Computer Fundamentals Index

Computer Introduction Types of computer Characteristics of computer Uses of computer History of Computers

Computer Languages

Low Level language Middle level Language High level language

Computer Generation

Generation of Computers First Generation of Computer Second generation of Computers Third generation of Computers Fourth generation of Computers Fifth generation of Computers Sixth Generation of Computer

Peripheral Devices

Input devices Output device


Block diagram and basic components Control processing unit (CPU) Software Hardware


Computer Memory Registers Memory Hierarchy RAM Vs ROM Understanding file sizes (Bytes, KB, MB, GB, TB, PB, EB, ZB, YB)

Computer Network

Types of Network Types of Area Networks (LAN, WAN, MAN) TCP Flags

Computer Virus

Computer Virus

Computer Ports

Computer Ports


How to hack a computer How much do Computer Programmers make How does a Computer work How to associate a file with a program How does a computer convert text into binary How does a computer process data into information How to fix a CD-ROM DVD How to fix the no input signal How to install computer memory How to associate a file with a program How to log out of your operating system How do I change my name on Google How to installation or uninstallation Microsoft Paint How to fix a not a valid Win32 application error How to fix missing Microsoft Windows .dll files How to use a computer keyboard How to erase my hard drive and start over How can I test how many words I can write a minute How to shut down a computer How do I open and edit the Windows registry How to edit the registry from the command line How to restart Microsoft Windows How to install a computer processor How to open Microsoft Paint How to fix problems in Windows after installing new software How to enable or disable the preview pane of Microsoft Outlook How to open a Microsoft .wps or Works file in Word How to view the HTML source code in Microsoft Word How to View or Change the Screen Resolution of a Monitor How to Connect and Install a Computer Keyboard How to Delete Temporary Files in Windows 10 How to determine Which Version of Microsoft Office I'm using How to find out how much hard drive space is available How to Fix PC Stuck on Verifying DMI Pool Data How to choose which items show in the notification area How to find similar images using Search by Image How to fix Low Memory and out of memory errors How To Replace the CMOS Battery How do I Update my Antivirus Program How to fix a general protection fault How to Identify problems in the Windows Device Manager How can the Base be Shown How to test if a Website or Web Page is down How Much is 1 Byte, Kilobyte, Megabyte, Gigabyte, etc How to fix a CMOS checksum error How to Fix a Windows CD-ROM, DVD, or Disc Drive Issue How to Open Safe Mode How to Password Protect Files and Folders in Windows How to Reset CMOS or BIOS Settings How to use Computer Keyboard How to create a text file How to enable or disable DHCP in Windows How to test computer memory to determine if its bad How do double space or change line spacing in Microsoft Word How do I know if I have Windows Administrator Rights How many cores does my computer have How to Create a Directory or Folder How to Enter and Exit the BIOS or CMOS Setup How to change Windows Compatibility mode How to clear your internet browser history How to Connect Computer Speakers How to Copy a Web Page Link or URL How to install a Hard Drive or SSD How to Open the Windows Control Panel How to split a screen in Windows How to copy text from a scanned PDF


Who invented Computer What are the advantages of the Internet? What are the disadvantages of the Internet? Is my computer 64 bit? What is Edge Computing? What is a Router? What is Monitor What is Printer What is a Web Browser What is Microphone What is a Webcam What is PC What is Keyboard What is Motherboard What is WAP What is URL What is a Digital Assistant When was the first Computer Invented What is Modem What is Firmware What is Imperative Programming What is Protocol What is Safe Mode What is Device Driver What is Hybrid Topology What is Mesh Topology What is Procedural language What is a hyperlink What is a Username Who invented the Internet What is Video Card What is Sound Card What is Binary What does Alt+B do What does Alt+D do What does Alt+E do What does Alt+Esc do What does Alt+R do What does ALT + Q do What does Alt + Tab do What is Data Manipulation What is a touch screen What is Back Panel What is Analog Monitor What is AR lens What is an ATX Style Connector What is a File System What is Hard Disk Drive (HDD) What is a boot device What is accessibility What is Line In What is network Interface card (NIC) What is Optical Disk Where can I ask questions on the internet What is Auto Rotate What is CAD (Computer-aided design) What is Cable Modem What is Home Page What is boot menu What is braille reader What is flash memory What is Windows What is Clipboard What is Cyber Warfare What is Myspace Why has my IP address changed What is Jacquard Loom My computer is running slow, what steps can I do to fix it What is a Kensington Lock What is a multicore processor What is automation Are smartphones and tablets computers What is a Login Script What is a Loosely Typed Language What is Multitasking? Why my computer monitor shows no display or black screen What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is the Pg Dn Key (Page Down Key) What is the Pg up Key (Page up Key) What is Palmtop Computer What is a Processing Device What is a Print Preview What is the Print Screen Key What can I do if my computer or laptop is lost or stolen What is a Model Number What are the currently available antivirus programs What are Toggle keys What is a Case fan What is a Silicon Chip What is a Slate PC What is a TAB stop What is an Octothorpe What is Task Pane What is Task View What is the svchost.exe file used for in Windows Where can I find free online virus scanners Why am I unable to increase the resolution in Windows What is Autofill When I click my mouse, it sometimes double-clicks What is Scratch What is UDIMM What is MsConfig What is an Expansion Card What is an Executable File What is an Elevated Command Prompt What is an AC Adapter What is AIMBOT What is a Software Suite What is a LED Monitor What does Alt + X do What does alt + space do What does Alt + O do Now that I’ve got a Computer, what can i do What is a Punch Card What is RDIMM What is Select All What is Serial number What is Thermos flask What programs can I use for speech recognition What are the Advantages of Computers What are the Disadvantages of Computers What does Alt + T do What Hardware Device Drivers should be Updated What is a Desktop What is a Ring Topology What is CMOS What is a Directory What is a Mechanical Mouse What is a Plotter What is a Variable What is an Icon What is Data What is HDMI What is Remote What is Right-Click What is SMPS Why does my Laptop not turn on What is a Copyright What is a Cordless Mouse What is a CSV file What is a Joystick What is a Start Button What is a Taskbar What is an Alignment What is an Output Device What is Cat 5 What is Google Chrome What is Post What are Recordable DVD Drives What Does Alt + F4 Do What Does Alt + L Do What is a bit (Binary Digit) What is a cable What is a Calculator What is a capacitor What is a Cold Boot What is a Dialog Box What is a Dual-boot What is a Slide What is A4 What is AM What is Barcode Reader What is EHCI What is a Header What is a Joystick What is a Secondary Storage Device What is Access Time What is Account Sharing What is an Asterisk What is Asynchronous DRAM What is Back Quote What is BIOS What is Borderless Printing What is Case Badge What is CD-ROM What is Chat Slang What is Composite What is RJ Cable What Are Bottom Row Keys What is SAN What is Tray What is VDU What Does Alt + M Do What Does Alt + P Do What is a Cell What is a Command Key What is a key Combination What is a Menu Bar What is a Startup What is a T What is Chat What are the F1 through F12 keys What does Alt + Enter do What Does Alt + Home DO What does Alt + R do What does Ctrl + B do What Does Ctrl + Enter Do What Does Ctrl + R Do What does Ctrl + G do What does Ctrl + 9 do What does Ctrl + End do What does Ctrl + O do What Does Ctrl + P do What Does Ctrl + Q do What is a Colon What is a Core What is Apple Touch Icon What is Clock What is Code What is Computer Crime What is Ctrl What is DAT What is Data diddling What is Date Why won't my computer turn on What Does Alt + N Do What does ctrl + 2 do What does ctrl + space do What does Ctrl + W do What does Ctrl + T Do What Does Ctrl + 2 do What does Ctrl + 5 Do What are the most common file types and file extensions What are Sticky keys What Does Ctrl + Shift + Esc Do What is Settings What is Task Manager What is Taskbar What is a DNS Resolver What does ctrl + 1 do What does ctrl + 0 do How to install software What is a Folder What is a Legend What is a MAC Address What is a Path What is a Ruler What is a Toolbar What is an Intranet Meaning and Differences with Internet What is an SSD What is Inheritance What is Tablet What is Depth What is Docking Station What is Double Click What is a Solid Ink Printer What is a Temporary File What is Backup and Restore What is Electronic Payment Systems Eps What is Marshalling


Difference between hardware and software Difference between multiprocessor and distributed systems Difference between Desktop and Laptop Difference between File and folder Difference between Hard Copy and Soft Copy Open Source Programs vs Closed Source Programs Difference between Optical Fibre and Coaxial Cable Difference between Website and Webpage Difference between Classes and Objects Input VS Output Difference between Primary and Secondary Storage with Examples


Quantum Computing Computer Software Autoexec.bat and config.sys info Update an Antivirus Use of Internet Advantages and disadvantages of Email Computing Power Internet Explorer Shortcut Keys Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) Augmented Reality Infrastructure Readiness Check Top 10 Internet tips and tricks Introduction and Features of FoxPro Features of Multimedia Top 10 online services and applications Receiving S.M.A.R.T. status bad backup and replacing error Version Control System Uninstalling Software or Apps in Windows Data Warehouse Increase or decrease font size in Word using keyboard shortcuts Mouse not detected or working in Windows Computer Cleaning Information and Steps Function Keys on Keyboard Windows 7 Alt+Tab won’t stay on top or stick 10 Essential Examples of Web Browsers Binary Subtraction using 2’s Complement Case Sensitive Languages Computer Pioneers and people who are CEO Microsoft Word Shortcut Keys Parts of Computers Names, Definitions and Images ROM and its Types Basics of Information Technology Characteristics of a Good Software Design Characteristics of Management Information System Classification of Management Information System Implementation of MIS Input Devices of Computer Definition Limitations of Management Information System 3 Types Of Network in Computer Block Diagram Of Control Unit Difference Between Computer and Embedded System Difference Between Hard Disk and Floppy Disk Abstraction in OOAD Hardware and Software Devices Optomechanical Mouse CMOS Memory What is a Terminal? What is Graphic Design? What is Load? What is Passcode? What is Reboot? What is Registry? What is Safe Mode? What is Standby? What is SYN (Synchronize)? What is Task Manager? Attribute Computing BPS in Computer Bulletin Board System Light Pen Input Device 3 TYPES OF NETWORK IN COMPUTER Block diagram of control unit What is a Solid Ink Printer? What is a Temporary File? What is an App launcher? What is Backup and Restore? What is a Tab Character? What is the Core i3? What is Paint? What is a Workbook? Advantages and Disadvantages of Online Education What is a String? What is a VDU (Visible Display Unit)? 50 Uses of Computer What is Workspace? What is a Procedural Language? What is VGA (Video Graphics Array)?

What is Binary?

There are four types of the number system in computer applications through which we represent the different numbers.
Before moving to binary numbers, let's discuss the rest of the number system and the type of number system we include in the computer application.
The first one is the hexadecimal number system, and this type of number system includes the base value equal to 16. Sixteen different symbols have been assigned in this number system.
The second one is the decimal number system. The base value of this number system is 10. We have been using the number system since our childhood to count something or solve mathematics in our classes. The third one is the octal number system. In this number system, you will find the base value is 8. In this number system, you will find eight different symbols. And those symbols are from 0 to 7.
And, the fourth one is the binary number system, which we are going to read in this article:
A binary number in a binary number system or base 2 number system called binary. In Binary System, we define the symbol as 1 and 0. The propositional position of the binary number system is 2.
Computers use this numerical system to store and retrieve data such as numbers, music, pictures, words, etc. The term 'bit,' which refers to the smallest digital technology unit, is derived from the words 'BInary digiT.' Today, programmers utilize the hexadecimal or base-16 number system to concisely express binary data.   Because it is easier for computers to convert from binary to hex and vice versa, whereas doing so with the generally used decimal number system is far more difficult.

A brief history of the binary number

Gottfried Leibniz and a few more mathematicians previously described the contemporary binary numbers in Europe in the 16th and 17th centuries. The I Ching, also known as the Masterpiece of Changes or the Book of Modifications, is one of China's earliest books, dating from the 9th century BCE. The notion of Yin-Yang is used in the same work to depict the interconnection of forces in the world.

Ancient Egyptian scribes employed something called Horus-Eye fractions, which was one of two methods the Egyptians used to depict fractions, even before these advancements in China.

Fairly close to home, in the 2nd century BC, An Indian intellectual, Pingala, creator of Chhandahshastra, was also renowned as one of the early developers of the binary system.

The distinctions between the current binary system and Pingala's creation are that the latter's system begins with one rather than zero. The binary interpretations expand to the right rather than the left, as in the contemporary version.

Representation in binary

We can categorize binary numbers in two forms, the first one is signed number, and the second is an unsigned number

  1. Unsigned Numbers
    Only the amount of the number is included in unsigned numbers. They don't have any identification. All unsigned binary values are, therefore, positive. Using a positive sign before a number, like in the decimal number, is optional for portraying positive number. Consequently, zero and all those who sign is not positive can be considered unsigned numbers.
  2. Signed Numbers
    In a signed integer, you will find the expected value of a number. The symbol is placed in front of the phone number in most cases. That’s why, for positive integers, we must identify the positive sign, and for negative values, we must examine the negative sign. As a result, if an appropriate sign is put next to the integer, it can be regarded as a signed number.

Representation of Un-Signed Binary Numbers

The size of a value is recorded in the bits of an unsigned binary value. If an unsigned binary number has 'N' bits, then all of the N bits indicate the number's value because it lacks a sign bit.


Think about the value 23 in decimal form. 10111 is the binary equal of this number. This is how an unsigned binary number is represented.


It has seven bits. The value of the integer 23 is indicated by these 5 bits.

Representation of Signed Binary Numbers

In signed binary numbers, Most Significant Bit MSB is used to denote the sign of the numbers.

Representation of Signed Binary Numbers

Placing a '0' in the signed binary shows a positive sign. In the same way, putting a '1' in the signed binary represents a negative sign.

Signed binary integers can be represented in three ways:

  • Sign-magnitude form
  • 1's complement form, and
  • 2's complement form.

A positive number has the same meaning in all three types. However, only the depiction of negative numbers in each format will vary.

Sign-Magnitude form

The MSB is often used to describe the number's sign, while the remaining bits indicate the number's value. As a result, add the sign bit to the unsigned binary number's leftmost side. This notation is analogous to the format of signed decimal numbers.

Consider the number -23, which is a negative decimal number. This integer has a magnitude of 23. The unsigned binary value of the number 23 is 10111. It consists of 5 bits. All of these bits represent the value.

Assume the sign bit as one on the leftmost side of the magnitude because the provided integer is negative.

-2310 = 1101112

As a result, -23's sign-magnitude equivalent is 110111.

1's complement form

Accompanying all the bits of a signed binary number yields the 1's complement of a value. As a result, when a positive number is multiplied by 1, the result is a negative value. In the same way, adding 1 to a negative integer produces a positive number.

If you multiply a binary number by two times the 1's complement, you will receive the original signed binary value.


Assume the negative decimal value -23. The value of this number is 23. The signed binary representation of 23 comes out to be equal to 10111.

It consists of 5 bits. This number's MSB is zero, indicating an excellent value. One is the complement of zero and vice versa. To get the negative number, replace zeros with ones and ones with zeros.

-2310 = 010002

Therefore, the 1's complement of 2310 is 010002.

2's complement form

A binary number's 2's complement is obtained by adding one to the 1's complement of a signed binary number. As a result, when a positive value is multiplied by two, the result is a negative number. Similarly, when a negative value is multiplied by two, the result is an excellent value.

If you multiply a binary number by two times its 2's complement, you will receive the duly signed binary number.


Assume the negative decimal value is -23.

Then the value of 23's 1's complement of (23)10 is (01000)2

2's compliment of 2310 = 1's compliment of 2310 + 1.

= 01000 + 1

= 01001

Therefore, the 2's complement of 2310 is 010012.