Computer Fundamentals Index

Computer Introduction Types of computer Characteristics of computer Uses of computer History of Computers

Computer Languages

Low Level language Middle level Language High level language

Computer Generation

Generation of Computers First Generation of Computer Second generation of Computers Third generation of Computers Fourth generation of Computers Fifth generation of Computers Sixth Generation of Computer

Peripheral Devices

Input devices Output device


Block diagram and basic components Control processing unit (CPU) Software Hardware


Computer Memory Registers Memory Hierarchy RAM Vs ROM Understanding file sizes (Bytes, KB, MB, GB, TB, PB, EB, ZB, YB)

Computer Network

Types of Network Types of Area Networks (LAN, WAN, MAN) TCP Flags

Computer Virus

Computer Virus

Computer Ports

Computer Ports


How to hack a computer How much do Computer Programmers make How does a Computer work How to associate a file with a program How does a computer convert text into binary How does a computer process data into information How to fix a CD-ROM DVD How to fix the no input signal How to install computer memory How to associate a file with a program How to log out of your operating system How do I change my name on Google How to installation or uninstallation Microsoft Paint How to fix a not a valid Win32 application error How to fix missing Microsoft Windows .dll files How to use a computer keyboard How to erase my hard drive and start over How can I test how many words I can write a minute How to shut down a computer How do I open and edit the Windows registry How to edit the registry from the command line How to restart Microsoft Windows How to install a computer processor How to open Microsoft Paint How to fix problems in Windows after installing new software How to enable or disable the preview pane of Microsoft Outlook How to open a Microsoft .wps or Works file in Word How to view the HTML source code in Microsoft Word How to View or Change the Screen Resolution of a Monitor How to Connect and Install a Computer Keyboard How to Delete Temporary Files in Windows 10 How to determine Which Version of Microsoft Office I'm using How to find out how much hard drive space is available How to Fix PC Stuck on Verifying DMI Pool Data How to choose which items show in the notification area How to find similar images using Search by Image How to fix Low Memory and out of memory errors How To Replace the CMOS Battery How do I Update my Antivirus Program How to fix a general protection fault How to Identify problems in the Windows Device Manager How can the Base be Shown How to test if a Website or Web Page is down How Much is 1 Byte, Kilobyte, Megabyte, Gigabyte, etc How to fix a CMOS checksum error How to Fix a Windows CD-ROM, DVD, or Disc Drive Issue How to Open Safe Mode How to Password Protect Files and Folders in Windows How to Reset CMOS or BIOS Settings How to use Computer Keyboard How to create a text file How to enable or disable DHCP in Windows How to test computer memory to determine if its bad How do double space or change line spacing in Microsoft Word How do I know if I have Windows Administrator Rights How many cores does my computer have How to Create a Directory or Folder How to Enter and Exit the BIOS or CMOS Setup How to change Windows Compatibility mode How to clear your internet browser history How to Connect Computer Speakers How to Copy a Web Page Link or URL How to install a Hard Drive or SSD How to Open the Windows Control Panel How to split a screen in Windows How to copy text from a scanned PDF


Who invented Computer What are the advantages of the Internet? What are the disadvantages of the Internet? Is my computer 64 bit? What is Edge Computing? What is a Router? What is Monitor What is Printer What is a Web Browser What is Microphone What is a Webcam What is PC What is Keyboard What is Motherboard What is WAP What is URL What is a Digital Assistant When was the first Computer Invented What is Modem What is Firmware What is Imperative Programming What is Protocol What is Safe Mode What is Device Driver What is Hybrid Topology What is Mesh Topology What is Procedural language What is a hyperlink What is a Username Who invented the Internet What is Video Card What is Sound Card What is Binary What does Alt+B do What does Alt+D do What does Alt+E do What does Alt+Esc do What does Alt+R do What does ALT + Q do What does Alt + Tab do What is Data Manipulation What is a touch screen What is Back Panel What is Analog Monitor What is AR lens What is an ATX Style Connector What is a File System What is Hard Disk Drive (HDD) What is a boot device What is accessibility What is Line In What is network Interface card (NIC) What is Optical Disk Where can I ask questions on the internet What is Auto Rotate What is CAD (Computer-aided design) What is Cable Modem What is Home Page What is boot menu What is braille reader What is flash memory What is Windows What is Clipboard What is Cyber Warfare What is Myspace Why has my IP address changed What is Jacquard Loom My computer is running slow, what steps can I do to fix it What is a Kensington Lock What is a multicore processor What is automation Are smartphones and tablets computers What is a Login Script What is a Loosely Typed Language What is Multitasking? Why my computer monitor shows no display or black screen What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is the Pg Dn Key (Page Down Key) What is the Pg up Key (Page up Key) What is Palmtop Computer What is a Processing Device What is a Print Preview What is the Print Screen Key What can I do if my computer or laptop is lost or stolen What is a Model Number What are the currently available antivirus programs What are Toggle keys What is a Case fan What is a Silicon Chip What is a Slate PC What is a TAB stop What is an Octothorpe What is Task Pane What is Task View What is the svchost.exe file used for in Windows Where can I find free online virus scanners Why am I unable to increase the resolution in Windows What is Autofill When I click my mouse, it sometimes double-clicks What is Scratch What is UDIMM What is MsConfig What is an Expansion Card What is an Executable File What is an Elevated Command Prompt What is an AC Adapter What is AIMBOT What is a Software Suite What is a LED Monitor What does Alt + X do What does alt + space do What does Alt + O do Now that I’ve got a Computer, what can i do What is a Punch Card What is RDIMM What is Select All What is Serial number What is Thermos flask What programs can I use for speech recognition What are the Advantages of Computers What are the Disadvantages of Computers What does Alt + T do What Hardware Device Drivers should be Updated What is a Desktop What is a Ring Topology What is CMOS What is a Directory What is a Mechanical Mouse What is a Plotter What is a Variable What is an Icon What is Data What is HDMI What is Remote What is Right-Click What is SMPS Why does my Laptop not turn on What is a Copyright What is a Cordless Mouse What is a CSV file What is a Joystick What is a Start Button What is a Taskbar What is an Alignment What is an Output Device What is Cat 5 What is Google Chrome What is Post What are Recordable DVD Drives What Does Alt + F4 Do What Does Alt + L Do What is a bit (Binary Digit) What is a cable What is a Calculator What is a capacitor What is a Cold Boot What is a Dialog Box What is a Dual-boot What is a Slide What is A4 What is AM What is Barcode Reader What is EHCI What is a Header What is a Joystick What is a Secondary Storage Device What is Access Time What is Account Sharing What is an Asterisk What is Asynchronous DRAM What is Back Quote What is BIOS What is Borderless Printing What is Case Badge What is CD-ROM What is Chat Slang What is Composite What is RJ Cable What Are Bottom Row Keys What is SAN What is Tray What is VDU What Does Alt + M Do What Does Alt + P Do What is a Cell What is a Command Key What is a key Combination What is a Menu Bar What is a Startup What is a T What is Chat What are the F1 through F12 keys What does Alt + Enter do What Does Alt + Home DO What does Alt + R do What does Ctrl + B do What Does Ctrl + Enter Do What Does Ctrl + R Do What does Ctrl + G do What does Ctrl + 9 do What does Ctrl + End do What does Ctrl + O do What Does Ctrl + P do What Does Ctrl + Q do What is a Colon What is a Core What is Apple Touch Icon What is Clock What is Code What is Computer Crime What is Ctrl What is DAT What is Data diddling What is Date Why won't my computer turn on What Does Alt + N Do What does ctrl + 2 do What does ctrl + space do What does Ctrl + W do What does Ctrl + T Do What Does Ctrl + 2 do What does Ctrl + 5 Do What are the most common file types and file extensions What are Sticky keys What Does Ctrl + Shift + Esc Do What is Settings What is Task Manager What is Taskbar What is a DNS Resolver What does ctrl + 1 do What does ctrl + 0 do How to install software What is a Folder What is a Legend What is a MAC Address What is a Path What is a Ruler What is a Toolbar What is an Intranet Meaning and Differences with Internet What is an SSD What is Inheritance What is Tablet What is Depth What is Docking Station What is Double Click What is a Solid Ink Printer What is a Temporary File What is Backup and Restore What is Electronic Payment Systems Eps What is Marshalling


Difference between hardware and software Difference between multiprocessor and distributed systems Difference between Desktop and Laptop Difference between File and folder Difference between Hard Copy and Soft Copy Open Source Programs vs Closed Source Programs Difference between Optical Fibre and Coaxial Cable Difference between Website and Webpage Difference between Classes and Objects Input VS Output Difference between Primary and Secondary Storage with Examples


Quantum Computing Computer Software Autoexec.bat and config.sys info Update an Antivirus Use of Internet Advantages and disadvantages of Email Computing Power Internet Explorer Shortcut Keys Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) Augmented Reality Infrastructure Readiness Check Top 10 Internet tips and tricks Introduction and Features of FoxPro Features of Multimedia Top 10 online services and applications Receiving S.M.A.R.T. status bad backup and replacing error Version Control System Uninstalling Software or Apps in Windows Data Warehouse Increase or decrease font size in Word using keyboard shortcuts Mouse not detected or working in Windows Computer Cleaning Information and Steps Function Keys on Keyboard Windows 7 Alt+Tab won’t stay on top or stick 10 Essential Examples of Web Browsers Binary Subtraction using 2’s Complement Case Sensitive Languages Computer Pioneers and people who are CEO Microsoft Word Shortcut Keys Parts of Computers Names, Definitions and Images ROM and its Types Basics of Information Technology Characteristics of a Good Software Design Characteristics of Management Information System Classification of Management Information System Implementation of MIS Input Devices of Computer Definition Limitations of Management Information System 3 Types Of Network in Computer Block Diagram Of Control Unit Difference Between Computer and Embedded System Difference Between Hard Disk and Floppy Disk Abstraction in OOAD Hardware and Software Devices Optomechanical Mouse CMOS Memory What is a Terminal? What is Graphic Design? What is Load? What is Passcode? What is Reboot? What is Registry? What is Safe Mode? What is Standby? What is SYN (Synchronize)? What is Task Manager? Attribute Computing BPS in Computer Bulletin Board System Light Pen Input Device 3 TYPES OF NETWORK IN COMPUTER Block diagram of control unit What is a Solid Ink Printer? What is a Temporary File? What is an App launcher? What is Backup and Restore? What is a Tab Character? What is the Core i3? What is Paint? What is a Workbook? Advantages and Disadvantages of Online Education What is a String? What is a VDU (Visible Display Unit)? 50 Uses of Computer What is Workspace? What is a Procedural Language? What is VGA (Video Graphics Array)? Object Linking and Embedding in MS Word Semiconductor Memory Types of Parallel Computing Web Resources Difference between Virus, Worm and Trojan Horse Difference between HQ (High Quality) and HD (High Definition) What is Text Wrapping What is Timestamp? Semiconductor Ram Memory What is a File Attribute? What is a Video Call? Difference between SDRAM and DDR What is ANSI? Difference between DOS and Windows How to Set the Path and Environment Variables in Windows? Mainframe System What is ScanDisk? C drive in Mac Computer Memory Table How to Change the Keyboard Language in Windows? What is a Video Call? What is a Zoom Slider? What is Floppy Disk in Computer What is the most Popular Operating System? OMR in Computer What is a Work Area?

How does a Computer work?

How does a Computer work?

As humans we always built tools that helps up to solve our problems. All the early inventions unlike wheelbarrow, hammer, printing press, or a tractor, helped up with the manual work. Over time people became more intrigued and began to wonder if a machine could be designed and build to help them with the thinking and analysis that we do. For example, solving equations, tracking the stars in the sky, forecasting weather, etc.,

These machines were primarily built to store and manipulate the information and named as COMPUTERS. The computer uses binary language and perceives the information in the form of ones and zeros then, It combines them into more complex things such as a calculation, videos, audios, photographs, a website, games, and much more.

How does a Computer work?

How Computer Functions

The computer performs basically four major operations or functions which are as follows:

How does a Computer work?

Instructions are sent to computer through input devices. Some of the input devices are keyboard, scanner, and joystick. Data or programs are entered into the computer system through these devices. Input units take data from us and forward it. The most important input device is the keyboard which takes words, figures, and commands from the operator. The second important devices a mouse which selects options from the menu is displayed on the screen. There are some other input devices also such as scanner joystick microphone track ban etc.

How does a Computer work?

The process of saving data and instructions is known as storage. Once the data has been entered into the computer, it must be stored somewhere to CPU can start the processing. The computer component used by operating systems and applications to temporary store data is called Ram or Random Access Memory. The central processing unit's processing speed is so fast that the data must be provided to the CPU at the same speed. Therefore, the data is stored in RAM for faster access and processing. It stores the pre and post data processing instructions and the intermediate results of processing. RAM is volatile, i.e., once the computer is shut, all the data stored on Ram is wiped off permanently. Hence a backup in the form of Uninterruptible Power System (UPS) is often used to prevent the data loss.

Another storage device is Hard Disk Drive or HDD. It is the storage unit used to store all your data, photos, apps, videos, audios, and documents.

How does a Computer work?

The task of processing Operations, like arithmetic and logical operations, is called processing. The CPU or Central Processing Unit takes data and instructions from the storage unit. It makes all sorts of calculations being stored the instructions given and the type of data provided. The processed result is then sent back to the storage unit as a result. 

A computer CPU is composed of millions and billions of transistors. It is also known as microprocessors due to its size. With modern technology, the CPU has advanced and evolved, and today is using ‘integrated chips.’ These chips are made up by combining several types of competence into a single piece of Silicon. The CPU is incorporated directly into the motherboard or a CPU socket pin side down.

Functional Unit of CPU

How does a Computer work?

The central processing unit is divided into three functional units based on the work they do. These are as follows:

  1. The Control Unit (CU): The control unit controls all the computer operations. The control section directs the flow of operations and data. The control unit performs all operations like input processing and output, which takes care of step-by-step processing of all operations inside the computer, the central processing unit. It accepts data in the form of programs and instructions through the input unit and stores it in the memory. It fetches all the information stored in the memory and displays the processed information through the Output Unit.
  2. The Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU): ALU is one of the most powerful components within a computer processor. The ALU performs mathematical, logical, and decision making operations on a computer. After the ALU has processed the information, it is sent to the computer memory.
  3. The Main Memory Unit or Internal Memory (MMU): MMU stores the data and instructions on which the computer is currently working. The memory unit is made up of a semiconductor device and has limited capacity. Thus, the data gets lost when the power is switched off. It is further divided into RAM and ROM.
How does a Computer work?

Now the CPU has processed the data and fetched the output. Next, the processed output must be kept somewhere inside your system to compute the further processing play. The output devices such as Monitor, Printer, etc. displays the output given to you in a human-readable form.

How information is represented inside a Computer

How does a Computer work?

Computers are changing the world at a fast pace. You will find this revolutionary machine almost in every sector and are used daily. In the above segment we briefly had a look at the different parts of the computers that actually input, output and store all the information and later process it and generates the output. In a nutshell, we learnt what makes a computer a computer. But that not enough because that is only the functional and operational behavior of the computer. We all know computer uses binary language to operate the data.  But have we ever thought how this information is represented? or by what means it can only read the 0 and 1 number.  The answer of the above questions are electricity. Yes, information is represented inside a computer using electricity. Computers use tiny electrical signals which went on and off and generated the output. Not only this, computer use circuits to do everything from simple math to stimulating complex computations.  

Electricity at Atomic Level

How does a Computer work?

Atoms are made of protons, electrons, and neutrons where protons are positively charged, electrons are negatively charged, and neutrons are neutral (without any charge). At the center of the atom, there is a nucleus where protons reside; on the other hand, electrons hang around the nucleus. Atoms in their standard state have an even number of protons and electrons. Thus, the positive and negative charges of the protons and electrons cancel out and balance each other. But if you add an extra proton to the add, it will make the atom positively charged, and the opposite happens if we take away a proton, you’ll have more electron, which makes the atom negatively charged. Some atoms are willing to give away their electrons while other don’t.    

Conductors, Insulators and Electricity

How does a Computer work?

Electrical wires are made up of protective rubber-like coating with metal strips inside. Electricity usually involves metals because metals are more willing to give up their electrons. Hence, the metals fall under the category of Conductors. Conductors are made up of many atoms, string together that want to give up their electrons. When you plug the cord into an outlet, it gives electrons to the metal atoms that it touches.

Since metal atoms like to give up, electrons and electrons travel from one atom to another from one end of the wire to the other. This how the Electricity flows inside a wire. In a nutshell, electricity is generated when many electrons hop from one atom to the next. Electric wires have a rubber-like coating knows as Insulators, which prevent the flow of the electricity. Insulators are the atoms that don't like to give up electrons such as rubber, wood, etc. It is the reason when you touch the wires, and you do not get any shock because the insulators are stopping the flow of electricity. 


How does a Computer work?

There are other types of atoms called Semiconductors that are in between conductors and insulators. They pursue both the features, sometimes they give their electrons, but other times they want to keep him out. Computers today use a semiconductor that goes by the name of Silicon. It doesn't know whether to share or not to share its electrons. So, to manage the flow of electrons, a process called Doping is used. Doping involves the modification of Silicon to tend toward giving up or keeping the electrons. Silicon is doped in two different ways:

  • p-type semiconductor: Dope to keep its electrons
  • n-type semiconductors: Dope to share its electrons


How does a Computer work?

Transistors are the most basic unit of computer which is made by combining the p and n type semiconductors together. We take our N type semiconductor and we put it on the ends and sandwich the P type between them. So, on one side of the transistor there is a source (where the electricity comes from) and on the other side of the transistor is the drain (where the electricity is trying to flow) to remember.

How does a Computer work?

But in between then we have doped p-type semiconductor.  The electricity flows fine through the N-type but it reaches P-type, they cancel out each other making a wall that stopes electron from flowing from the source to the drain. This block in known as depletion zone. 

How does a Computer work?

On the top of the transistor we locate a Gate which emit out charges and acts like a switch. When a positive charge is applied to this gate, it attracts the electrons across the depletion some affectively shrinking the depletions of it allows electrons to flow freely from the source to the drain. The gate is used like a switch. When the gate is off electricity can't flow through but when the gate is turned on the electricity can flow through. Based on the same concept the binary language of the computer works.

Transistors and Binary Language

How does a Computer work?

Computers work by aligning a bunch of transistors and generates a string of zeros and ones. Computers use millions to billions of transistors, which are lined up together to perform complex math equations, display color, play sound, put video, etc. The combination of 0 and 1 depends upon the operation performed by the computer. For example:  If your computer is performing a math equation, then 01001110 would be equal to 46, but if you are trying to display a video, the same combination of zeros and ones in the graphics portion of your computer stands, for a specific shade of green.


How does a Computer work?

Computers are precisely used for performing math and logic activities, which they attain by stringing along a bunch of transistors in a different configuration. These configurations are known as GATES (AND, OR, NAND, NOR, NOT). Gates are named after what they do and work by stringing transistors together. Many logic gates can be string together in different patterns, which enables the computer to perform complex instruction sets designed by computer programmers.

For example: In the 'AND' gate, the electrons try to flow from the source to the drain of the first transistor and move to the second transistor source. Let's analysis the different cases where the two transistors are placed together to generate an output:  

Case 1: If both transistors are off:

The off-state represents two zeros; thus, the electrons cannot make it to the final drain. Thus, the output will be zero.

Case: 2 If One Transistor in On and other is Off:

If one transistor is on which is a 1 and another is off, which is 0, then the electrons stop at the off transistor and will not pass it through, resulting in a 0.

Case 3: Both Transistor is 0:

If both transistors are on, it makes two 1, and the electrons will be able to flow through the source of one transistor to the drain of another. Thus, the gate will give the result as 1.

Hence, transistors are configured in different ways to make different logic gates that spit out ones and zeroes, which strung together and make numbers, letters, and colors.