Computer Fundamentals Index

Computer Introduction Types of computer Characteristics of computer Uses of computer History of Computers

Computer Languages

Low Level language Middle level Language High level language

Computer Generation

Generation of Computers First Generation of Computer Second generation of Computers Third generation of Computers Fourth generation of Computers Fifth generation of Computers Sixth Generation of Computer

Peripheral Devices

Input devices Output device


Block diagram and basic components Control processing unit (CPU) Software Hardware


Computer Memory Registers Memory Hierarchy RAM Vs ROM Understanding file sizes (Bytes, KB, MB, GB, TB, PB, EB, ZB, YB)

Computer Network

Types of Network Types of Area Networks (LAN, WAN, MAN) TCP Flags

Computer Virus

Computer Virus

Computer Ports

Computer Ports


How to hack a computer How much do Computer Programmers make How does a Computer work How to associate a file with a program How does a computer convert text into binary How does a computer process data into information How to fix a CD-ROM DVD How to fix the no input signal How to install computer memory How to associate a file with a program How to log out of your operating system How do I change my name on Google How to installation or uninstallation Microsoft Paint How to fix a not a valid Win32 application error How to fix missing Microsoft Windows .dll files How to use a computer keyboard How to erase my hard drive and start over How can I test how many words I can write a minute How to shut down a computer How do I open and edit the Windows registry How to edit the registry from the command line How to restart Microsoft Windows How to install a computer processor How to open Microsoft Paint How to fix problems in Windows after installing new software How to enable or disable the preview pane of Microsoft Outlook How to open a Microsoft .wps or Works file in Word How to view the HTML source code in Microsoft Word How to View or Change the Screen Resolution of a Monitor How to Connect and Install a Computer Keyboard How to Delete Temporary Files in Windows 10 How to determine Which Version of Microsoft Office I'm using How to find out how much hard drive space is available How to Fix PC Stuck on Verifying DMI Pool Data How to choose which items show in the notification area How to find similar images using Search by Image How to fix Low Memory and out of memory errors How To Replace the CMOS Battery How do I Update my Antivirus Program How to fix a general protection fault How to Identify problems in the Windows Device Manager How can the Base be Shown How to test if a Website or Web Page is down How Much is 1 Byte, Kilobyte, Megabyte, Gigabyte, etc How to fix a CMOS checksum error How to Fix a Windows CD-ROM, DVD, or Disc Drive Issue How to Open Safe Mode How to Password Protect Files and Folders in Windows How to Reset CMOS or BIOS Settings How to use Computer Keyboard How to create a text file How to enable or disable DHCP in Windows How to test computer memory to determine if its bad How do double space or change line spacing in Microsoft Word How do I know if I have Windows Administrator Rights How many cores does my computer have How to Create a Directory or Folder How to Enter and Exit the BIOS or CMOS Setup How to change Windows Compatibility mode How to clear your internet browser history How to Connect Computer Speakers How to Copy a Web Page Link or URL How to install a Hard Drive or SSD How to Open the Windows Control Panel How to split a screen in Windows How to copy text from a scanned PDF


Who invented Computer What are the advantages of the Internet? What are the disadvantages of the Internet? Is my computer 64 bit? What is Edge Computing? What is a Router? What is Monitor What is Printer What is a Web Browser What is Microphone What is a Webcam What is PC What is Keyboard What is Motherboard What is WAP What is URL What is a Digital Assistant When was the first Computer Invented What is Modem What is Firmware What is Imperative Programming What is Protocol What is Safe Mode What is Device Driver What is Hybrid Topology What is Mesh Topology What is Procedural language What is a hyperlink What is a Username Who invented the Internet What is Video Card What is Sound Card What is Binary What does Alt+B do What does Alt+D do What does Alt+E do What does Alt+Esc do What does Alt+R do What does ALT + Q do What does Alt + Tab do What is Data Manipulation What is a touch screen What is Back Panel What is Analog Monitor What is AR lens What is an ATX Style Connector What is a File System What is Hard Disk Drive (HDD) What is a boot device What is accessibility What is Line In What is network Interface card (NIC) What is Optical Disk Where can I ask questions on the internet What is Auto Rotate What is CAD (Computer-aided design) What is Cable Modem What is Home Page What is boot menu What is braille reader What is flash memory What is Windows What is Clipboard What is Cyber Warfare What is Myspace Why has my IP address changed What is Jacquard Loom My computer is running slow, what steps can I do to fix it What is a Kensington Lock What is a multicore processor What is automation Are smartphones and tablets computers What is a Login Script What is a Loosely Typed Language What is Multitasking? Why my computer monitor shows no display or black screen What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is the Pg Dn Key (Page Down Key) What is the Pg up Key (Page up Key) What is Palmtop Computer What is a Processing Device What is a Print Preview What is the Print Screen Key What can I do if my computer or laptop is lost or stolen What is a Model Number What are the currently available antivirus programs What are Toggle keys What is a Case fan What is a Silicon Chip What is a Slate PC What is a TAB stop What is an Octothorpe What is Task Pane What is Task View What is the svchost.exe file used for in Windows Where can I find free online virus scanners Why am I unable to increase the resolution in Windows What is Autofill When I click my mouse, it sometimes double-clicks What is Scratch What is UDIMM What is MsConfig What is an Expansion Card What is an Executable File What is an Elevated Command Prompt What is an AC Adapter What is AIMBOT What is a Software Suite What is a LED Monitor What does Alt + X do What does alt + space do What does Alt + O do Now that I’ve got a Computer, what can i do What is a Punch Card What is RDIMM What is Select All What is Serial number What is Thermos flask What programs can I use for speech recognition What are the Advantages of Computers What are the Disadvantages of Computers What does Alt + T do What Hardware Device Drivers should be Updated What is a Desktop What is a Ring Topology What is CMOS What is a Directory What is a Mechanical Mouse What is a Plotter What is a Variable What is an Icon What is Data What is HDMI What is Remote What is Right-Click What is SMPS Why does my Laptop not turn on What is a Copyright What is a Cordless Mouse What is a CSV file What is a Joystick What is a Start Button What is a Taskbar What is an Alignment What is an Output Device What is Cat 5 What is Google Chrome What is Post What are Recordable DVD Drives What Does Alt + F4 Do What Does Alt + L Do What is a bit (Binary Digit) What is a cable What is a Calculator What is a capacitor What is a Cold Boot What is a Dialog Box What is a Dual-boot What is a Slide What is A4 What is AM What is Barcode Reader What is EHCI What is a Header What is a Joystick What is a Secondary Storage Device What is Access Time What is Account Sharing What is an Asterisk What is Asynchronous DRAM What is Back Quote What is BIOS What is Borderless Printing What is Case Badge What is CD-ROM What is Chat Slang What is Composite What is RJ Cable What Are Bottom Row Keys What is SAN What is Tray What is VDU What Does Alt + M Do What Does Alt + P Do What is a Cell What is a Command Key What is a key Combination What is a Menu Bar What is a Startup What is a T What is Chat What are the F1 through F12 keys What does Alt + Enter do What Does Alt + Home DO What does Alt + R do What does Ctrl + B do What Does Ctrl + Enter Do What Does Ctrl + R Do What does Ctrl + G do What does Ctrl + 9 do What does Ctrl + End do What does Ctrl + O do What Does Ctrl + P do What Does Ctrl + Q do What is a Colon What is a Core What is Apple Touch Icon What is Clock What is Code What is Computer Crime What is Ctrl What is DAT What is Data diddling What is Date Why won't my computer turn on What Does Alt + N Do What does ctrl + 2 do What does ctrl + space do What does Ctrl + W do What does Ctrl + T Do What Does Ctrl + 2 do What does Ctrl + 5 Do What are the most common file types and file extensions What are Sticky keys What Does Ctrl + Shift + Esc Do What is Settings What is Task Manager What is Taskbar What is a DNS Resolver What does ctrl + 1 do What does ctrl + 0 do How to install software What is a Folder What is a Legend What is a MAC Address What is a Path What is a Ruler What is a Toolbar What is an Intranet Meaning and Differences with Internet What is an SSD What is Inheritance What is Tablet What is Depth What is Docking Station What is Double Click What is a Solid Ink Printer What is a Temporary File What is Backup and Restore What is Electronic Payment Systems Eps What is Marshalling


Difference between hardware and software Difference between multiprocessor and distributed systems Difference between Desktop and Laptop Difference between File and folder Difference between Hard Copy and Soft Copy Open Source Programs vs Closed Source Programs Difference between Optical Fibre and Coaxial Cable Difference between Website and Webpage Difference between Classes and Objects Input VS Output Difference between Primary and Secondary Storage with Examples


Quantum Computing Computer Software Autoexec.bat and config.sys info Update an Antivirus Use of Internet Advantages and disadvantages of Email Computing Power Internet Explorer Shortcut Keys Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) Augmented Reality Infrastructure Readiness Check Top 10 Internet tips and tricks Introduction and Features of FoxPro Features of Multimedia Top 10 online services and applications Receiving S.M.A.R.T. status bad backup and replacing error Version Control System Uninstalling Software or Apps in Windows Data Warehouse Increase or decrease font size in Word using keyboard shortcuts Mouse not detected or working in Windows Computer Cleaning Information and Steps Function Keys on Keyboard Windows 7 Alt+Tab won’t stay on top or stick 10 Essential Examples of Web Browsers Binary Subtraction using 2’s Complement Case Sensitive Languages Computer Pioneers and people who are CEO Microsoft Word Shortcut Keys Parts of Computers Names, Definitions and Images ROM and its Types Basics of Information Technology Characteristics of a Good Software Design Characteristics of Management Information System Classification of Management Information System Implementation of MIS Input Devices of Computer Definition Limitations of Management Information System 3 Types Of Network in Computer Block Diagram Of Control Unit Difference Between Computer and Embedded System Difference Between Hard Disk and Floppy Disk Abstraction in OOAD Hardware and Software Devices Optomechanical Mouse CMOS Memory What is a Terminal? What is Graphic Design? What is Load? What is Passcode? What is Reboot? What is Registry? What is Safe Mode? What is Standby? What is SYN (Synchronize)? What is Task Manager? Attribute Computing BPS in Computer Bulletin Board System Light Pen Input Device 3 TYPES OF NETWORK IN COMPUTER Block diagram of control unit What is a Solid Ink Printer? What is a Temporary File? What is an App launcher? What is Backup and Restore? What is a Tab Character? What is the Core i3? What is Paint? What is a Workbook? Advantages and Disadvantages of Online Education What is a String? What is a VDU (Visible Display Unit)? 50 Uses of Computer What is Workspace? What is a Procedural Language? What is VGA (Video Graphics Array)?

Difference between Primary and Secondary Storage with Examples

Primary Storage

Primary storage refers to all techniques and tools to gather and preserve digital data vital to an organization's operations and use. Software, other devices, and business users regularly access data from primary storage.

In contrast, data accessed less frequently or never again is kept in secondary storage. Devices or systems that store backup data (a second copy of the current primary data) and archive data that is seldom or never accessed are examples of secondary storage. Secondary data is commonly referred to as data at rest since it is rarely examined and has minimal immediate utility.

Although some settings have more storage tiers, primary and secondary storage are parts of a tiered storage architecture that includes at least two primary and secondary storage layers. No matter how many storage tiers, the primary tier is usually set aside for transactional data or data from mission-critical applications that demand high performance.

Primary Storage Types

Depending on the computing environment, primary storage might be hard discs or locally installed flash-based solid-state drives on an application server or file server. A network-attached storage (NAS) array or a central, shared storage-area network (SAN) might also be the primary storage layer. Primary storage or another layer of data storage is determined by how the storage resource is used, not by the type of storage architecture.

The tier will frequently be a SAN device (or combination of devices) if an organization's primary storage is utilized for high-transaction, random-access applications like database management systems. Because SAN systems are block-orientated, data is stored and accessed in blocks of a specific size. Block access often offers the high performance that database systems demand because it functions similarly to how the storage media hard disc drives or solid-state drives-stores, catalogs, and retrieves the data it hosts.

While NAS arrays may also be utilized as primary storage, they store and access data differently than SANs. As it covers the storage media system with a directory and metadata that resembles how programs store their associated data, NAS storage is sometimes called file storage. Microsoft Word, Excel, and other programs may access their spreadsheets and documents via the NAS directory, which gathers the many parts of a file dispersed over a disc or several drives and displays the file to the program as a unified entity.

File-based systems like NAS are often slower than SANs due to this extra layer, but if a NAS satisfies an organization's needs for primary storage, it can efficiently perform at that level.

Cloud-based storage may also be utilized as primary storage; however, because it is distant, its usage as a primary storage resource would have quite different requirements than that of SAN or NAS. A cloud service must be accessed by an application locally hosted in a company's data centre across a private or public network, such as the Internet. Telecommunications-based data could be more active, resulting in speed and responsiveness that fall short of requirements for primary storage. However, performance may be acceptable if the application and the data were in the same cloud system.

Storage Media Types for First Archiving

Depending on its implementation, a primary storage system may comprise several media types—whether installed locally on a server, networked and shared like a SAN or NAS, or cloud-based. Although solid-state drives (SSDs) are progressively replacing hard discs as the primary storage option, hard discs are still the most common data storage. This is because primary storage often has to function well. Central storage systems sometimes use solid-state devices for quick data access and processing and hard disc drives for bulk storing the necessary data when employing both types of storage media.

If performance requirements are stringent, central storage may also utilize storage-class memory, a more recent technological advancement. Storage-class memory works closely with a server's CPU to feed data to an application as quickly as possible by combining random-access memory (RAM) properties with solid-state storage. 

In contrast to RAM, storage-class memory is persistent, meaning it keeps data even when the power is turned off. Storage-class memory is appropriate for primary storage for applications like in-memory databases since it is substantially quicker than regular solid-state drives but slightly slower than RAM. Additionally, it costs a lot more than traditional solid-state storage.

References from Primary Storage's Past

Instead of the media that offered a permanent, persistent home for the data, which might've been called secondary storage back when mainframe computers ruled the data centre, the term "primary storage" frequently referred to the volatile memory in the computer, similar to RAM in modern servers. That storage would have been available from the earliest punch card technology to tape to hard disc drives.

Secondary Storage

Data that is not accessed as frequently as the data in primary storage is kept in secondary storage, also known as auxiliary storage. It is a non-volatile memory that keeps information intact until removed or replaced. In-house, external, or cloud-based secondary storage are all options. Secondary storage enables businesses to store data ranging from a few megabytes to petabytes because of the available media types.

Data drive the world of today. Data has evolved into the new currency that controls how businesses conduct their everyday business. Businesses, governments, and other organizations are continually looking for new methods to handle and preserve the mountains of information they have since data is being produced at an unheard-of rate.

In our digital age, storing your priceless data is an essential yet fundamental task. Any type of data, including trade secrets within a vast company, private patient data at a dentist's office, student records from a school district, and payment and tax information from an accountant's office, is vulnerable to cyber risks. Backing up essential data guarantees that deleted files are correctly recovered and keeps data safe and secure against loss due to disaster, fraud, or failure. An organization's complete data backup and disaster recovery plan depends critically and strategically on storage. A vital component of the strategy is specifying the kind and placement of storage.

Choosing which storage type to employ and for what use cases is currently one of the most critical concerns. Therefore, it is essential to have a fundamental grasp of primary and secondary storage, the two forms of data storage pertinent to an enterprise backup plan in this scenario. (To be clear, the discussion about volatile RAM and non-volatile HDDs for PCs is not the topic of this discussion.)

Organizations utilize secondary storage for backup, disaster recovery, and archive data. Most businesses prioritize backing up the critical workloads data used often or frequently enough to be prioritized as part of a disaster recovery plan—when it comes to backup. However, not all data is often accessed or used. A backup storage device is the best option for them since it offers data security and archiving functions at a lesser price.

Technology for secondary storage is often substantially less expensive than for primary storage. This kind of storage can operate flawlessly on affordable devices better suited for long-term storage.

What makes Secondary Storage Crucial?

External storage systems that are not directly linked to production servers are referred to as secondary storage. Data related to an active task or application is stored in production storage by default. It might be dangerous to keep all the data in one location. There is always a chance that mistakes, incorrect setups, viruses, or other threats might compromise hardware and software. Such occurrences harm production data and hurt an organization. Such catastrophes can deal a severe blow to an organization's ability to continue operations in the absence of a sound backup and disaster recovery plan.

Data loss and recovery are greatly improved by keeping copies of the data on a secondary storage platform apart from the network and production environment.

Cost-saving is a significant advantage of using backup storage devices. Although the stored data might not be instantly available, it offers a low-cost storage layer.

As part of their backup plan, many businesses employ secondary storage to ensure that one copy of their crucial company data is never available over the Internet or an internal network.

Differences between Primary and Secondary Storage

Primary Storage Secondary Storage
The processor/CPU has immediate access to primary memory. The CPU cannot directly access secondary memory.
RAM is volatile by nature, albeit the composition of primary memory components varies. Non-volatile ROM. Its nature is always non-volatile.
Primary memory devices are more expensive than secondary storage devices. When compared to primary memory devices, secondary memory devices are less costly.
Semiconductor memories are the types of memory utilised for main memory. Magnetic and optical memories make up the secondary memory devices.
Primary memory is often referred to as internal memory or main memory. Additional names for secondary memory are external memory and auxiliary memory.
Examples include registers, RAM, ROM, cache memory, PROM, and EPROM. Examples include magnetic tapes, hard drives, and floppy discs.