Computer Fundamentals Index

Computer Introduction Types of computer Characteristics of computer Uses of computer History of Computers

Computer Languages

Low Level language Middle level Language High level language

Computer Generation

Generation of Computers First Generation of Computer Second generation of Computers Third generation of Computers Fourth generation of Computers Fifth generation of Computers Sixth Generation of Computer

Peripheral Devices

Input devices Output device


Block diagram and basic components Control processing unit (CPU) Software Hardware


Computer Memory Registers Memory Hierarchy RAM Vs ROM Understanding file sizes (Bytes, KB, MB, GB, TB, PB, EB, ZB, YB)

Computer Network

Types of Network Types of Area Networks (LAN, WAN, MAN) TCP Flags

Computer Virus

Computer Virus

Computer Ports

Computer Ports


How to hack a computer How much do Computer Programmers make How does a Computer work How to associate a file with a program How does a computer convert text into binary How does a computer process data into information How to fix a CD-ROM DVD How to fix the no input signal How to install computer memory How to associate a file with a program How to log out of your operating system How do I change my name on Google How to installation or uninstallation Microsoft Paint How to fix a not a valid Win32 application error How to fix missing Microsoft Windows .dll files How to use a computer keyboard How to erase my hard drive and start over How can I test how many words I can write a minute How to shut down a computer How do I open and edit the Windows registry How to edit the registry from the command line How to restart Microsoft Windows How to install a computer processor How to open Microsoft Paint How to fix problems in Windows after installing new software How to enable or disable the preview pane of Microsoft Outlook How to open a Microsoft .wps or Works file in Word How to view the HTML source code in Microsoft Word How to View or Change the Screen Resolution of a Monitor How to Connect and Install a Computer Keyboard How to Delete Temporary Files in Windows 10 How to determine Which Version of Microsoft Office I'm using How to find out how much hard drive space is available How to Fix PC Stuck on Verifying DMI Pool Data How to choose which items show in the notification area How to find similar images using Search by Image How to fix Low Memory and out of memory errors How To Replace the CMOS Battery How do I Update my Antivirus Program How to fix a general protection fault How to Identify problems in the Windows Device Manager How can the Base be Shown How to test if a Website or Web Page is down How Much is 1 Byte, Kilobyte, Megabyte, Gigabyte, etc How to fix a CMOS checksum error How to Fix a Windows CD-ROM, DVD, or Disc Drive Issue How to Open Safe Mode How to Password Protect Files and Folders in Windows How to Reset CMOS or BIOS Settings How to use Computer Keyboard How to create a text file How to enable or disable DHCP in Windows How to test computer memory to determine if its bad How do double space or change line spacing in Microsoft Word How do I know if I have Windows Administrator Rights How many cores does my computer have How to Create a Directory or Folder How to Enter and Exit the BIOS or CMOS Setup How to change Windows Compatibility mode How to clear your internet browser history How to Connect Computer Speakers How to Copy a Web Page Link or URL How to install a Hard Drive or SSD How to Open the Windows Control Panel How to split a screen in Windows How to copy text from a scanned PDF


Who invented Computer What are the advantages of the Internet? What are the disadvantages of the Internet? Is my computer 64 bit? What is Edge Computing? What is a Router? What is Monitor What is Printer What is a Web Browser What is Microphone What is a Webcam What is PC What is Keyboard What is Motherboard What is WAP What is URL What is a Digital Assistant When was the first Computer Invented What is Modem What is Firmware What is Imperative Programming What is Protocol What is Safe Mode What is Device Driver What is Hybrid Topology What is Mesh Topology What is Procedural language What is a hyperlink What is a Username Who invented the Internet What is Video Card What is Sound Card What is Binary What does Alt+B do What does Alt+D do What does Alt+E do What does Alt+Esc do What does Alt+R do What does ALT + Q do What does Alt + Tab do What is Data Manipulation What is a touch screen What is Back Panel What is Analog Monitor What is AR lens What is an ATX Style Connector What is a File System What is Hard Disk Drive (HDD) What is a boot device What is accessibility What is Line In What is network Interface card (NIC) What is Optical Disk Where can I ask questions on the internet What is Auto Rotate What is CAD (Computer-aided design) What is Cable Modem What is Home Page What is boot menu What is braille reader What is flash memory What is Windows What is Clipboard What is Cyber Warfare What is Myspace Why has my IP address changed What is Jacquard Loom My computer is running slow, what steps can I do to fix it What is a Kensington Lock What is a multicore processor What is automation Are smartphones and tablets computers What is a Login Script What is a Loosely Typed Language What is Multitasking? Why my computer monitor shows no display or black screen What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is the Pg Dn Key (Page Down Key) What is the Pg up Key (Page up Key) What is Palmtop Computer What is a Processing Device What is a Print Preview What is the Print Screen Key What can I do if my computer or laptop is lost or stolen What is a Model Number What are the currently available antivirus programs What are Toggle keys What is a Case fan What is a Silicon Chip What is a Slate PC What is a TAB stop What is an Octothorpe What is Task Pane What is Task View What is the svchost.exe file used for in Windows Where can I find free online virus scanners Why am I unable to increase the resolution in Windows What is Autofill When I click my mouse, it sometimes double-clicks What is Scratch What is UDIMM What is MsConfig What is an Expansion Card What is an Executable File What is an Elevated Command Prompt What is an AC Adapter What is AIMBOT What is a Software Suite What is a LED Monitor What does Alt + X do What does alt + space do What does Alt + O do Now that I’ve got a Computer, what can i do What is a Punch Card What is RDIMM What is Select All What is Serial number What is Thermos flask What programs can I use for speech recognition What are the Advantages of Computers What are the Disadvantages of Computers What does Alt + T do What Hardware Device Drivers should be Updated What is a Desktop What is a Ring Topology What is CMOS What is a Directory What is a Mechanical Mouse What is a Plotter What is a Variable What is an Icon What is Data What is HDMI What is Remote What is Right-Click What is SMPS Why does my Laptop not turn on What is a Copyright What is a Cordless Mouse What is a CSV file What is a Joystick What is a Start Button What is a Taskbar What is an Alignment What is an Output Device What is Cat 5 What is Google Chrome What is Post What are Recordable DVD Drives What Does Alt + F4 Do What Does Alt + L Do What is a bit (Binary Digit) What is a cable What is a Calculator What is a capacitor What is a Cold Boot What is a Dialog Box What is a Dual-boot What is a Slide What is A4 What is AM What is Barcode Reader What is EHCI What is a Header What is a Joystick What is a Secondary Storage Device What is Access Time What is Account Sharing What is an Asterisk What is Asynchronous DRAM What is Back Quote What is BIOS What is Borderless Printing What is Case Badge What is CD-ROM What is Chat Slang What is Composite What is RJ Cable What Are Bottom Row Keys What is SAN What is Tray What is VDU What Does Alt + M Do What Does Alt + P Do What is a Cell What is a Command Key What is a key Combination What is a Menu Bar What is a Startup What is a T What is Chat What are the F1 through F12 keys What does Alt + Enter do What Does Alt + Home DO What does Alt + R do What does Ctrl + B do What Does Ctrl + Enter Do What Does Ctrl + R Do What does Ctrl + G do What does Ctrl + 9 do What does Ctrl + End do What does Ctrl + O do What Does Ctrl + P do What Does Ctrl + Q do What is a Colon What is a Core What is Apple Touch Icon What is Clock What is Code What is Computer Crime What is Ctrl What is DAT What is Data diddling What is Date Why won't my computer turn on What Does Alt + N Do What does ctrl + 2 do What does ctrl + space do What does Ctrl + W do What does Ctrl + T Do What Does Ctrl + 2 do What does Ctrl + 5 Do What are the most common file types and file extensions What are Sticky keys What Does Ctrl + Shift + Esc Do What is Settings What is Task Manager What is Taskbar What is a DNS Resolver What does ctrl + 1 do What does ctrl + 0 do How to install software What is a Folder What is a Legend What is a MAC Address What is a Path What is a Ruler What is a Toolbar What is an Intranet Meaning and Differences with Internet What is an SSD What is Inheritance What is Tablet What is Depth What is Docking Station What is Double Click What is a Solid Ink Printer What is a Temporary File What is Backup and Restore What is Electronic Payment Systems Eps What is Marshalling


Difference between hardware and software Difference between multiprocessor and distributed systems Difference between Desktop and Laptop Difference between File and folder Difference between Hard Copy and Soft Copy Open Source Programs vs Closed Source Programs Difference between Optical Fibre and Coaxial Cable Difference between Website and Webpage Difference between Classes and Objects Input VS Output Difference between Primary and Secondary Storage with Examples


Quantum Computing Computer Software Autoexec.bat and config.sys info Update an Antivirus Use of Internet Advantages and disadvantages of Email Computing Power Internet Explorer Shortcut Keys Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) Augmented Reality Infrastructure Readiness Check Top 10 Internet tips and tricks Introduction and Features of FoxPro Features of Multimedia Top 10 online services and applications Receiving S.M.A.R.T. status bad backup and replacing error Version Control System Uninstalling Software or Apps in Windows Data Warehouse Increase or decrease font size in Word using keyboard shortcuts Mouse not detected or working in Windows Computer Cleaning Information and Steps Function Keys on Keyboard Windows 7 Alt+Tab won’t stay on top or stick 10 Essential Examples of Web Browsers Binary Subtraction using 2’s Complement Case Sensitive Languages Computer Pioneers and people who are CEO Microsoft Word Shortcut Keys Parts of Computers Names, Definitions and Images ROM and its Types Basics of Information Technology Characteristics of a Good Software Design Characteristics of Management Information System Classification of Management Information System Implementation of MIS Input Devices of Computer Definition Limitations of Management Information System 3 Types Of Network in Computer Block Diagram Of Control Unit Difference Between Computer and Embedded System Difference Between Hard Disk and Floppy Disk Abstraction in OOAD Hardware and Software Devices Optomechanical Mouse CMOS Memory What is a Terminal? What is Graphic Design? What is Load? What is Passcode? What is Reboot? What is Registry? What is Safe Mode? What is Standby? What is SYN (Synchronize)? What is Task Manager? Attribute Computing BPS in Computer Bulletin Board System Light Pen Input Device 3 TYPES OF NETWORK IN COMPUTER Block diagram of control unit What is a Solid Ink Printer? What is a Temporary File? What is an App launcher? What is Backup and Restore? What is a Tab Character? What is the Core i3? What is Paint? What is a Workbook? Advantages and Disadvantages of Online Education What is a String? What is a VDU (Visible Display Unit)? 50 Uses of Computer What is Workspace? What is a Procedural Language? What is VGA (Video Graphics Array)? Object Linking and Embedding in MS Word Semiconductor Memory Types of Parallel Computing Web Resources Difference between Virus, Worm and Trojan Horse Difference between HQ (High Quality) and HD (High Definition) What is Text Wrapping What is Timestamp? Semiconductor Ram Memory What is a File Attribute? What is a Video Call? Difference between SDRAM and DDR What is ANSI? Difference between DOS and Windows How to Set the Path and Environment Variables in Windows? Mainframe System What is ScanDisk? C drive in Mac Computer Memory Table How to Change the Keyboard Language in Windows? What is a Video Call? What is a Zoom Slider? What is Floppy Disk in Computer What is the most Popular Operating System? OMR in Computer What is a Work Area?

Data Warehouse

It is a system that consolidates the data collected from many sources into a single and central data storage. In basic terms, it is a data repository that can be queried and analyzed for business purposes.

Data Warehouse

It works with great modern-day technology like data mining.

An organization can efficiently run powerful analytics on vast amounts of data in a data warehouse system, which is impossible with a standard database.

Data analysis is done by the core mechanism of the Business Intelligence system.

Data Warehouse is the core of a Business Intelligence(BI) system used to analyze the data.

A typical Data Warehouse includes the following elements:

  • A relational database.
  • An ELT(Extraction, Loading, and Transformation) solution.
  • It is Capable of Reporting, data mining, and Statistical analysis.
  • It supports systems for modern techs like Data Science and Machine Learning.

Uses Of Data Warehouse:

Data Warehouse

Processes like Business Intelligence, Reporting, and Data Analysis are done from the data extracted by Data Warehouses of the operational databases. Data Warehouses are easy to obtain information from transactional databases.

Authorities want to award the best salesperson, so they have decided to take the total revenue generated by each salesperson every year for each product. Getting the data from a transactional database is hard, but a user can obtain it from data warehouses.

Data Warehouse's History

The Data Warehouse gives users access to multiple facilities. It benefits the user to understand the aggregated data of any organization, which helps in understanding its performance.

As technology has evolved throughout the ages, the requirement for data management has become more complex and handling it has become a hasty task.

The need for a Data warehouse has been passed ages; it's not a new term. It has been with us for quite a long.

Here is a brief history of the evolution of Data Warehouse.

In 1960 Darmouth and General Mills, in a cumulative report, developed the term, dimensions, and facts over the data warehousing.

As we move forward, the introduction of data marts for retail sales was started by Nielsen and IRI.

The Database management system, which is mainly designed for decision support, was made by the corporation named TeraData Corporation. Data Warehousing started in the late 1980s when two employees of IBM, Paul Murphy, and Barry Delvin, developed the Business Data Warehouse.

Although Inmon Bill termed the Real concept.

He is considered the father of Data Warehouse. He has written a variety of topics for usage and building and maintenance of the warehouse and the corporate information factory.


There are two types of transforming data for the data warehouse.

Data Warehouse

1. ETL Data Warehouse: Extract, Transform, Load (ETL)

2. ELT data warehouse: Extract,Load,Transform(ELT)

Generally, Data Engineers use extract-transform-load(ETL) for extracting data from different sources. They move extracted data into the data warehouse, where they can structure and cleanse the data quicly for processing effeciently.

These are done via Enterprise Data Engineering Team to apply conforming rules. The team clean the data widely over the company.

Some Engineers use ELT extract-load-transform, where they extract the data from different sources and load it into the data warehouse in its original state.

Cleansing and structuring of data are done when it is being processed.

Difference between Transactional processing and analytical processing

Data Warehouse

An Online Transactional Processing(OLTP) system captures and takes care of the transactional data in the database. Transactions involve individual database records, which are made of multiple fields or columns that can look like a table.

These databases are generally used in applications like online banking and inventory management. That data can be updated to row-level data processed at a spontaneous rate.

An Online Analytical Processing (OLAP) system performs complex queries to massive volumes of historical data aggregated from OTLP databases and other sources for data mining, analytics, and business intelligence applications.

OLAP systems have been used in data warehouses. Analysts and decision-makers can utilize bespoke reporting tools to convert data into information and action utilizing OLAP databases and data warehouses.

Failure of a query on an OLAP database does not stop or delay transaction processing for clients, but it might delay or compromise the accuracy of business insights.

What is data warehouse architecture?

There are three tiers in data warehouse architecture.

A client's top tier is at the front-end which interacts with the user and presents output as the results through analysis, reporting, and data mining.

Second tier contains analytical engines that access and analyze the data.

The bottom tier is where the database server is located that loads and stores data.

The stored frequently accessed or requested is stored in fast storage, whereas the data stored in the cheap storage does not access frequently.

Characteristics of Data Warehouses:

Four unique characteristics are described by computer scientist William Inmon, who is considered the father of data warehouses.

Data Warehouse

These four characteristics allow data warehouses to deliver this overachieving benefit.

  • Subject-oriented: They can perform data analysis on a particular subject or functional area.A data warehouse focuses on data modeling and analysis for decision-makers.
    As a result, data warehouses often give a concise and straightforward perspective of a specific issue, such as customer, product, or sales, rather than the worldwide organization's continuous activities. This is accomplished by removing material irrelevant to the issue. It includes all data required for the consumers to comprehend the subject.
  • Integrated: Data warehouses ensure consistency across various data kinds from various sources.
    A data warehouse combines disparate data sources such as RDBMS, flat files, and online transaction records. It is necessary to undertake data cleansing and integration during data warehousing to guarantee uniformity in naming standards, attribute types, and so on across several data sources.
  • Non-volatile: Once in a data warehouse, data becomes stable and does not change. The data warehouse is a physically independent storage location converted from the operational RDBMS source.
    The data warehouse does not execute operational changes on data, such as update, insert, and delete operations. In most cases, data access takes only two procedures: initial data loading and data access. As a result, the DW does not require transaction processing, recovery, or concurrent capabilities, allowing for significant data retrieval speedup. Non-volatile means that data should not change once placed in the warehouse.
  • Time Variant: Change over time is examined in data warehouse analysis.
    A data warehouse stores historical information. For example, using a data warehouse, one may get files from 3 months, 6 months, 12 months, or even older data. These changes are with a transactional system, where just the most recent file is generally preserved.

Benefits of Data WArehouse

As we already know that data warehouse offers many features that allow any organization to analyze.

Data warehouses provide the overall and distinctive advantage of enabling organizations to understand massive quantities of huge datasets and gain significant value from them while preserving a historical record.

  • Consolidate data acquired from various sources: It provides a single point of access for all data, rather than requiring users to interconnect dozens of different data repositories.
  • Historical Intelligence: Data warehouses are made to extract data from many data sources and show historical trends, which helps in future predictions.
  • Separate analytics processing from transactional databases:
    As these are separated from each other, that helps in improving the performance on both sides.
  • Data quality, consistency, and accuracy: Data warehouses utilize a consistent set of semantics surrounding data, such as consistency in naming standards, codes for diverse product categories, languages, currencies, and so on.
  • Easier to work with: Query that would be hard in many normalized databases could be more accessible in data warehouses.
    The structure of data warehouses is more accessible for users to understand and query.

Challenges with data warehouses

  • Unstructured data such as photos, text, IoT data, or message frameworks such as HL7, JSON, and XML are not supported. Even though Gartner predicts that up to 80% of an organization's data is unstructured, traditional data warehouses can only store clean and highly organized data. Organizations wishing to harness AI's power through unstructured data must seek elsewhere.
  • There is no AI or machine learning support. Data warehouses were never developed or intended to enable machine learning workloads. Instead of it, they were mainly built and optimized for typical DWH workloads such as historical reporting, BI, and querying.
  • SQL-only – DWHs often do not support Python or R language for app developers, data scientists, and machine learning engineers.
  • Duplicate data — In addition to a data lake, many companies have data warehouses and subject-area or (departmental) data marts which results a duplicated data and a lot of redundant ETL.
  • Tough to keep in sync - keeping two copies of the data synchronized between the lake and the warehouse adds complexity and fragility that is tough to manage. Data can cause inconsistent reporting and faulty analysis.
  • Closed, proprietary formats encourage vendor lock-in – most business data warehouses employ their own proprietary data format rather than formats based on open source and open standards. This increases vendor lock-in, makes it difficult or impossible to examine your data with alternative tools and makes data migration more complex.
  • Expensive – commercial data warehouses charge you for storing and analyzing your data. As a result, storage and computation costs remain inextricably linked. Because a lakehouse separates computing and storage, you may scale each separately as needed.

Type of Data Warehouse

There are mainly three types of Data Warehouse, which are as follows:

  • Enterprise Data Warehouse
    It is a centralized data warehouse. It allows the organization to represent data in a single strand, which helps in providing decision support services across the clients.  It can help organize different parts as per requested.
  • Operational Data Store
    These are sometimes termed ODS. These data repositories only store the snapshot of the organization's real-time data. This repository is used for real-time analysis because of data volatility.
    These repositories are generally used when there is no support for data warehouse and OLTP systems.
    For example, these are used in storing the record of an employee's routine, which is a routine activity.
  • Data Mart
    Data Mart is a subset of data warehouses and the simplest form of it. It focuses on some specific sectors in business like finance.
    Due to simple infrastructure, it is pretty easy to access the data, which makes extracting valuable insights more reliable. A simple data warehouse helps to focus on a single data type.

Stages Of Data Warehouse

In previous years, the simple data warehouse was used. According to the time, technology is growing at a rapid pace, and more sophisticated use of data warehousing is start.

  • Offline Operational Database:
    This is the beginning stage of data warehousing. In this stage, data is copied from the operational system to the server.
    This is done to avoid any hazard to the operating system through data loading, processing, and reporting.
  • Offline Data Warehouse:
    At this stage, data is repeatedly updated in the warehouse corresponding to the operational database. This is done because data should be actionable at the moment when it is needed.
    Data in the data warehouse is modified so that it can meet the objectives where it is going to be used.
  • Real-Time Data Warehouse:
    In this stage, data warehouses are updated whenever there is a transaction in the operational database with the processing, acquiring data, cleansing data, transforming data, estimating the data, and storing the data. All these operations are done in real-time.
  • Integrated Data Warehouse:
    In this stage, transactions in the operational system correspond to the data warehouse to be updated regularly. It is a continuous process in which a data warehouse also makes transactions that are returned to the operational system.

Components Of Data Warehouse:

There are four components of data warehouses

  • Load Manager
    It is also named the front component. The extraction and loading of data in the data warehouse are done by it. This also includes transforming the data to be suitable for data warehouses.
  • Warehouse Manager
    It is the main component for the management of data in warehouses. Warehouse managers perform management-related operations, such as ensuring consistency, regular analysis of data, generating views and indexes, generating aggregations and denormalization, transforming data, merging data from different sources, to archive data, and making a backup of data.
  • Query Manager:
    It is also referred to as the backend component. Management of user queries is done by it.
    The work of this component is to take queries from the user and direct them to the data warehouse. The execution of queries is also done by it.
  • End-user access tools:
    This component allows the user to access the data and use it.
    These are categorized into five different groups:
    1. Data Reporting
    2. Query Tools
    3. Application Development tools
    4. EIS tools
    5. OLAP tools and data mining tools

Data Warehouse used in Daily life

Data Warehouse

Banking: It is widely used in banking sector for managing the data effectively.

Healthcare: Data warehouse is used to strategize and predict treatment outcomes, report patients, and share data with tie-in insurance companies.

Retain chain: A data warehouse is widely used for marketing in retail chains. Tracking items, customer buying patterns, and promotions are made through it.

The Future

Data Warehouse

Changes in the regulatory order and law may constrain the ability to unify the data from various sources. Still, the only thing that will not change is the growth of data and databases, so it will be more complex to extract and load the data in warehouses. There will be a requirement to change in the hardware and software as today's technology cannot keep up with that technology.

The form of data will change, as there will be multiple mediums for data to exist.

As the size of the database grows, the estimates of what constitutes an extensive database continue to grow. Apart from size planning, building and running data warehouse systems that are ever-increasing in size is complex. As the number of users increases, the data warehouse size also increases. These users will also require access to the system.