Computer Fundamentals Index

Computer Introduction Types of computer Characteristics of computer Uses of computer History of Computers

Computer Languages

Low Level language Middle level Language High level language

Computer Generation

Generation of Computers First Generation of Computer Second generation of Computers Third generation of Computers Fourth generation of Computers Fifth generation of Computers Sixth Generation of Computer

Peripheral Devices

Input devices Output device


Block diagram and basic components Control processing unit (CPU) Software Hardware


Computer Memory Registers Memory Hierarchy RAM Vs ROM Understanding file sizes (Bytes, KB, MB, GB, TB, PB, EB, ZB, YB)

Computer Network

Types of Network Types of Area Networks (LAN, WAN, MAN) TCP Flags

Computer Virus

Computer Virus

Computer Ports

Computer Ports


How to hack a computer How much do Computer Programmers make How does a Computer work How to associate a file with a program How does a computer convert text into binary How does a computer process data into information How to fix a CD-ROM DVD How to fix the no input signal How to install computer memory How to associate a file with a program How to log out of your operating system How do I change my name on Google How to installation or uninstallation Microsoft Paint How to fix a not a valid Win32 application error How to fix missing Microsoft Windows .dll files How to use a computer keyboard How to erase my hard drive and start over How can I test how many words I can write a minute How to shut down a computer How do I open and edit the Windows registry How to edit the registry from the command line How to restart Microsoft Windows How to install a computer processor How to open Microsoft Paint How to fix problems in Windows after installing new software How to enable or disable the preview pane of Microsoft Outlook How to open a Microsoft .wps or Works file in Word How to view the HTML source code in Microsoft Word How to View or Change the Screen Resolution of a Monitor How to Connect and Install a Computer Keyboard How to Delete Temporary Files in Windows 10 How to determine Which Version of Microsoft Office I'm using How to find out how much hard drive space is available How to Fix PC Stuck on Verifying DMI Pool Data How to choose which items show in the notification area How to find similar images using Search by Image How to fix Low Memory and out of memory errors How To Replace the CMOS Battery How do I Update my Antivirus Program How to fix a general protection fault How to Identify problems in the Windows Device Manager How can the Base be Shown How to test if a Website or Web Page is down How Much is 1 Byte, Kilobyte, Megabyte, Gigabyte, etc How to fix a CMOS checksum error How to Fix a Windows CD-ROM, DVD, or Disc Drive Issue How to Open Safe Mode How to Password Protect Files and Folders in Windows How to Reset CMOS or BIOS Settings How to use Computer Keyboard How to create a text file How to enable or disable DHCP in Windows How to test computer memory to determine if its bad How do double space or change line spacing in Microsoft Word How do I know if I have Windows Administrator Rights How many cores does my computer have How to Create a Directory or Folder How to Enter and Exit the BIOS or CMOS Setup How to change Windows Compatibility mode How to clear your internet browser history How to Connect Computer Speakers How to Copy a Web Page Link or URL How to install a Hard Drive or SSD How to Open the Windows Control Panel How to split a screen in Windows How to copy text from a scanned PDF


Who invented Computer What are the advantages of the Internet? What are the disadvantages of the Internet? Is my computer 64 bit? What is Edge Computing? What is a Router? What is Monitor What is Printer What is a Web Browser What is Microphone What is a Webcam What is PC What is Keyboard What is Motherboard What is WAP What is URL What is a Digital Assistant When was the first Computer Invented What is Modem What is Firmware What is Imperative Programming What is Protocol What is Safe Mode What is Device Driver What is Hybrid Topology What is Mesh Topology What is Procedural language What is a hyperlink What is a Username Who invented the Internet What is Video Card What is Sound Card What is Binary What does Alt+B do What does Alt+D do What does Alt+E do What does Alt+Esc do What does Alt+R do What does ALT + Q do What does Alt + Tab do What is Data Manipulation What is a touch screen What is Back Panel What is Analog Monitor What is AR lens What is an ATX Style Connector What is a File System What is Hard Disk Drive (HDD) What is a boot device What is accessibility What is Line In What is network Interface card (NIC) What is Optical Disk Where can I ask questions on the internet What is Auto Rotate What is CAD (Computer-aided design) What is Cable Modem What is Home Page What is boot menu What is braille reader What is flash memory What is Windows What is Clipboard What is Cyber Warfare What is Myspace Why has my IP address changed What is Jacquard Loom My computer is running slow, what steps can I do to fix it What is a Kensington Lock What is a multicore processor What is automation Are smartphones and tablets computers What is a Login Script What is a Loosely Typed Language What is Multitasking? Why my computer monitor shows no display or black screen What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is the Pg Dn Key (Page Down Key) What is the Pg up Key (Page up Key) What is Palmtop Computer What is a Processing Device What is a Print Preview What is the Print Screen Key What can I do if my computer or laptop is lost or stolen What is a Model Number What are the currently available antivirus programs What are Toggle keys What is a Case fan What is a Silicon Chip What is a Slate PC What is a TAB stop What is an Octothorpe What is Task Pane What is Task View What is the svchost.exe file used for in Windows Where can I find free online virus scanners Why am I unable to increase the resolution in Windows What is Autofill When I click my mouse, it sometimes double-clicks What is Scratch What is UDIMM What is MsConfig What is an Expansion Card What is an Executable File What is an Elevated Command Prompt What is an AC Adapter What is AIMBOT What is a Software Suite What is a LED Monitor What does Alt + X do What does alt + space do What does Alt + O do Now that I’ve got a Computer, what can i do What is a Punch Card What is RDIMM What is Select All What is Serial number What is Thermos flask What programs can I use for speech recognition What are the Advantages of Computers What are the Disadvantages of Computers What does Alt + T do What Hardware Device Drivers should be Updated What is a Desktop What is a Ring Topology What is CMOS What is a Directory What is a Mechanical Mouse What is a Plotter What is a Variable What is an Icon What is Data What is HDMI What is Remote What is Right-Click What is SMPS Why does my Laptop not turn on What is a Copyright What is a Cordless Mouse What is a CSV file What is a Joystick What is a Start Button What is a Taskbar What is an Alignment What is an Output Device What is Cat 5 What is Google Chrome What is Post What are Recordable DVD Drives What Does Alt + F4 Do What Does Alt + L Do What is a bit (Binary Digit) What is a cable What is a Calculator What is a capacitor What is a Cold Boot What is a Dialog Box What is a Dual-boot What is a Slide What is A4 What is AM What is Barcode Reader What is EHCI What is a Header What is a Joystick What is a Secondary Storage Device What is Access Time What is Account Sharing What is an Asterisk What is Asynchronous DRAM What is Back Quote What is BIOS What is Borderless Printing What is Case Badge What is CD-ROM What is Chat Slang What is Composite What is RJ Cable What Are Bottom Row Keys What is SAN What is Tray What is VDU What Does Alt + M Do What Does Alt + P Do What is a Cell What is a Command Key What is a key Combination What is a Menu Bar What is a Startup What is a T What is Chat What are the F1 through F12 keys What does Alt + Enter do What Does Alt + Home DO What does Alt + R do What does Ctrl + B do What Does Ctrl + Enter Do What Does Ctrl + R Do What does Ctrl + G do What does Ctrl + 9 do What does Ctrl + End do What does Ctrl + O do What Does Ctrl + P do What Does Ctrl + Q do What is a Colon What is a Core What is Apple Touch Icon What is Clock What is Code What is Computer Crime What is Ctrl What is DAT What is Data diddling What is Date Why won't my computer turn on What Does Alt + N Do What does ctrl + 2 do What does ctrl + space do What does Ctrl + W do What does Ctrl + T Do What Does Ctrl + 2 do What does Ctrl + 5 Do What are the most common file types and file extensions What are Sticky keys What Does Ctrl + Shift + Esc Do What is Settings What is Task Manager What is Taskbar What is a DNS Resolver What does ctrl + 1 do What does ctrl + 0 do How to install software What is a Folder What is a Legend What is a MAC Address What is a Path What is a Ruler What is a Toolbar What is an Intranet Meaning and Differences with Internet What is an SSD What is Inheritance What is Tablet What is Depth What is Docking Station What is Double Click What is a Solid Ink Printer What is a Temporary File What is Backup and Restore What is Electronic Payment Systems Eps What is Marshalling


Difference between hardware and software Difference between multiprocessor and distributed systems Difference between Desktop and Laptop Difference between File and folder Difference between Hard Copy and Soft Copy Open Source Programs vs Closed Source Programs Difference between Optical Fibre and Coaxial Cable Difference between Website and Webpage Difference between Classes and Objects Input VS Output Difference between Primary and Secondary Storage with Examples


Quantum Computing Computer Software Autoexec.bat and config.sys info Update an Antivirus Use of Internet Advantages and disadvantages of Email Computing Power Internet Explorer Shortcut Keys Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) Augmented Reality Infrastructure Readiness Check Top 10 Internet tips and tricks Introduction and Features of FoxPro Features of Multimedia Top 10 online services and applications Receiving S.M.A.R.T. status bad backup and replacing error Version Control System Uninstalling Software or Apps in Windows Data Warehouse Increase or decrease font size in Word using keyboard shortcuts Mouse not detected or working in Windows Computer Cleaning Information and Steps Function Keys on Keyboard Windows 7 Alt+Tab won’t stay on top or stick 10 Essential Examples of Web Browsers Binary Subtraction using 2’s Complement Case Sensitive Languages Computer Pioneers and people who are CEO Microsoft Word Shortcut Keys Parts of Computers Names, Definitions and Images ROM and its Types Basics of Information Technology Characteristics of a Good Software Design Characteristics of Management Information System Classification of Management Information System Implementation of MIS Input Devices of Computer Definition Limitations of Management Information System 3 Types Of Network in Computer Block Diagram Of Control Unit Difference Between Computer and Embedded System Difference Between Hard Disk and Floppy Disk Abstraction in OOAD Hardware and Software Devices Optomechanical Mouse CMOS Memory What is a Terminal? What is Graphic Design? What is Load? What is Passcode? What is Reboot? What is Registry? What is Safe Mode? What is Standby? What is SYN (Synchronize)? What is Task Manager? Attribute Computing BPS in Computer Bulletin Board System Light Pen Input Device 3 TYPES OF NETWORK IN COMPUTER Block diagram of control unit What is a Solid Ink Printer? What is a Temporary File? What is an App launcher? What is Backup and Restore? What is a Tab Character? What is the Core i3? What is Paint? What is a Workbook? Advantages and Disadvantages of Online Education What is a String? What is a VDU (Visible Display Unit)? 50 Uses of Computer What is Workspace? What is a Procedural Language? What is VGA (Video Graphics Array)?

What is a capacitor?

A capacitor is a passive electrical component that stores energy in an electric field. It comprises two conductive plates separated by a non-conductive material called the dielectric. When a voltage is applied to the capacitor, it accumulates charge on each plate. The amount of charge stored on each plate, and therefore the amount of energy stored in the electric field, is determined by the capacitance of the capacitor.

Capacitors are widely used in electronic circuits for a variety of purposes. One of the most common applications is coupling and decoupling circuits, where a capacitor passes AC signals while blocking DC signals. This is useful in preventing DC voltage offsets from affecting the operation of sensitive circuit components, such as amplifiers.

Another important application of capacitors is in power supply circuits, where they are used to smooth out the output of a rectifier, which converts AC voltage to DC voltage. Capacitors are also used in timing circuits, which act as a time constant, controlling the rate at which a circuit charges or discharges.

What is a capacitor?

Capacitors are available in various sizes and types, with capacitance values ranging from a few picofarads to several microfarads. They are also available in various voltage ratings and with different dielectrics, such as ceramic, tantalum, and aluminum electrolytic.

Uses of Capacitor

Coupling and decoupling: Capacitors pass AC signals while blocking DC signals. This is useful in preventing DC voltage offsets from affecting the operation of sensitive circuit components, such as amplifiers.

Power supply smoothing: They are used in power supply circuits to smooth out the output of a rectifier, which converts AC voltage to DC voltage.

Timing circuits: They act as a time constant, controlling the rate at which a circuit charges or discharges. They are used in timing circuits to control the speed of motors, the rate of blinking of LEDs, and in many other applications.

Filtering: They filter out unwanted high-frequency noise in electronic circuits. They are commonly used in audio and video systems to improve signal quality.

Energy storage: Capacitors store energy quickly in applications such as flash photography, power backup systems, and electric vehicles.

Motor starting: Capacitors are used to increase the starting torque of electric motors by temporarily increasing the voltage applied to the motor.

Signal processing: Capacitors are used in signal processing circuits such as filters, oscillators, and resonant circuits.

Surge protection: They are used in surge protection circuits to absorb and dissipate transient voltage spikes.

These are some of the most common uses of capacitors, but they can also be used in many other applications, depending on the specific requirements of the circuit.

Advantages of Capacitors

High capacitance-to-volume ratio: Capacitors can store a relatively large amount of energy in a small space, making them useful in portable and compact electronic devices.

Low cost: They are relatively inexpensive and widely available, making them an affordable solution for many electronic applications.

Stable performance: Capacitors have relatively stable performance over a wide range of temperatures and frequencies, making them suitable for use in a wide range of electronic applications.

Long lifespan: Capacitors typically have a long lifespan and require little maintenance, making them reliable for electronic applications.

Versatility: Capacitors are available in various sizes, types, and capacitance values, making them suitable for various electronic applications.

Safe to use: Capacitors are passive components; they do not require any power to operate and are safe to use.

High power handling capability: They can handle high power and current, making them suitable for high-power applications such as motor starting and energy storage.

Used in AC and DC circuits: Capacitors are widely used in both AC and DC circuits and can filter out noise, reduce ripple, and smooth power in DC circuits.

Used in high voltage applications: Capacitors are available in a wide range of voltage ratings, making them suitable for high voltage applications.

Capacitors are a versatile and reliable solution for a wide range of electronic applications due to their high capacitance-to-volume ratio, low cost, stable performance, long lifespan, and ability to handle high power and voltage.

Disadvantages of Capacitors

While capacitors have many advantages, they also have limitations and disadvantages, such as limited energy storage, voltage rating, leakage current, temperature sensitivity, aging, polarization, size and weight, and limited frequency response. They can be difficult to handle. These factors must be considered when designing electronic circuits and selecting the appropriate type of capacitor for the application.

  • Limited energy storage: Capacitors can store a limited amount of energy compared to other energy storage devices, such as batteries.
  • Voltage rating: Capacitors have a specific voltage rating and can be damaged if exposed to excessive voltage.
  • Leakage current: Capacitors can have leakage current, the amount of current that flows through the dielectric material of the capacitor. This current can cause a gradual discharge of the capacitor, reducing its effectiveness over time.
  • Temperature sensitivity: The capacitance of some capacitors can change with temperature, which can affect the performance of electronic circuits.
  • Aging: Capacitors may degrade over time, which can affect their performance and reliability.
  • Polarization: Some types of capacitors, such as electrolytic capacitors, are polarized, meaning they must be connected to a circuit with the correct polarity to function properly.
  • Size and weight: Capacitors can be relatively large and heavy, which can be a limitation in portable and compact electronic devices.
  • Limited frequency response: Capacitors have limited frequency response, so their effectiveness can decrease at higher frequencies.
  • Can be difficult to handle: Some types of capacitors, such as ceramic capacitors, can be fragile and difficult to handle.
What is a capacitor?

Tips for using capacitors

  • Choose the right type of capacitor: Different types have different characteristics and are suitable for different applications. For example, ceramic capacitors are good for coupling and decoupling, while tantalum capacitors are good for smoothing power supply ripple.
  • Please choose the right capacitance value: The capacitance value of a capacitor determines how much energy it can store. It's important to choose a capacitance value appropriate for the application.
  • Please choose the right voltage rating: Capacitors have a specific voltage rating, and it's important to choose a capacitor that can handle the voltage levels in the circuit.
  • Observe the polarity: Some types of capacitors are polarized, meaning that they must be connected to a circuit with the correct polarity to function properly. Observe the polarity when connecting the capacitor to the circuit.
  • Use capacitors in parallel to increase capacitance: You can connect multiple capacitors in parallel to increase the total capacitance in a circuit.
  • Use capacitors in series to increase voltage rating: To increase the voltage rating in a circuit, you can connect multiple capacitors in series.
  • Use multiple capacitors to reduce ripple: In a power supply circuit, you can use multiple capacitors of different values and types in parallel.
  • Use capacitors to reduce noise: To reduce noise in a circuit, you can use capacitors to filter out unwanted high-frequency signals.
  • Please pay attention to the ESR (Equivalent Series Resistance): Capacitors have ESR, which can impact the effectiveness of the capacitor in high-frequency applications, it is important to pay attention to the ESR when selecting capacitors for high-frequency applications.
  • Store and handle capacitors properly: Some types of capacitors, such as ceramic capacitors, can be fragile and should be handled with care. Store capacitors in a dry and cool place to avoid damage.

Following these tips ensures that you are using capacitors most effectively in your electronic circuits.

What is a capacitor?


A capacitor is a passive electronic component that stores energy in an electric field by accumulating charge on two conductive plates separated by a non-conductive material called the dielectric. They have a high capacitance-to-volume ratio, low cost, stable performance, and long lifespan. However, capacitors also have limitations such as limited energy storage, voltage rating, leakage current, temperature sensitivity, aging, polarization, size and weight, and limited frequency response, which can be difficult to handle. To use capacitors effectively in electronic circuits, it's important to choose the right type of capacitor, capacitance value, and voltage rating, observe the polarity and use multiple capacitors in parallel or series. Capacitors should also be handled and stored properly to avoid damage.