Computer Fundamentals Index

Computer Introduction Types of computer Characteristics of computer Uses of computer History of Computers

Computer Languages

Low Level language Middle level Language High level language

Computer Generation

Generation of Computers First Generation of Computer Second generation of Computers Third generation of Computers Fourth generation of Computers Fifth generation of Computers Sixth Generation of Computer

Peripheral Devices

Input devices Output device


Block diagram and basic components Control processing unit (CPU) Software Hardware


Computer Memory Registers Memory Hierarchy RAM Vs ROM Understanding file sizes (Bytes, KB, MB, GB, TB, PB, EB, ZB, YB)

Computer Network

Types of Network Types of Area Networks (LAN, WAN, MAN) TCP Flags

Computer Virus

Computer Virus

Computer Ports

Computer Ports


How to hack a computer How much do Computer Programmers make How does a Computer work How to associate a file with a program How does a computer convert text into binary How does a computer process data into information How to fix a CD-ROM DVD How to fix the no input signal How to install computer memory How to associate a file with a program How to log out of your operating system How do I change my name on Google How to installation or uninstallation Microsoft Paint How to fix a not a valid Win32 application error How to fix missing Microsoft Windows .dll files How to use a computer keyboard How to erase my hard drive and start over How can I test how many words I can write a minute How to shut down a computer How do I open and edit the Windows registry How to edit the registry from the command line How to restart Microsoft Windows How to install a computer processor How to open Microsoft Paint How to fix problems in Windows after installing new software How to enable or disable the preview pane of Microsoft Outlook How to open a Microsoft .wps or Works file in Word How to view the HTML source code in Microsoft Word How to View or Change the Screen Resolution of a Monitor How to Connect and Install a Computer Keyboard How to Delete Temporary Files in Windows 10 How to determine Which Version of Microsoft Office I'm using How to find out how much hard drive space is available How to Fix PC Stuck on Verifying DMI Pool Data How to choose which items show in the notification area How to find similar images using Search by Image How to fix Low Memory and out of memory errors How To Replace the CMOS Battery How do I Update my Antivirus Program How to fix a general protection fault How to Identify problems in the Windows Device Manager How can the Base be Shown How to test if a Website or Web Page is down How Much is 1 Byte, Kilobyte, Megabyte, Gigabyte, etc How to fix a CMOS checksum error How to Fix a Windows CD-ROM, DVD, or Disc Drive Issue How to Open Safe Mode How to Password Protect Files and Folders in Windows How to Reset CMOS or BIOS Settings How to use Computer Keyboard How to create a text file How to enable or disable DHCP in Windows How to test computer memory to determine if its bad How do double space or change line spacing in Microsoft Word How do I know if I have Windows Administrator Rights How many cores does my computer have How to Create a Directory or Folder How to Enter and Exit the BIOS or CMOS Setup How to change Windows Compatibility mode How to clear your internet browser history How to Connect Computer Speakers How to Copy a Web Page Link or URL How to install a Hard Drive or SSD How to Open the Windows Control Panel How to split a screen in Windows How to copy text from a scanned PDF


Who invented Computer What are the advantages of the Internet? What are the disadvantages of the Internet? Is my computer 64 bit? What is Edge Computing? What is a Router? What is Monitor What is Printer What is a Web Browser What is Microphone What is a Webcam What is PC What is Keyboard What is Motherboard What is WAP What is URL What is a Digital Assistant When was the first Computer Invented What is Modem What is Firmware What is Imperative Programming What is Protocol What is Safe Mode What is Device Driver What is Hybrid Topology What is Mesh Topology What is Procedural language What is a hyperlink What is a Username Who invented the Internet What is Video Card What is Sound Card What is Binary What does Alt+B do What does Alt+D do What does Alt+E do What does Alt+Esc do What does Alt+R do What does ALT + Q do What does Alt + Tab do What is Data Manipulation What is a touch screen What is Back Panel What is Analog Monitor What is AR lens What is an ATX Style Connector What is a File System What is Hard Disk Drive (HDD) What is a boot device What is accessibility What is Line In What is network Interface card (NIC) What is Optical Disk Where can I ask questions on the internet What is Auto Rotate What is CAD (Computer-aided design) What is Cable Modem What is Home Page What is boot menu What is braille reader What is flash memory What is Windows What is Clipboard What is Cyber Warfare What is Myspace Why has my IP address changed What is Jacquard Loom My computer is running slow, what steps can I do to fix it What is a Kensington Lock What is a multicore processor What is automation Are smartphones and tablets computers What is a Login Script What is a Loosely Typed Language What is Multitasking? Why my computer monitor shows no display or black screen What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is the Pg Dn Key (Page Down Key) What is the Pg up Key (Page up Key) What is Palmtop Computer What is a Processing Device What is a Print Preview What is the Print Screen Key What can I do if my computer or laptop is lost or stolen What is a Model Number What are the currently available antivirus programs What are Toggle keys What is a Case fan What is a Silicon Chip What is a Slate PC What is a TAB stop What is an Octothorpe What is Task Pane What is Task View What is the svchost.exe file used for in Windows Where can I find free online virus scanners Why am I unable to increase the resolution in Windows What is Autofill When I click my mouse, it sometimes double-clicks What is Scratch What is UDIMM What is MsConfig What is an Expansion Card What is an Executable File What is an Elevated Command Prompt What is an AC Adapter What is AIMBOT What is a Software Suite What is a LED Monitor What does Alt + X do What does alt + space do What does Alt + O do Now that I’ve got a Computer, what can i do What is a Punch Card What is RDIMM What is Select All What is Serial number What is Thermos flask What programs can I use for speech recognition What are the Advantages of Computers What are the Disadvantages of Computers What does Alt + T do What Hardware Device Drivers should be Updated What is a Desktop What is a Ring Topology What is CMOS What is a Directory What is a Mechanical Mouse What is a Plotter What is a Variable What is an Icon What is Data What is HDMI What is Remote What is Right-Click What is SMPS Why does my Laptop not turn on What is a Copyright What is a Cordless Mouse What is a CSV file What is a Joystick What is a Start Button What is a Taskbar What is an Alignment What is an Output Device What is Cat 5 What is Google Chrome What is Post What are Recordable DVD Drives What Does Alt + F4 Do What Does Alt + L Do What is a bit (Binary Digit) What is a cable What is a Calculator What is a capacitor What is a Cold Boot What is a Dialog Box What is a Dual-boot What is a Slide What is A4 What is AM What is Barcode Reader What is EHCI What is a Header What is a Joystick What is a Secondary Storage Device What is Access Time What is Account Sharing What is an Asterisk What is Asynchronous DRAM What is Back Quote What is BIOS What is Borderless Printing What is Case Badge What is CD-ROM What is Chat Slang What is Composite What is RJ Cable What Are Bottom Row Keys What is SAN What is Tray What is VDU What Does Alt + M Do What Does Alt + P Do What is a Cell What is a Command Key What is a key Combination What is a Menu Bar What is a Startup What is a T What is Chat What are the F1 through F12 keys What does Alt + Enter do What Does Alt + Home DO What does Alt + R do What does Ctrl + B do What Does Ctrl + Enter Do What Does Ctrl + R Do What does Ctrl + G do What does Ctrl + 9 do What does Ctrl + End do What does Ctrl + O do What Does Ctrl + P do What Does Ctrl + Q do What is a Colon What is a Core What is Apple Touch Icon What is Clock What is Code What is Computer Crime What is Ctrl What is DAT What is Data diddling What is Date Why won't my computer turn on What Does Alt + N Do What does ctrl + 2 do What does ctrl + space do What does Ctrl + W do What does Ctrl + T Do What Does Ctrl + 2 do What does Ctrl + 5 Do What are the most common file types and file extensions What are Sticky keys What Does Ctrl + Shift + Esc Do What is Settings What is Task Manager What is Taskbar What is a DNS Resolver What does ctrl + 1 do What does ctrl + 0 do How to install software What is a Folder What is a Legend What is a MAC Address What is a Path What is a Ruler What is a Toolbar What is an Intranet Meaning and Differences with Internet What is an SSD What is Inheritance What is Tablet What is Depth What is Docking Station What is Double Click What is a Solid Ink Printer What is a Temporary File What is Backup and Restore What is Electronic Payment Systems Eps What is Marshalling


Difference between hardware and software Difference between multiprocessor and distributed systems Difference between Desktop and Laptop Difference between File and folder Difference between Hard Copy and Soft Copy Open Source Programs vs Closed Source Programs Difference between Optical Fibre and Coaxial Cable Difference between Website and Webpage Difference between Classes and Objects Input VS Output Difference between Primary and Secondary Storage with Examples


Quantum Computing Computer Software Autoexec.bat and config.sys info Update an Antivirus Use of Internet Advantages and disadvantages of Email Computing Power Internet Explorer Shortcut Keys Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) Augmented Reality Infrastructure Readiness Check Top 10 Internet tips and tricks Introduction and Features of FoxPro Features of Multimedia Top 10 online services and applications Receiving S.M.A.R.T. status bad backup and replacing error Version Control System Uninstalling Software or Apps in Windows Data Warehouse Increase or decrease font size in Word using keyboard shortcuts Mouse not detected or working in Windows Computer Cleaning Information and Steps Function Keys on Keyboard Windows 7 Alt+Tab won’t stay on top or stick 10 Essential Examples of Web Browsers Binary Subtraction using 2’s Complement Case Sensitive Languages Computer Pioneers and people who are CEO Microsoft Word Shortcut Keys Parts of Computers Names, Definitions and Images ROM and its Types Basics of Information Technology Characteristics of a Good Software Design Characteristics of Management Information System Classification of Management Information System Implementation of MIS Input Devices of Computer Definition Limitations of Management Information System 3 Types Of Network in Computer Block Diagram Of Control Unit Difference Between Computer and Embedded System Difference Between Hard Disk and Floppy Disk Abstraction in OOAD Hardware and Software Devices Optomechanical Mouse CMOS Memory What is a Terminal? What is Graphic Design? What is Load? What is Passcode? What is Reboot? What is Registry? What is Safe Mode? What is Standby? What is SYN (Synchronize)? What is Task Manager? Attribute Computing BPS in Computer Bulletin Board System Light Pen Input Device 3 TYPES OF NETWORK IN COMPUTER Block diagram of control unit What is a Solid Ink Printer? What is a Temporary File? What is an App launcher? What is Backup and Restore? What is a Tab Character? What is the Core i3? What is Paint? What is a Workbook? Advantages and Disadvantages of Online Education What is a String? What is a VDU (Visible Display Unit)? 50 Uses of Computer What is Workspace? What is a Procedural Language? What is VGA (Video Graphics Array)?

Input VS Output

In the world of computing, the concepts of input and output play a fundamental role in how computers process and manipulate data. Input refers to the information or data that is provided to a computer, while output refers to the results or responses generated by the computer. Understanding the basics of input and output in the context of computers is crucial for comprehending how data flows within a computer system and how users interact with computer devices.

Input in Computing

Input is the process of providing data or instructions to a computer system. It involves transferring data from an external source to the computer's memory or storage for processing. Input can be in various forms, such as text, numbers, images, videos, sounds, or commands. It can be entered using input devices like keyboards, mice, touchscreens, scanners, microphones, or sensors.

It is the first step in the data processing cycle, where the computer captures and records data. Once the data is inputted into the computer, it can be stored, processed, and transformed into meaningful information through various operations, such as calculations, comparisons, or manipulations, depending on the software and applications running on the computer.

Output in Computing

On the other hand, the output is the result or response generated by a computer system after processing the input data. It refers to the information or data produced by the computer and sent to an external destination for display, storage, or further processing. Output can be in different forms, such as text, images, videos, sounds, or signals, and it can be presented through various output devices, such as monitors, printers, speakers, or actuators.

It is the final step in the data processing cycle, where the processed data is presented to the user or used for further actions. It represents the outcome of the computer's processing and provides the user with the desired results or feedback based on the input provided. The output allows users to perceive and interpret the information or results produced by the computer, which can further influence their decisions, actions, or interactions with the computer system.

Input vs Output: The Data Flow

Input Vs Output

Input and output are interconnected and form a continuous data flow within a computer system. The input provides the raw data or instructions needed for processing, while the output presents the results or responses generated by the computer. The data flow between input and output can be illustrated in the following steps:

  • Input: Data is entered into the computer system using input devices, such as keyboards, mice, or touchscreens. The data can be in various forms, such as text, numbers, or commands.
  • Processing: The computer system processes the input data using software and applications, which perform operations, such as calculations, comparisons, or manipulations, to transform the input data into meaningful information.
  • Storage: The processed data is stored in the computer's memory or storage for temporary or long-term retention, depending on the system's configuration and requirements.
  • Output: The computer system generates the results or responses based on the processed data, which are sent to external destinations for display, storage, or further processing. Output can be presented through output devices like monitors, printers, or speakers.
  • Perception: Users perceive and interpret the output information or results that the computer presents, which can further influence their decisions, actions, or interactions with the computer system.
  • Feedback: Users may provide feedback or input based on the computer-generated output, which can trigger new input and restart the data flow cycle.

Example Input Vs Output

Here's an example to illustrate the concept of input vs output in computing:

Consider a smartphone with a voice assistant feature, such as Apple's Siri or Google Assistant. When a user speaks a command, the voice input serves as the input to the system. The system processes the speech input using natural language processing techniques and generates a response, the output presented to the user.

Input: The user says, "Play my favourite playlist."

Output: The voice assistant responds, "Playing your favorite playlist."

In this example, the speech input is the data the user provides to the system, and the output is the response generated by the voice assistant. The system's ability to understand and interpret the user's speech accurately (input) and provide a relevant response (output) is crucial for a positive user experience.

However, if the system accurately interprets the user's speech or provides an irrelevant response, it can result in satisfaction and clarity for the user. On the other hand, if the system generates output without proper input, such as randomly playing a playlist without any user command, it can lead to inefficiency and lack of control for the user.

To achieve a balanced input-output interaction in this example, the system should accurately interpret the user's speech commands, provide relevant feedback through voice output, and allow for clarifications or corrections from the user if needed. This can be achieved through user-centred design, feedback mechanisms, usability testing, context-aware computing (considering factors such as background noise or user preferences), and accessibility considerations (providing alternative input methods for users with speech impairments).

Balancing Input and Output in Computing

Like the concept of input vs output in general learning, finding a balance between input and output in computing is crucial for effective data processing and user interaction. Too much emphasis on input without adequate output can result in a lack of feedback or results for the user, leading to frustration and confusion. On the other hand, more output with proper input can result in relevant and manageable information overload for the user, leading to inefficiency and cognitive overload.

To achieve a balance between input and output in computing, it is important to consider the following:

  1. User-centred design: Designing computer systems with a user-centred approach involves understanding the users' needs, preferences, and abilities. This includes providing intuitive and efficient input methods tailored to the users' requirements and providing clear and meaningful output that meets their expectations.
  2. Feedback mechanisms: Feedback is essential for users to understand the results or responses generated by the computer system. Providing timely and relevant feedback through appropriate output devices, such as visual, auditory, or haptic feedback, helps users to interpret and comprehend the output information effectively.
  3. Usability testing: Conducting usability testing with real users can provide valuable insights into the effectiveness and efficiency of a computer system's input and output mechanisms. Feedback from users can help identify any issues or areas of improvement in the input and output processes and allow for necessary adjustments to achieve a balanced data flow.
  4. Context-aware computing: Considering the context in which the computer system is being used can enhance the effectiveness of input and output. For example, adapting input methods based on the device used (e.g., touchscreens for mobile devices), the user's physical environment (e.g., voice commands in a noisy environment), or the user's preferences (e.g., personalized recommendations) can result in more efficient and relevant output.
  5. Accessibility considerations: Ensuring that input and output mechanisms are accessible to all users, including those with disabilities, is crucial. Providing alternative input methods, such as voice commands or assistive technologies for users with motor impairments, and alternative output methods, such as screen readers or braille displays for users with visual impairments, can ensure that all users can effectively interact with the computer system.

Input and output are fundamental concepts in computing that involve data flow within a computer system. Achieving a balance between input and output is crucial for effective data processing and user interaction. By considering user-centred design, feedback mechanisms, usability testing, context-aware computing, and accessibility considerations, computer systems can provide users with efficient, meaningful, and inclusive input and output experiences.