Computer Fundamentals Index

Computer Introduction Types of computer Characteristics of computer Uses of computer History of Computers

Computer Languages

Low Level language Middle level Language High level language

Computer Generation

Generation of Computers First Generation of Computer Second generation of Computers Third generation of Computers Fourth generation of Computers Fifth generation of Computers Sixth Generation of Computer

Peripheral Devices

Input devices Output device


Block diagram and basic components Control processing unit (CPU) Software Hardware


Computer Memory Registers Memory Hierarchy RAM Vs ROM Understanding file sizes (Bytes, KB, MB, GB, TB, PB, EB, ZB, YB)

Computer Network

Types of Network Types of Area Networks (LAN, WAN, MAN) TCP Flags

Computer Virus

Computer Virus

Computer Ports

Computer Ports


How to hack a computer How much do Computer Programmers make How does a Computer work How to associate a file with a program How does a computer convert text into binary How does a computer process data into information How to fix a CD-ROM DVD How to fix the no input signal How to install computer memory How to associate a file with a program How to log out of your operating system How do I change my name on Google How to installation or uninstallation Microsoft Paint How to fix a not a valid Win32 application error How to fix missing Microsoft Windows .dll files How to use a computer keyboard How to erase my hard drive and start over How can I test how many words I can write a minute How to shut down a computer How do I open and edit the Windows registry How to edit the registry from the command line How to restart Microsoft Windows How to install a computer processor How to open Microsoft Paint How to fix problems in Windows after installing new software How to enable or disable the preview pane of Microsoft Outlook How to open a Microsoft .wps or Works file in Word How to view the HTML source code in Microsoft Word How to View or Change the Screen Resolution of a Monitor How to Connect and Install a Computer Keyboard How to Delete Temporary Files in Windows 10 How to determine Which Version of Microsoft Office I'm using How to find out how much hard drive space is available How to Fix PC Stuck on Verifying DMI Pool Data How to choose which items show in the notification area How to find similar images using Search by Image How to fix Low Memory and out of memory errors How To Replace the CMOS Battery How do I Update my Antivirus Program How to fix a general protection fault How to Identify problems in the Windows Device Manager How can the Base be Shown How to test if a Website or Web Page is down How Much is 1 Byte, Kilobyte, Megabyte, Gigabyte, etc How to fix a CMOS checksum error How to Fix a Windows CD-ROM, DVD, or Disc Drive Issue How to Open Safe Mode How to Password Protect Files and Folders in Windows How to Reset CMOS or BIOS Settings How to use Computer Keyboard How to create a text file How to enable or disable DHCP in Windows How to test computer memory to determine if its bad How do double space or change line spacing in Microsoft Word How do I know if I have Windows Administrator Rights How many cores does my computer have How to Create a Directory or Folder How to Enter and Exit the BIOS or CMOS Setup How to change Windows Compatibility mode How to clear your internet browser history How to Connect Computer Speakers How to Copy a Web Page Link or URL How to install a Hard Drive or SSD How to Open the Windows Control Panel How to split a screen in Windows How to copy text from a scanned PDF


Who invented Computer What are the advantages of the Internet? What are the disadvantages of the Internet? Is my computer 64 bit? What is Edge Computing? What is a Router? What is Monitor What is Printer What is a Web Browser What is Microphone What is a Webcam What is PC What is Keyboard What is Motherboard What is WAP What is URL What is a Digital Assistant When was the first Computer Invented What is Modem What is Firmware What is Imperative Programming What is Protocol What is Safe Mode What is Device Driver What is Hybrid Topology What is Mesh Topology What is Procedural language What is a hyperlink What is a Username Who invented the Internet What is Video Card What is Sound Card What is Binary What does Alt+B do What does Alt+D do What does Alt+E do What does Alt+Esc do What does Alt+R do What does ALT + Q do What does Alt + Tab do What is Data Manipulation What is a touch screen What is Back Panel What is Analog Monitor What is AR lens What is an ATX Style Connector What is a File System What is Hard Disk Drive (HDD) What is a boot device What is accessibility What is Line In What is network Interface card (NIC) What is Optical Disk Where can I ask questions on the internet What is Auto Rotate What is CAD (Computer-aided design) What is Cable Modem What is Home Page What is boot menu What is braille reader What is flash memory What is Windows What is Clipboard What is Cyber Warfare What is Myspace Why has my IP address changed What is Jacquard Loom My computer is running slow, what steps can I do to fix it What is a Kensington Lock What is a multicore processor What is automation Are smartphones and tablets computers What is a Login Script What is a Loosely Typed Language What is Multitasking? Why my computer monitor shows no display or black screen What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is the Pg Dn Key (Page Down Key) What is the Pg up Key (Page up Key) What is Palmtop Computer What is a Processing Device What is a Print Preview What is the Print Screen Key What can I do if my computer or laptop is lost or stolen What is a Model Number What are the currently available antivirus programs What are Toggle keys What is a Case fan What is a Silicon Chip What is a Slate PC What is a TAB stop What is an Octothorpe What is Task Pane What is Task View What is the svchost.exe file used for in Windows Where can I find free online virus scanners Why am I unable to increase the resolution in Windows What is Autofill When I click my mouse, it sometimes double-clicks What is Scratch What is UDIMM What is MsConfig What is an Expansion Card What is an Executable File What is an Elevated Command Prompt What is an AC Adapter What is AIMBOT What is a Software Suite What is a LED Monitor What does Alt + X do What does alt + space do What does Alt + O do Now that I’ve got a Computer, what can i do What is a Punch Card What is RDIMM What is Select All What is Serial number What is Thermos flask What programs can I use for speech recognition What are the Advantages of Computers What are the Disadvantages of Computers What does Alt + T do What Hardware Device Drivers should be Updated What is a Desktop What is a Ring Topology What is CMOS What is a Directory What is a Mechanical Mouse What is a Plotter What is a Variable What is an Icon What is Data What is HDMI What is Remote What is Right-Click What is SMPS Why does my Laptop not turn on What is a Copyright What is a Cordless Mouse What is a CSV file What is a Joystick What is a Start Button What is a Taskbar What is an Alignment What is an Output Device What is Cat 5 What is Google Chrome What is Post What are Recordable DVD Drives What Does Alt + F4 Do What Does Alt + L Do What is a bit (Binary Digit) What is a cable What is a Calculator What is a capacitor What is a Cold Boot What is a Dialog Box What is a Dual-boot What is a Slide What is A4 What is AM What is Barcode Reader What is EHCI What is a Header What is a Joystick What is a Secondary Storage Device What is Access Time What is Account Sharing What is an Asterisk What is Asynchronous DRAM What is Back Quote What is BIOS What is Borderless Printing What is Case Badge What is CD-ROM What is Chat Slang What is Composite What is RJ Cable What Are Bottom Row Keys What is SAN What is Tray What is VDU What Does Alt + M Do What Does Alt + P Do What is a Cell What is a Command Key What is a key Combination What is a Menu Bar What is a Startup What is a T What is Chat What are the F1 through F12 keys What does Alt + Enter do What Does Alt + Home DO What does Alt + R do What does Ctrl + B do What Does Ctrl + Enter Do What Does Ctrl + R Do What does Ctrl + G do What does Ctrl + 9 do What does Ctrl + End do What does Ctrl + O do What Does Ctrl + P do What Does Ctrl + Q do What is a Colon What is a Core What is Apple Touch Icon What is Clock What is Code What is Computer Crime What is Ctrl What is DAT What is Data diddling What is Date Why won't my computer turn on What Does Alt + N Do What does ctrl + 2 do What does ctrl + space do What does Ctrl + W do What does Ctrl + T Do What Does Ctrl + 2 do What does Ctrl + 5 Do What are the most common file types and file extensions What are Sticky keys What Does Ctrl + Shift + Esc Do What is Settings What is Task Manager What is Taskbar What is a DNS Resolver What does ctrl + 1 do What does ctrl + 0 do How to install software What is a Folder What is a Legend What is a MAC Address What is a Path What is a Ruler What is a Toolbar What is an Intranet Meaning and Differences with Internet What is an SSD What is Inheritance What is Tablet What is Depth What is Docking Station What is Double Click What is a Solid Ink Printer What is a Temporary File What is Backup and Restore What is Electronic Payment Systems Eps What is Marshalling


Difference between hardware and software Difference between multiprocessor and distributed systems Difference between Desktop and Laptop Difference between File and folder Difference between Hard Copy and Soft Copy Open Source Programs vs Closed Source Programs Difference between Optical Fibre and Coaxial Cable Difference between Website and Webpage Difference between Classes and Objects Input VS Output Difference between Primary and Secondary Storage with Examples


Quantum Computing Computer Software Autoexec.bat and config.sys info Update an Antivirus Use of Internet Advantages and disadvantages of Email Computing Power Internet Explorer Shortcut Keys Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) Augmented Reality Infrastructure Readiness Check Top 10 Internet tips and tricks Introduction and Features of FoxPro Features of Multimedia Top 10 online services and applications Receiving S.M.A.R.T. status bad backup and replacing error Version Control System Uninstalling Software or Apps in Windows Data Warehouse Increase or decrease font size in Word using keyboard shortcuts Mouse not detected or working in Windows Computer Cleaning Information and Steps Function Keys on Keyboard Windows 7 Alt+Tab won’t stay on top or stick 10 Essential Examples of Web Browsers Binary Subtraction using 2’s Complement Case Sensitive Languages Computer Pioneers and people who are CEO Microsoft Word Shortcut Keys Parts of Computers Names, Definitions and Images ROM and its Types Basics of Information Technology Characteristics of a Good Software Design Characteristics of Management Information System Classification of Management Information System Implementation of MIS Input Devices of Computer Definition Limitations of Management Information System 3 Types Of Network in Computer Block Diagram Of Control Unit Difference Between Computer and Embedded System Difference Between Hard Disk and Floppy Disk Abstraction in OOAD Hardware and Software Devices Optomechanical Mouse CMOS Memory What is a Terminal? What is Graphic Design? What is Load? What is Passcode? What is Reboot? What is Registry? What is Safe Mode? What is Standby? What is SYN (Synchronize)? What is Task Manager? Attribute Computing BPS in Computer Bulletin Board System Light Pen Input Device 3 TYPES OF NETWORK IN COMPUTER Block diagram of control unit What is a Solid Ink Printer? What is a Temporary File? What is an App launcher? What is Backup and Restore? What is a Tab Character? What is the Core i3? What is Paint? What is a Workbook? Advantages and Disadvantages of Online Education What is a String? What is a VDU (Visible Display Unit)? 50 Uses of Computer What is Workspace? What is a Procedural Language? What is VGA (Video Graphics Array)?

What is a Secondary Storage Device?

A storage unit, a part of the computer system, is a place where the data and instructions that need to be processed are maintained.
A storage device is an essential part of the hardware of a computer that saves the data and information required to process the results of computations.
Without a storage device, a computer could not run or even begin. Alternatively, a storage device might be thought of as a piece of hardware that is used to transport, store, or extract data files. It may also store information or data both momentarily and permanently.

Following are the two kinds of computer storage exist:
1. Primary storage devices:
Primary storage device also known as internal memory and main memory. This part of the CPU stores the program instructions, input data, and intermediate outcomes.
It often has a smaller size. Random Access Memory (RAM) and ROM are two types of main storage (Read Only Memory).

2. Secondary storage devices: Secondary storage refers to memory that is maintained off the main memory bus of the computer. It is mostly employed for the long-term, permanent storage of programs and data.
Secondary storage types include hard drives, CDs, DVDs, Pen/Flash drives, SSDs, and more.

What Exactly Is a Secondary Storage Device?

Storage tools are commonly known as secondary storage devices that supplement the computer's primary storage, RAM, and cache memory. They allow users to permanently save data on them since they always have non-volatile memory.

Secondary storage often has storage capacities ranging from a few megabytes to petabytes. The operating system, device drivers, applications, and user data are all practically saved on these devices together with other software and data.

They can be used for a number of things, such as disaster recovery or backup data storage, long-term preservation of seldom accessed data, and non-critical data storage on less expensive, lower-performing drives.

High capacity and cheap cost are the primary features of secondary storage, while other factors like mobility, speed, and dependability could also be significant. Accessibility over the long run and longevity might potentially be problems. For instance, most of the data from earlier decades that was kept on magnetic tapes are now essentially useless.
It's possible that the operating system has no direct control over the secondary storage of data. To secure their preservation in the event of a data breach, many firms, for instance, keep their archived data or important documents on backup storage systems that cannot be accessible by their main network.

These drives do not directly connect with the primary infrastructure and can be located at a remote or secure site, making it hard for hackers to gain access to them unless they are physically stolen.

Most secondary storage components, such as hard drives, tape drives, optical storage drives (CD-ROM, Blu-ray, and DVD), and floppy disk drives, were formerly integrated into computers. Data backups from primary storage are frequently kept in secondary storage.
Data is copied from the primary storage system to the secondary storage system via replication or another data protection and recovery mechanism. The backup system may make use of specialist software, outside services, storage system snapshots, or other techniques to enable these processes.

In order to keep business transaction records or to satisfy regulatory compliance, data may also be archived for long-term preservation. Data may be kept on file by certain businesses for years or even permanently. In contrast to pricey main storage, it is more cost-effective to keep this data on high-capacity secondary storage since it is accessed sparingly and seldom, if ever, changes. Although these terms are still used today, secondary storage now mostly refers to storage that accommodates data and workloads that are less important than those that call for prime storage. The phrase is also used to refer to the management of secondary data, either in place of or in addition to the hardware on which the data is stored.

Any storage that isn't primary storage is often referred to as secondary storage. The third layer, which is distinct from the second tier and is accessed even less frequently, is where some organizations keep their archival data. Even in this situation, secondary storage is sometimes used as a catch-all phrase to represent any nonprimary storage, including cold storage. This is known as cold storage, or occasionally tertiary storage.

Despite the widespread abolition of various backup storage methods like tape drives and floppy diskettes, secondary storage technologies include:

  • Solid-state drives (SSDs).
  • Hard disk drives (HDDs).
  • Cloud storage.
  • CD-ROM drives.
  • DVD drives.
  • Blu-ray drives.
  • USB flash drives.
  • SD cards.
  • Tape drives.
  • Zip and Jaz drives.

Solid State Drives (SSDs):

A storage media known as an SSD, short for solid-state drive, employs non-volatile memory to store and access data. An SSD provides benefits such as quicker access times, noiseless operation, improved durability, and reduced power consumption because it doesn't have moving components as a hard drive does. An example of a Crucial SSD may be seen in the image.

What is a secondary storage device?

As prices have decreased, traditional hard drives in desktop and laptop computers may now be replaced with SSDs. Netbooks, nettops, and other applications that don't need a lot of storage can also benefit greatly from SSDs.

Hard Disk Drives (HDDs):

Your computer's operating system, software, and data files, including documents, images, and music, are all stored on a hard drive, often known as a hard disk or HDD. The remaining parts of your computer cooperate to display the programs and files on your hard disk.

A platter that has divisions to store data makes up a hard disk drive. Your operating system, programs, and any files you've made are included in this data. A reader or writer arm that slides over the plate to read or write the desired information is also present. The platter spins while the actuator arm passes over it to speed up this process.

What is a secondary storage device?

The hard disk's storage spaces for the data can be dispersed throughout. Data is not written in a sequential manner, then. The actuator arm can discover all the relevant data thanks to an indexing mechanism.

Due to the fragility of the platter and actuator arm, a steel casing has been placed over them. By doing this, the disk is shielded from harm under typical conditions.

Cloud Storage:

A cloud computing provider offers cloud storage, a service that enables you to store data and files online. You may access cloud storage over either the public internet or a tailored private network connection. The provider stores, administers, and maintains the storage servers, infrastructure, and network in a safe manner to guarantee that you may access the data at practically any size and with elastic capacity. Cloud storage allows you flexibility, scalability, and durability with any time, anywhere access to your data by removing the need to buy and operate your own data storage infrastructure.

What is a secondary storage device?

CD-ROM Drives:

A CD-ROM, which stands for Compact Disc Read-Only Memory, is a read-only optical disc that contains music or software data. They are read via an optical drive, sometimes known as a CD-ROM drive. In other words, it reads the CD about 72 times quicker than the 1x version. CD-ROM drives have speeds ranging from 1x to 72x.

These drives can play music CDs and read data CDs, including CD-R and CD-RW discs, as you might expect. The use of CD-ROM drives has dramatically decreased in comparison to more recent formats like DVD or Blu-ray drives, and they are no longer a need in contemporary computers or other electronic devices.

What is a secondary storage device?

DVD Drives:

In order to use digital versatile discs, or DVDs, a computer or other electronic device must have a DVD drive. They are set up on a wide range of things, including televisions, DVD players, vehicles, and desktop and laptop computers.

Since a DVD can store a lot more data than its forerunner, the compact disc (CD), it may be utilized for a wide range of media and storage. For film and multimedia files that are bigger than a typical music CD, DVDs are the preferred format. DVD players read the discs and use the data they have learned.

What is a secondary storage device?

Blu-Ray Disk :

High-capacity optical disk medium called a Blu-ray disk (BD) is intended for high-definition video recording, rewriting, and playing. It was created to replace the DVD and has a big data storage capacity.

The Blu-ray Disc Association, a collection of personal computer and consumer electronics manufacturers, worked together to develop Blu-ray. In comparison to DVDs, Blu-ray disks support greater qualities and more modern video and audio codecs.

What is a secondary storage device?

USB Flash Drives:

An example of a data storage device with both a flash memory and a USB interface built-in is a USB flash drive. Almost all USB flash drives can be taken out. They have a compact, dependable, and sturdy physical design. They often work more quickly the more storage space they have. The lack of moving components makes USB flash devices incredibly robust mechanically. They receive their operating power from the connected device (usually a computer) via the USB connector.

A USB flash drive is also known as a flash drive or USB drive.

Since USB flash drives are based on the Universal Serial Bus mass storage standard, they are compatible with all operating systems and BIOS. The capacity and speed of data transfer on USB flash drives are greater than those of optical disk drives and floppy disks.

What is a secondary storage device?

A USB connection that is adequately shielded and electrically insulated inside of a plastic or rubber housing makes up a standard USB flash drive.

SD Cards:

A secure digital card (SD card) is a tiny flash memory gadget made to offer large amounts of memory in a portable package. Mini SD and microSD cards are physically significantly smaller yet have comparable amounts of memory, whereas a regular SD card is 32mm x 24mm x 2.1mm and weighs around 2 grams.

Secure Digital High Capacity (SDHC), Secure Digital Extended Capacity (SDXC), and Secure Digital Ultra Capacity are examples of SD card variants (SDUC). These SD card varieties were created to have significantly greater capacity than a typical SD card.

What is a secondary storage device?

To access data saved on an SD card, users often need a USB card reader. After inserting the card into the card reader and coupling the card reader to a computer, users can access and modify the files as they would with any other flash memory device. It's crucial to keep in mind that SD cards are only designed to be used temporarily; in fact, the data they hold has a maximum shelf life of 10 years.

Tape Drives :

This detachable storage device is mostly used for data backup. It is comparable to a Zip Drive, however, it uses tiny tapes as opposed to Zip disks. By reading data from the computer and recording it to the tape, the drive functions like a tape recorder.
Tape drives are not viable for the majority of storage needs because they must scan through a large number of cassettes to read small quantities of dispersed data. They are therefore nearly solely employed for data backup.

The advantage of tape drives is that they frequently offer greater data storage capabilities in low cost than the hard drives of comparable size. Additionally, incremental backups may be made using numerous cassettes, which is far less expensive than doing so with multiple hard drives.

Zip and Jaz Drives:

Iomega introduced the Zip drive, a medium-capacity, portable magnetic disk storage device, in the middle of the 1990s.
At the time of its introduction, it was well-liked since it could store more data than a floppy disk and had a cheaper cost per storage unit than hard disks. Fast data transfer was possible with the Zip drive, which was also dependable and robust.

The growth of alternative products that eventually entered the market, including USB drives, was preferred over the Zip drive and Zip disk, which quickly went out of style. The Zip drive employs specialized 100MB high-capacity disks to store data. Access times can vary, but they are frequently as quick as hard drives.

JAZ drives resemble Zip drives but can hold up to 1 GB of data on a single disk.