM DVD How to fix the no input signal How to install computer memory How to associate a file with a program How to log out of your operating system How do I change my name on Google How to installation or uninstallation Microsoft Paint How to fix a not a valid Win32 application error How to fix missing Microsoft Windows .dll files How to use a computer keyboard How to erase my hard drive and start over How can I test how many words I can write a minute How to shut down a computer How do I open and edit the Windows registry How to edit the registry from the command line How to restart Microsoft Windows How to install a computer processor How to open Microsoft Paint How to fix problems in Windows after installing new software How to enable or disable the preview pane of Microsoft Outlook How to open a Microsoft .wps or Works file in Word How to view the HTML source code in Microsoft Word How to View or Change the Screen Resolution of a Monitor How to Connect and Install a Computer Keyboard How to Delete Temporary Files in Windows 10 How to determine Which Version of Microsoft Office I'm using How to find out how much hard drive space is available How to Fix PC Stuck on Verifying DMI Pool Data How to choose which items show in the notification area How to find similar images using Search by Image How to fix Low Memory and out of memory errors How To Replace the CMOS Battery How do I Update my Antivirus Program How to fix a general protection fault How to Identify problems in the Windows Device Manager How can the Base be Shown How to test if a Website or Web Page is down How Much is 1 Byte, Kilobyte, Megabyte, Gigabyte, etc How to fix a CMOS checksum error How to Fix a Windows CD-ROM, DVD, or Disc Drive Issue How to Open Safe Mode How to Password Protect Files and Folders in Windows How to Reset CMOS or BIOS Settings How to use Computer Keyboard How to create a text file How to enable or disable DHCP in Windows How to test computer memory to determine if its bad How do double space or change line spacing in Microsoft Word How do I know if I have Windows Administrator Rights How many cores does my computer have How to Create a Directory or Folder How to Enter and Exit the BIOS or CMOS Setup How to change Windows Compatibility mode How to clear your internet browser history How to Connect Computer Speakers How to Copy a Web Page Link or URL How to install a Hard Drive or SSD How to Open the Windows Control Panel How to split a screen in Windows How to copy text from a scanned PDF


Who invented Computer What are the advantages of the Internet? What are the disadvantages of the Internet? Is my computer 64 bit? What is Edge Computing? What is a Router? What is Monitor What is Printer What is a Web Browser What is Microphone What is a Webcam What is PC What is Keyboard What is Motherboard What is WAP What is URL What is a Digital Assistant When was the first Computer Invented What is Modem What is Firmware What is Imperative Programming What is Protocol What is Safe Mode What is Device Driver What is Hybrid Topology What is Mesh Topology What is Procedural language What is a hyperlink What is a Username Who invented the Internet What is Video Card What is Sound Card What is Binary What does Alt+B do What does Alt+D do What does Alt+E do What does Alt+Esc do What does Alt+R do What does ALT + Q do What does Alt + Tab do What is Data Manipulation What is a touch screen What is Back Panel What is Analog Monitor What is AR lens What is an ATX Style Connector What is a File System What is Hard Disk Drive (HDD) What is a boot device What is accessibility What is Line In What is network Interface card (NIC) What is Optical Disk Where can I ask questions on the internet What is Auto Rotate What is CAD (Computer-aided design) What is Cable Modem What is Home Page What is boot menu What is braille reader What is flash memory What is Windows What is Clipboard What is Cyber Warfare What is Myspace Why has my IP address changed What is Jacquard Loom My computer is running slow, what steps can I do to fix it What is a Kensington Lock What is a multicore processor What is automation Are smartphones and tablets computers What is a Login Script What is a Loosely Typed Language What is Multitasking? Why my computer monitor shows no display or black screen What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is the Pg Dn Key (Page Down Key) What is the Pg up Key (Page up Key) What is Palmtop Computer What is a Processing Device What is a Print Preview What is the Print Screen Key What can I do if my computer or laptop is lost or stolen What is a Model Number What are the currently available antivirus programs What are Toggle keys What is a Case fan What is a Silicon Chip What is a Slate PC What is a TAB stop What is an Octothorpe What is Task Pane What is Task View What is the svchost.exe file used for in Windows Where can I find free online virus scanners Why am I unable to increase the resolution in Windows What is Autofill When I click my mouse, it sometimes double-clicks What is Scratch What is UDIMM What is MsConfig What is an Expansion Card What is an Executable File What is an Elevated Command Prompt What is an AC Adapter What is AIMBOT What is a Software Suite What is a LED Monitor What does Alt + X do What does alt + space do What does Alt + O do Now that I’ve got a Computer, what can i do What is a Punch Card What is RDIMM What is Select All What is Serial number What is Thermos flask What programs can I use for speech recognition What are the Advantages of Computers What are the Disadvantages of Computers What does Alt + T do What Hardware Device Drivers should be Updated What is a Desktop What is a Ring Topology What is CMOS What is a Directory What is a Mechanical Mouse What is a Plotter What is a Variable What is an Icon What is Data What is HDMI What is Remote What is Right-Click What is SMPS Why does my Laptop not turn on What is a Copyright What is a Cordless Mouse What is a CSV file What is a Joystick What is a Start Button What is a Taskbar What is an Alignment What is an Output Device What is Cat 5 What is Google Chrome What is Post What are Recordable DVD Drives What Does Alt + F4 Do What Does Alt + L Do What is a bit (Binary Digit) What is a cable What is a Calculator What is a capacitor What is a Cold Boot What is a Dialog Box What is a Dual-boot What is a Slide What is A4 What is AM What is Barcode Reader What is EHCI What is a Header What is a Joystick What is a Secondary Storage Device What is Access Time What is Account Sharing What is an Asterisk What is Asynchronous DRAM What is Back Quote What is BIOS What is Borderless Printing What is Case Badge What is CD-ROM What is Chat Slang What is Composite What is RJ Cable What Are Bottom Row Keys What is SAN What is Tray What is VDU What Does Alt + M Do What Does Alt + P Do What is a Cell What is a Command Key What is a key Combination What is a Menu Bar What is a Startup What is a T What is Chat What are the F1 through F12 keys What does Alt + Enter do What Does Alt + Home DO What does Alt + R do What does Ctrl + B do What Does Ctrl + Enter Do What Does Ctrl + R Do What does Ctrl + G do What does Ctrl + 9 do What does Ctrl + End do What does Ctrl + O do What Does Ctrl + P do What Does Ctrl + Q do What is a Colon What is a Core What is Apple Touch Icon What is Clock What is Code What is Computer Crime What is Ctrl What is DAT What is Data diddling What is Date Why won't my computer turn on What Does Alt + N Do What does ctrl + 2 do What does ctrl + space do What does Ctrl + W do What does Ctrl + T Do What Does Ctrl + 2 do What does Ctrl + 5 Do What are the most common file types and file extensions What are Sticky keys What Does Ctrl + Shift + Esc Do What is Settings What is Task Manager What is Taskbar What is a DNS Resolver What does ctrl + 1 do What does ctrl + 0 do How to install software What is a Folder What is a Legend What is a MAC Address What is a Path What is a Ruler What is a Toolbar What is an Intranet Meaning and Differences with Internet What is an SSD What is Inheritance What is Tablet What is Depth What is Docking Station What is Double Click What is a Solid Ink Printer What is a Temporary File What is Backup and Restore What is Electronic Payment Systems Eps What is Marshalling


Difference between hardware and software Difference between multiprocessor and distributed systems Difference between Desktop and Laptop Difference between File and folder Difference between Hard Copy and Soft Copy Open Source Programs vs Closed Source Programs Difference between Optical Fibre and Coaxial Cable Difference between Website and Webpage Difference between Classes and Objects Input VS Output Difference between Primary and Secondary Storage with Examples


Quantum Computing Computer Software Autoexec.bat and config.sys info Update an Antivirus Use of Internet Advantages and disadvantages of Email Computing Power Internet Explorer Shortcut Keys Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) Augmented Reality Infrastructure Readiness Check Top 10 Internet tips and tricks Introduction and Features of FoxPro Features of Multimedia Top 10 online services and applications Receiving S.M.A.R.T. status bad backup and replacing error Version Control System Uninstalling Software or Apps in Windows Data Warehouse Increase or decrease font size in Word using keyboard shortcuts Mouse not detected or working in Windows Computer Cleaning Information and Steps Function Keys on Keyboard Windows 7 Alt+Tab won’t stay on top or stick 10 Essential Examples of Web Browsers Binary Subtraction using 2’s Complement Case Sensitive Languages Computer Pioneers and people who are CEO Microsoft Word Shortcut Keys Parts of Computers Names, Definitions and Images ROM and its Types Basics of Information Technology Characteristics of a Good Software Design Characteristics of Management Information System Classification of Management Information System Implementation of MIS Input Devices of Computer Definition Limitations of Management Information System 3 Types Of Network in Computer Block Diagram Of Control Unit Difference Between Computer and Embedded System Difference Between Hard Disk and Floppy Disk Abstraction in OOAD Hardware and Software Devices Optomechanical Mouse CMOS Memory What is a Terminal? What is Graphic Design? What is Load? What is Passcode? What is Reboot? What is Registry? What is Safe Mode? What is Standby? What is SYN (Synchronize)? What is Task Manager? Attribute Computing BPS in Computer Bulletin Board System Light Pen Input Device 3 TYPES OF NETWORK IN COMPUTER Block diagram of control unit What is a Solid Ink Printer? What is a Temporary File? What is an App launcher? What is Backup and Restore? What is a Tab Character? What is the Core i3? What is Paint? What is a Workbook? Advantages and Disadvantages of Online Education What is a String? What is a VDU (Visible Display Unit)? 50 Uses of Computer What is Workspace? What is a Procedural Language? What is VGA (Video Graphics Array)? Object Linking and Embedding in MS Word Semiconductor Memory Types of Parallel Computing Web Resources Difference between Virus, Worm and Trojan Horse Difference between HQ (High Quality) and HD (High Definition) What is Text Wrapping What is Timestamp? Semiconductor Ram Memory What is a File Attribute? What is a Video Call? Difference between SDRAM and DDR What is ANSI? Difference between DOS and Windows How to Set the Path and Environment Variables in Windows? Mainframe System What is ScanDisk? C drive in Mac Computer Memory Table How to Change the Keyboard Language in Windows? What is a Video Call? What is a Zoom Slider? What is Floppy Disk in Computer What is the most Popular Operating System? OMR in Computer What is a Work Area?

3 Types of Network in Computer

Introduction :

A computer organize could be a collection of computers that are connected together through a transmission channel such as cable or wire. In this article, we are going go over the different sorts of computer systems in depth.

Based on their estimate, computer systems are classified into three sorts:

1. LAN (Local Area Network)

2. MAN (Metropolitan Area Network)

3. WAN (Wide Area Network)

Local region Network (LAN): This network links devices inside a certain geographical region, such as a house, workplace, or a cluster of buildings. LANs provide for rapid data transmission rates and are often used for sharing files, printers, and internet access.

Metropolitan region Network (MAN): A MAN connects numerous LANs over a broader geographic region, such as a city or college. They provide faster data transmission rates than LANs but lack the breadth of Wide Area Networks (WANs).

Wide Area Network (WAN): WANs connect many LANs and MANs across cities, nations, or even continents. They are based on communication lines and enable worldwide connectivity.


A Local region Network (LAN) is a network of interconnected devices situated inside a certain geographic region, such as a house, workplace, or a cluster of buildings. It enables computers, printers, servers, and other devices to exchange information and resources like as files and internet access. LANs are often distinguished by fast data transmission rates and low latency. They are widely used in both households and companies for tasks including as file sharing, printing, and collaborative work. LANs may be set up using either wired connections (Ethernet cables) or wireless technologies (Wi-Fi), giving them the flexibility and scalability to fit a variety of locations and purposes.

A Local Area Network (LAN) is a network of linked devices in a limited area, such as a house, business, or group of buildings. To allow devices to share data, LANs employ a variety of communication protocols.

The most typical technique is to connect devices to a central hub or switch using Ethernet cables, often known as wired LANs. Wireless LANs (Wi-Fi) employ radio waves for communication, allowing devices to connect without the requirement of physical connections. LANs provide rapid and dependable data transfer, making them indispensable for sharing resources like as files, printers, and internet access within a localised area.

Benefits of LAN:

  1. Resource Sharing: LANs allow linked devices to share resources such as printers, scanners, and internet connections, lowering costs and increasing efficiency.
  2. High-Speed Data transmission: LANs enable speedy communication and file sharing between devices by providing fast data transmission speeds.
  3. Collaboration: LANs improve collaboration by allowing several users to work in real-time on shared documents or projects, boosting teamwork and productivity.
  4. Centralised Data Management: LANs provide centralised storage and backup via file servers, making data management and security easier.
  5. Cost-Effective: LANs are less expensive to build in terms of hardware and infrastructure than bigger networks such as WANs


A Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) is a network that is larger than a Local Area Network (LAN) but smaller than a Wide Area Network (WAN). It usually spans a city or a university, linking numerous LANs in the area.

MANs are distinguished by their small size and high data transfer speeds. They are frequently used to connect different LANs inside a city, allowing organisations, educational institutions, and government bodies to exchange resources and information.

One of the most notable benefits of a MAN is its capacity to span a large urban area while retaining reasonably high-speed connectivity. As a result, it is appropriate for applications such as video conferencing, distant learning, and high-definition multimedia streaming. Furthermore, MANs are frequently less expensive to deploy than WANs, making them an appealing alternative for enterprises and institutions with activities concentrated in a specific metropolitan region.

In MANs, technologies like as fibre optics and wireless links are frequently employed to provide effective data transfer across extended distances. Overall, a Metropolitan Area Network acts as a vital bridge between the localised capabilities of a LAN and the broad reach of a WAN, making it an essential component of modern metropolitan communication infrastructure.

Benefits of MAN:

MAN networks span a broader region by connecting LANs to a bigger network of computers. Telephone lines connect multiple Local area networks in a Metropolitan area network. The Metropolitan area network (MAN) is larger than LANs but smaller than WANs (wide area networks), and it covers a wider area of a city or town.

Wide region Network (WAN)

A Wide region Network (WAN) is a network that spans a vast geographic region, such as a city, nation, or even the entire globe. It links several Local Area Networks (LANs) and other network devices over a large geographical area, frequently utilising leased telecommunication lines. WANs enable the sharing of resources, data, and applications as well as communication between remote sites. Businesses, organisations, and governments frequently utilise them to link branches, offices, and data centres situated in various locations. MPLS, leased lines, satellite connections, and virtual private networks (VPNs) are examples of WAN technology. In today's linked world, WANs play a critical role in facilitating worldwide communication and cooperation.

What was the origin of wide-area networking?

The United States Air Force established the first known WAN in the late 1950s to connect stations in the Semi-Automatic Ground Environment (SAGE) radar defence system. An extensive network of specialised phone lines, telephones, and modems connected the locations.

The Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET), the first wide-area packet-switching network with dispersed control and the first network to adopt the TCP/IP protocol suite, laid the groundwork for the IP-based Internet.ARPANET originally linked the universities of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), Stanford Research Institute (now SRI International), University of California, Santa Barbara (UCSB), and Utah.

WAN technology classifications

  • Switching of packets

Packet switching is a data transmission technique in which a message is divided into many packets that are transmitted separately, in triplicate, along the best route for each packet, and then reassembled at the destination. Each packet has a payload and an identifying header that provides destination and reassembly information. To check for packet corruption, the packets are delivered in duplicate. Every packet is confirmed by comparing and confirming that at least two copies match. When verification fails, a request is issued to resend the packet.

  • Protocol suite TCP/IP

TCP/IP is a protocol suite of basic communication protocols that are used to link network devices on today's Internet and other computer/device networks. TCP/IP is an abbreviation for Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol.

  • Router

A router is a networking device that connects LANs to establish a wide area network (WAN) and is therefore referred to as a WAN device. IP addresses are used by IP routers to identify where to forward packets. An IP address is a number designation issued to each network device that is connected.

Wide Area Network Examples:

A 4G network is widely utilised throughout a region or country.

Last mile: A telecommunications business is employed to give internet access to clients in hundreds of cities by connecting their homes with fibre.

A bank offers a private network that connects the 44 locations. This network is built utilising a telephone leased line provided by a telecommunications firm.

Benefits of a Wide Area Network:

The following are the benefits of a Wide Area Network:

  1. Geographic coverage: A Wide region Network covers a broad geographic region. If our office has a branch in a distant city, we can communicate with them over WAN. We can link to another branch over the internet, which provides a leased line.
  2. Data centralised: In the case of a WAN network, data is centralised. As a result, we do not need to purchase emails, data, or backup servers.
  3. Update your files: Software firms operate on a live server. As a result, the programmers receive the revised files in seconds.
  4. Message exchange: Messages are sent quickly in a WAN network. You may contact with pals via web applications such as Facebook, Whatsapp, and Skype.

Wide Area Network Disadvantages:

The following are the Wide Area Network's disadvantages:

  1. Security issue: A WAN network has more security difficulties than a LAN or MAN network since all of the technologies are integrated, which presents a security challenge.
  2. Needs Antivirus and firewall software: Because data is transported via the internet and can be modified or hijacked by hackers, a firewall is required. Because some persons can implant viruses into our systems, antivirus software is required to defend against such threats.
  3. Expensive setup: The establishment of a WAN network is expensive since it necessitates the purchase of routers and switches.
  4. Troubleshooting issues: It covers a broad region, making resolution difficult.