The touch screen has been proved a revolution for every sector, such as electronics, communication, the service industry and the daily lifestyle, etc. It is one of the types of display in electronic devices like smartphones, laptops, computers, and more. To interact with different- different electronic devices like smartphones, computer, you have to press your finger on the touch screen, and the pressure will be recognized as input from your side. Then accordingly, the touch screen will act. Because touch screens always remain pressure sensitive.
People considered the capacitive screen, which was invented by E.A. Johnson, to be the first touch screen. It was created at the Royal Radar Establishment in Malvern, United Kingdom, between 1965 and 1967. In modern times, we use touch screens as another option for mouse and keyboards in devices like computers, laptops, and tablets. Despite having a simple look, this screen display has different layers as input from our fingertips.
The first layer remains hard, which preserve touch screen electronic components and their accurate display. Below this layer, we find another layer called an electronic grid through which devices identify the inputs from the user. It remains a boon for the Technology appliances like satellite navigation devices, mobile phones, ATM kiosks, personal digital assistant video games, etc.
Screen touch offers multi-touching input methods like making clockwise and anticlockwise photos with the help of twisting with our three fingers and zoom in zoom out by spreading with two fingers. Multi-touch technology by multiple fingers was initially introduced by Apple on iPhone and then on the iPad, and so on. Which later proved a very popular Technology.
Types of technology behind touch screen.
- Resistive: On a resistive touch screen, a thin metallic barrier that is both electrical and resistant detects the pressure of your finger or another item. When compared to capacitive technology, this innovation is frequently a better fit. It can, however, be shattered if it makes contact with hard items. It cannot be destroyed by water or dust while answering a finger or stylus. It is also less expensive. It has a drawback in that it can be damaged by a sharp instrument and only gives 75% clarity.
- Capacitive: This screen is constructed of an electrically charged material with electronics in each corner that monitor it. The capacitance of the capacitive screen varies as users contact it, allowing the location to be sent and identified. It has the advantage of exceptional clarity and is impervious to dust and water. It also has the drawback of not being able to be utilized with a stylus and instead requiring the use of a bare finger. When wearing gloves and attempting to utilize a smartphone touch screen, most people are unable to do anything.
- Surface acoustic wave (SAW): When a surface wave touch screen is touched, it registers changes in the waves it detects and generates ultrasonic waves. This technique is more sophisticated than the other two technologies, capacitive and resistive. However, it is susceptible to the elements and does not function with hard materials. It has the benefit of being easily touched with a finger or stylus. It also has a drawback: it might be affected by dirt or water.
- Projected Capacitive Touch Screen: Surface Capacitive (S-Cap) is related to Projected Capacitive (P-Cap), but it has two major advantages. To begin, it can be triggered using leather gloves or light cotton gloves in addition to a bare finger. P-Cap, on the other hand, allows for multi-touch activation. A projected capacitive touch screen comprises a glass sheet with visible electrode films inserted in it and an IC chip. As a result, a three-dimensional electrostatic field is created. When a finger makes contact with the screen, the electrical current levels change, allowing the computer to identify the touch points.
- IR (Infrared) Touch Screen: IR (infrared) touch screen monitors do not have a second screen or a screen sandwich on top of the display. Infrared monitors, on the other hand, provide an opaque pattern of light beams over the screen using IR transmitters and receivers.
Uses of touch screen
The technology of touch screen uses in various places like at self-service places in banks such as ATMs, smartphones, HMI, etc.
- Human-machine interfaces (HMIs)
It is a touch screen on robots, and since it is between the machines and humans, known as human machine interface. The function of HMIs is to provide information and the output regarding the user inputs through this HMI.
- As a Kiosk in the library
In the modern education system, we are using touch screens as a kiosk in the library to search books to get some information about the college, about the library, and many more.
- Infotainment Systems
Infotainment system is a system in an automobile through which the driver or passenger interacts with that system. And, the touch screen act as an interface between the system and driver. Infotainment system is used to navigate and for entertainment purposes.
- Smart Appliances
Everything is coming as an embedded system inserted by software and automatic features in today's world. As a result, a touch screen is also coming with these smart appliances because a touch screen makes it easier to interact with and run these smart appliances. Now, the types of smart appliances that can be included are washing machines, lockers, cloth dryers, etc.
Whether it runs on Android or iOS, almost all handsets include a touch screen interface. Cell phones have been connected with touch screens. A QWERTY keypad was used in a few of the world's first cellphones. Manufacturers started integrating touch screen displays in their mobile phones in the early 2000s.
How touch screen works
The complete work of the touch screen can be categorized into three parts, so, let's see the following three sections of work.
The first one is the touch sensor is a layer of electronic components accompanied by the technology of touch sensitiveness. Behind this touch sensitiveness of a touch screen, there are many technologies that we have discussed in this page.
Technology like a capacitive, resistive, surface acoustic waves, infrared waves, etc. Therefore, here the touch sensors work to take input from the user.
Controller or coordinator
Controllers basically act as mediators between touch screen and computer, laptop or mobile. It is found between the touch screen and electronic devices like smartphones or computers in the form of a small PC card.
The controller aims to convert the input from the touch screen to the understandable language of the computer. So, accordingly, the result will be displayed on the display side.
A driver is a software that coordinates from the touch screen to the mediator part call controller to the system, either a laptop, mobile phone, or computer.
Touch screen input/output
Touch screen act as an input as well as an output device. It is one of the few devices that act as an input and output device because the touch screen takes input from our fingertip, and simultaneously, it shows results on the screen.
Since the touch screen is a typical display, sometimes, it is also called an output device.
Advantages and Disadvantages of touch screen
Advantages of touch screen
- It is easy and very fast compared to other input device like mouse or keypad in mobile phones.
- It saves the desktop area because no other external input devices are required after using a touch screen as a mouse.
- According to our requirement, you can change the language on screen easily.
- Touch screen works faster as compared to other input devices like a mouse because whenever we want to locate something, we directly touch that and move on.
- The touch screen remains clean and durable for a long time of use.
Disadvantage of touch screen
- Touch screen is more costly as compared to the keypad and mouse. Also, in the computer, laptop or tablet, it becomes so expensive as compared to other input device.
- One of the major disadvantages of touch screens is a sensitivity issue. Sometimes, some function or document gets selected because this touch screen doesn't work properly.
- On-screen keyboard is also a disadvantage because when the keyboard opens on-screen, it covers half of the screen area, so it becomes difficult to type or write on the screen.