Computer Fundamentals Index

Computer Introduction Types of computer Characteristics of computer Uses of computer History of Computers

Computer Languages

Low Level language Middle level Language High level language

Computer Generation

Generation of Computers First Generation of Computer Second generation of Computers Third generation of Computers Fourth generation of Computers Fifth generation of Computers Sixth Generation of Computer

Peripheral Devices

Input devices Output device


Block diagram and basic components Control processing unit (CPU) Software Hardware


Computer Memory Registers Memory Hierarchy RAM Vs ROM Understanding file sizes (Bytes, KB, MB, GB, TB, PB, EB, ZB, YB)

Computer Network

Types of Network Types of Area Networks (LAN, WAN, MAN) TCP Flags

Computer Virus

Computer Virus

Computer Ports

Computer Ports


How to hack a computer How much do Computer Programmers make How does a Computer work How to associate a file with a program How does a computer convert text into binary How does a computer process data into information How to fix a CD-ROM DVD How to fix the no input signal How to install computer memory How to associate a file with a program How to log out of your operating system How do I change my name on Google How to installation or uninstallation Microsoft Paint How to fix a not a valid Win32 application error How to fix missing Microsoft Windows .dll files How to use a computer keyboard How to erase my hard drive and start over How can I test how many words I can write a minute How to shut down a computer How do I open and edit the Windows registry How to edit the registry from the command line How to restart Microsoft Windows How to install a computer processor How to open Microsoft Paint How to fix problems in Windows after installing new software How to enable or disable the preview pane of Microsoft Outlook How to open a Microsoft .wps or Works file in Word How to view the HTML source code in Microsoft Word How to View or Change the Screen Resolution of a Monitor How to Connect and Install a Computer Keyboard How to Delete Temporary Files in Windows 10 How to determine Which Version of Microsoft Office I'm using How to find out how much hard drive space is available How to Fix PC Stuck on Verifying DMI Pool Data How to choose which items show in the notification area How to find similar images using Search by Image How to fix Low Memory and out of memory errors How To Replace the CMOS Battery How do I Update my Antivirus Program How to fix a general protection fault How to Identify problems in the Windows Device Manager How can the Base be Shown How to test if a Website or Web Page is down How Much is 1 Byte, Kilobyte, Megabyte, Gigabyte, etc How to fix a CMOS checksum error How to Fix a Windows CD-ROM, DVD, or Disc Drive Issue How to Open Safe Mode How to Password Protect Files and Folders in Windows How to Reset CMOS or BIOS Settings How to use Computer Keyboard How to create a text file How to enable or disable DHCP in Windows How to test computer memory to determine if its bad How do double space or change line spacing in Microsoft Word How do I know if I have Windows Administrator Rights How many cores does my computer have How to Create a Directory or Folder How to Enter and Exit the BIOS or CMOS Setup How to change Windows Compatibility mode How to clear your internet browser history How to Connect Computer Speakers How to Copy a Web Page Link or URL How to install a Hard Drive or SSD How to Open the Windows Control Panel How to split a screen in Windows How to copy text from a scanned PDF


Who invented Computer What are the advantages of the Internet? What are the disadvantages of the Internet? Is my computer 64 bit? What is Edge Computing? What is a Router? What is Monitor What is Printer What is a Web Browser What is Microphone What is a Webcam What is PC What is Keyboard What is Motherboard What is WAP What is URL What is a Digital Assistant When was the first Computer Invented What is Modem What is Firmware What is Imperative Programming What is Protocol What is Safe Mode What is Device Driver What is Hybrid Topology What is Mesh Topology What is Procedural language What is a hyperlink What is a Username Who invented the Internet What is Video Card What is Sound Card What is Binary What does Alt+B do What does Alt+D do What does Alt+E do What does Alt+Esc do What does Alt+R do What does ALT + Q do What does Alt + Tab do What is Data Manipulation What is a touch screen What is Back Panel What is Analog Monitor What is AR lens What is an ATX Style Connector What is a File System What is Hard Disk Drive (HDD) What is a boot device What is accessibility What is Line In What is network Interface card (NIC) What is Optical Disk Where can I ask questions on the internet What is Auto Rotate What is CAD (Computer-aided design) What is Cable Modem What is Home Page What is boot menu What is braille reader What is flash memory What is Windows What is Clipboard What is Cyber Warfare What is Myspace Why has my IP address changed What is Jacquard Loom My computer is running slow, what steps can I do to fix it What is a Kensington Lock What is a multicore processor What is automation Are smartphones and tablets computers What is a Login Script What is a Loosely Typed Language What is Multitasking? Why my computer monitor shows no display or black screen What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is the Pg Dn Key (Page Down Key) What is the Pg up Key (Page up Key) What is Palmtop Computer What is a Processing Device What is a Print Preview What is the Print Screen Key What can I do if my computer or laptop is lost or stolen What is a Model Number What are the currently available antivirus programs What are Toggle keys What is a Case fan What is a Silicon Chip What is a Slate PC What is a TAB stop What is an Octothorpe What is Task Pane What is Task View What is the svchost.exe file used for in Windows Where can I find free online virus scanners Why am I unable to increase the resolution in Windows What is Autofill When I click my mouse, it sometimes double-clicks What is Scratch What is UDIMM What is MsConfig What is an Expansion Card What is an Executable File What is an Elevated Command Prompt What is an AC Adapter What is AIMBOT What is a Software Suite What is a LED Monitor What does Alt + X do What does alt + space do What does Alt + O do Now that I’ve got a Computer, what can i do What is a Punch Card What is RDIMM What is Select All What is Serial number What is Thermos flask What programs can I use for speech recognition What are the Advantages of Computers What are the Disadvantages of Computers What does Alt + T do What Hardware Device Drivers should be Updated What is a Desktop What is a Ring Topology What is CMOS What is a Directory What is a Mechanical Mouse What is a Plotter What is a Variable What is an Icon What is Data What is HDMI What is Remote What is Right-Click What is SMPS Why does my Laptop not turn on What is a Copyright What is a Cordless Mouse What is a CSV file What is a Joystick What is a Start Button What is a Taskbar What is an Alignment What is an Output Device What is Cat 5 What is Google Chrome What is Post What are Recordable DVD Drives What Does Alt + F4 Do What Does Alt + L Do What is a bit (Binary Digit) What is a cable What is a Calculator What is a capacitor What is a Cold Boot What is a Dialog Box What is a Dual-boot What is a Slide What is A4 What is AM What is Barcode Reader What is EHCI What is a Header What is a Joystick What is a Secondary Storage Device What is Access Time What is Account Sharing What is an Asterisk What is Asynchronous DRAM What is Back Quote What is BIOS What is Borderless Printing What is Case Badge What is CD-ROM What is Chat Slang What is Composite What is RJ Cable What Are Bottom Row Keys What is SAN What is Tray What is VDU What Does Alt + M Do What Does Alt + P Do What is a Cell What is a Command Key What is a key Combination What is a Menu Bar What is a Startup What is a T What is Chat What are the F1 through F12 keys What does Alt + Enter do What Does Alt + Home DO What does Alt + R do What does Ctrl + B do What Does Ctrl + Enter Do What Does Ctrl + R Do What does Ctrl + G do What does Ctrl + 9 do What does Ctrl + End do What does Ctrl + O do What Does Ctrl + P do What Does Ctrl + Q do What is a Colon What is a Core What is Apple Touch Icon What is Clock What is Code What is Computer Crime What is Ctrl What is DAT What is Data diddling What is Date Why won't my computer turn on What Does Alt + N Do What does ctrl + 2 do What does ctrl + space do What does Ctrl + W do What does Ctrl + T Do What Does Ctrl + 2 do What does Ctrl + 5 Do What are the most common file types and file extensions What are Sticky keys What Does Ctrl + Shift + Esc Do What is Settings What is Task Manager What is Taskbar What is a DNS Resolver What does ctrl + 1 do What does ctrl + 0 do How to install software What is a Folder What is a Legend What is a MAC Address What is a Path What is a Ruler What is a Toolbar What is an Intranet Meaning and Differences with Internet What is an SSD What is Inheritance What is Tablet What is Depth What is Docking Station What is Double Click What is a Solid Ink Printer What is a Temporary File What is Backup and Restore What is Electronic Payment Systems Eps What is Marshalling


Difference between hardware and software Difference between multiprocessor and distributed systems Difference between Desktop and Laptop Difference between File and folder Difference between Hard Copy and Soft Copy Open Source Programs vs Closed Source Programs Difference between Optical Fibre and Coaxial Cable Difference between Website and Webpage Difference between Classes and Objects Input VS Output Difference between Primary and Secondary Storage with Examples


Quantum Computing Computer Software Autoexec.bat and config.sys info Update an Antivirus Use of Internet Advantages and disadvantages of Email Computing Power Internet Explorer Shortcut Keys Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) Augmented Reality Infrastructure Readiness Check Top 10 Internet tips and tricks Introduction and Features of FoxPro Features of Multimedia Top 10 online services and applications Receiving S.M.A.R.T. status bad backup and replacing error Version Control System Uninstalling Software or Apps in Windows Data Warehouse Increase or decrease font size in Word using keyboard shortcuts Mouse not detected or working in Windows Computer Cleaning Information and Steps Function Keys on Keyboard Windows 7 Alt+Tab won’t stay on top or stick 10 Essential Examples of Web Browsers Binary Subtraction using 2’s Complement Case Sensitive Languages Computer Pioneers and people who are CEO Microsoft Word Shortcut Keys Parts of Computers Names, Definitions and Images ROM and its Types Basics of Information Technology Characteristics of a Good Software Design Characteristics of Management Information System Classification of Management Information System Implementation of MIS Input Devices of Computer Definition Limitations of Management Information System 3 Types Of Network in Computer Block Diagram Of Control Unit Difference Between Computer and Embedded System Difference Between Hard Disk and Floppy Disk Abstraction in OOAD Hardware and Software Devices Optomechanical Mouse CMOS Memory What is a Terminal? What is Graphic Design? What is Load? What is Passcode? What is Reboot? What is Registry? What is Safe Mode? What is Standby? What is SYN (Synchronize)? What is Task Manager? Attribute Computing BPS in Computer Bulletin Board System Light Pen Input Device 3 TYPES OF NETWORK IN COMPUTER Block diagram of control unit What is a Solid Ink Printer? What is a Temporary File? What is an App launcher? What is Backup and Restore? What is a Tab Character? What is the Core i3? What is Paint? What is a Workbook? Advantages and Disadvantages of Online Education What is a String? What is a VDU (Visible Display Unit)? 50 Uses of Computer What is Workspace? What is a Procedural Language? What is VGA (Video Graphics Array)?

What is an SSD?

SSD stands for "Solid State Drive". It is a computer storage device that uses NAND-based flash memory to store data. Unlike traditional hard disk drives (HDDs), which SSDs don't have any moving parts, thus they read and write data using spinning discs, which makes them faster, more durable, and more power-efficient. SSDs use a type of memory called NAND flash, which is non-volatile, meaning it can retain data even when power is not supplied. This makes them ideal for portable devices like laptops and tablets, where power consumption is a major concern.

What is an SSD

History of SSD

The earliest "solid-state memory" devices, often SSDs or solid-state drives, were created in the 1970s. However, these early SSDs were extremely expensive and had limited storage capacity, making them impractical for most applications. It was not until the 1980s and 1990s that SSD technology began to be used in more practical applications, such as military and aerospace systems. These early SSDs were still relatively expensive and had limited capacity compared to traditional hard disk drives.

In the early 2000s, advances in NAND flash memory technology led to the development of more affordable and higher-capacity SSDs. These early SSDs were primarily used in industrial and enterprise applications like servers and data centers.

Around 2007, consumer-grade SSDs began to emerge on the market, although they were still relatively expensive compared to traditional hard drives. However, their superior performance and reliability made them popular among early adopters and enthusiasts. SSD technology has continued to evolve and improve in the years since, with capacities increasing and prices decreasing. Today, SSDs are widely used in various applications, from consumer laptops and desktops to enterprise-level servers and data canters.

Working of SSD

The basic working principle of an SSD involves storing data on NAND-based flash memory. NAND is a type of non-volatile memory that can retain data even when power is turned off.

When you save a file to an SSD, the data is stored on one or more NAND flash memory chips. The SSD uses a controller chip to manage data storage on the flash memory chips, and the controller chip also handles transferring and receiving data from and to the SSD.

To read data from an SSD, the controller chip sends a signal to the flash memory chip where the data is stored. The flash memory chip then sends the data back to the controller chip, which processes it and sends it to the computer's processor for use.

To write data to an SSD, the controller chip first erases the NAND flash memory cells where the data will be reported, and it then writes the new data to the appropriate memory cells. Because of the way NAND memory works, data can only be erased and written to memory cells in blocks rather than individually. This is why SSDs tend to have limited write cycles before they degrade in performance.

Overall, working with an SSD involves managing the storage and retrieval of data on NAND flash memory using a controller chip. The lack of moving parts makes SSDs faster, more durable, and more power-efficient than traditional hard disk drives.

Explain the features of SSD:

Solid State Drives (SSDs) have several key features that differentiate them from traditional hard disk drives (HDDs). Here are some of the most important parts of SSDs:

  • Flash Memory: SSDs store data instead of spinning disks and read/write heads using NAND-based flash memory. This makes SSDs faster and more durable than traditional HDDs.
  • Speed: SSDs are faster than HDDs regarding read/write speed, boot, and application load times. This is because SSDs do not have any moving parts, and data can be accessed almost instantly.
  • Durability: Since SSDs do not have any moving parts, they are less susceptible to physical damage and are more durable than traditional HDDs.
  • Energy Efficiency: SSDs use less power than HDDs, which can translate into longer battery life for laptops and mobile devices.
  • Capacity: SSDs are available in a wide range of capabilities, ranging from a few gigabytes to several terabytes.
  • Form Factor: SSDs are available in several form factors, including 2.5-inch, M.2, and PCIe cards. This makes them suitable for various devices, from laptops and desktops to servers and data centers.
  • Price: SSDs are typically more expensive than HDDs, but prices have decreased rapidly. Additionally, the cost per gigabyte of storage for SSDs is becoming increasingly competitive with HDDs.

Advantages of SSD

  1. Performance: SSDs perform far more quickly regarding data access speeds. They offer shorter boot times, faster application load, and faster file transfers.
  • Improved Reliability: Since SSDs have no moving parts, they are less prone to mechanical failures, such as head crashes, that can lead to data loss.
  • Greater Durability: SSDs are more resistant to physical shock and damage. SSDs a good choice for portable devices, such as laptops, that may be subjected to rough handling.
  • Lower Power Consumption: SSDs use less power, which can result in longer battery life for laptops and other mobile devices. This also makes SSDs a good choice for servers and data centers, where power consumption is a significant cost factor.
  • Quieter Operation: SSDs don't have moving parts, producing less noise and vibration. Because of this, they are a suitable option for settings where noise levels must be maintained to a minimum. 
  • Smaller Form Factor: SSDs are available in smaller form factors, making them ideal for use in thin and light laptops, tablets, and other mobile devices.
  • Increased Endurance: Modern SSDs are designed to last longer, thanks to advanced wear-leveling algorithms and other features that help extend the drive's lifespan.

Disadvantages of SSD

  • Cost: SSDs are typically more expensive, especially for drives with larger capacities. This can make them less cost-effective for users needing much storage space.
  • Limited Lifespan: While modern SSDs are designed to last longer than older models, they still have a limited lifespan. Over time, the flash memory cells in an SSD can wear out, which can lead to data loss or drive failure.
  • Capacity Limitations: SSDs have limited read/write cycles, meaning they can only be written a certain number of times before they fail. This can lead to capacity limitations over time, as the driver may need to reserve more space for wear leveling and other maintenance tasks.
  • Susceptibility to Heat: SSDs are more susceptible to heat damage, which can cause them to fail more quickly. This is because high temperatures can damage the flash memory cells in an SSD.
  • Data Recovery Difficulties: Unlike HDDs, which may be recoverable after a mechanical failure, recovering data from a failed SSD can be much more difficult and expensive.
  • Performance Degradation: SSD performance can degrade over time, especially if the drive is nearly full. This can lead to slower data access speeds and reduced overall system performance.

Types of SSD

There are various types of SSDs on the market, including:

SATA SSDs: These are the most common type of SSD and are designed to replace traditional hard drives in desktop and laptop computers. They can be installed in current systems because they share the same SATA interface as HDDs.

What is an SSD

NVMe SSDs: NVMe (Non-Volatile Memory Express) is a high-speed data transfer protocol that allows SSDs to operate faster than SATA SSDs. NVMe SSDs are designed for high-end desktops, laptops, servers, and data centers that require extremely fast storage.

PCIe SSDs: PCIe (Peripheral Component Interconnect Express) is a high-speed interface that connects SSDs directly to the motherboard, bypassing the slower SATA interface. PCIe SSDs are even faster than NVMe SSDs and are designed for high-performance gaming and workstations.

M.2 SSDs: M.2 is a small form factor SSD that connects directly to the motherboard via the PCIe or SATA interface. M.2 SSDs are designed for laptops, ultrabooks, and small form-factor desktops.

U.2 SSDs: U.2 is a newer SSD form factor that uses the PCIe interface and is designed for enterprise-level data centers and servers.

Speed of different SSDs

The speed of different SSDs can vary depending on several factors, including the type of interface, the quality of the NAND flash memory, the controller, and the firmware. Here are some general speed ranges for different types of SSDs:

  • SATA SSD: SATA SSDs typically have sequential read and write speeds ranging from 500MB/s to 600MB/s and random read and write speeds ranging from 80,000 to 100,000 IOPS.
  • NVMe SSD: NVMe SSDs can have sequential read and write speeds ranging from 1,500MB/s to 7,000MB/s and random read and write rates ranging from 150,000 IOPS to 1,000,000 IOPS, depending on the specific model.
  • M.2 SSD: M.2 SSDs can have sequential read and write speeds similar to NVMe SSDs, but may have lower random read and write speeds, typically ranging from 80,000 to 500,000 IOPS.
  • U.2 SSD: U.2 SSDs can have similar speed ranges to M.2 SSDs and NVMe SSDs, with sequential read and write rates ranging from 1,500MB/s to 7,000MB/s random read and write speeds ranging from 150,000 IOPS to 1,000,000 IOPS.
  • PCIe SSD: PCIe SSDs can have very high speeds, with sequential read and write rates ranging from 1,500MB/s to 15,000MB/s and random read and write speeds ranging from 100,000 IOPS to 1,000,000 IOPS.
  • SAS SSD: SAS SSDs typically have sequential read and write speeds ranging from 500MB/s to 1,500MB/s and random read and write rates ranging from 80,000 to 300,000 IOPS.

Uses of SSD

Due to their greater performance and dependability over conventional hard disc drives, SSDs, or solid-state drives, have grown in popularity in recent years.

  • Personal computers: SSDs are commonly used in personal computers as a faster and more reliable alternative to traditional hard disk drives. They can improve boot times, application loading times, and overall system performance.
  • Gaming: SSDs are popular among gamers due to their faster loading times for games and reduced stuttering during gameplay.
  • Servers and data centers: SSDs are widely used in enterprise-level servers and information centers due to their high performance, reliability, and lower power consumption than traditional hard drives.
  • Laptops and tablets: SSDs are commonly used in laptops and tablets due to their faster boot times, improved battery life, and resistance to shock and vibration.
  • Digital cameras: Some high-end digital cameras use SSDs for storage due to their speed and reliability.
  • Automotive industry: SSDs are used in some automotive applications, such as infotainment and navigation systems, due to their resistance to shock and vibration.

Composition of SSD:

SSDs, or Solid State Drives, comprise several key components that work together to store and retrieve data. Here are the main features of an SSD:

NAND Flash Memory: This is the primary storage medium used in SSDs, and it consists of interconnected memory cells that store data using electrical charges. NAND flash memory is non-volatile, meaning it can retain data even when the power is turned off.

Controller: The controller is a small chip that acts as the "brain" of the SSD. It manages the data flow between the NAND flash memory and the computer's CPU and performs other functions such as wear leveling, error correction, and encryption.

Cache: Some SSDs include a small amount of high-speed DRAM memory that serves as a cache, helping to improve read and write speeds.

Interface: The interface is the connector that attaches the SSD to the computer's motherboard. The most common interfaces used in SSDs are SATA, NVMe, and PCIe.

Enclosure: The enclosure is the physical housing that protects the SSD's components from damage and provides a standard form factor for computer installation.


SSD (Solid State Drive) and HDD (Hard Disk Drive) are two storage devices simultaneously store data. There are, however, some significant differences between the two. The following are some of the primary distinctions between HDDs and SSDs: 

  • Speed: SSDs are significantly faster than HDDs regarding data access and transfer speed. HDDs use spinning discs and read/write heads, while SSDs store data in flash memory. As a result, SSDs can deliver faster boot times, application load times, and file transfer speeds.
  • Reliability: SSDs are more reliable than HDDs due to their lack of moving parts. HDDs are vulnerable to mechanical failures, such as head crashes and platter damage, while SSDs are more resistant to shock and vibration.
  • Power consumption: SSDs consume less power than HDDs, which can result in longer battery life for laptops and other portable devices. SSDs do not have to spin disks and move read/write heads, which requires more power.
  • Capacity: HDDs are still the primary choice for high-capacity storage needs. HDDs are available in larger capacities than SSDs and at a lower cost per gigabyte.
  • Price: SSDs are generally more expensive than HDDs, especially for higher-capacity drives. However, the price gap between the two types of industries has been shrinking in recent years.
What is an SSD

How to choose the right SSD?

Choosing the right SSD depends on a few factors, such as your computer's hardware, intended use case, and budget. 

  • Interface: The interface determines how the SSD will connect to your computer's motherboard. The most common interfaces for SSDs are SATA, NVMe, and PCIe. Make sure to choose an SSD compatible with your computer's interface.
  • Capacity: Consider how much storage capacity you need. SSDs are available in many capacities, from a few hundred gigabytes to several terabytes. Choose an SSD with enough storage capacity for your needs.
  • Speed: SSDs offer varying levels of performance. Look for an SSD with faster read and write speeds if you need shorter boot times, application load times, or file transfer speeds.
  • Endurance: The endurance rating of an SSD refers to how long it will last before wearing out. Look for an SSD with a high endurance rating if you plan to use it for intensive workloads or applications that involve a lot of data writing.
  • Brand and reliability: Choose an SSD from a trustworthy company with a solid dependability and customer service reputation.
  • Price: SSDs are available at different price points, so consider your budget when choosing an SSD.