Computer Fundamentals Index

Computer Introduction Types of computer Characteristics of computer Uses of computer History of Computers

Computer Languages

Low Level language Middle level Language High level language

Computer Generation

Generation of Computers First Generation of Computer Second generation of Computers Third generation of Computers Fourth generation of Computers Fifth generation of Computers Sixth Generation of Computer

Peripheral Devices

Input devices Output device


Block diagram and basic components Control processing unit (CPU) Software Hardware


Computer Memory Registers Memory Hierarchy RAM Vs ROM Understanding file sizes (Bytes, KB, MB, GB, TB, PB, EB, ZB, YB)

Computer Network

Types of Network Types of Area Networks (LAN, WAN, MAN) TCP Flags

Computer Virus

Computer Virus

Computer Ports

Computer Ports


How to hack a computer How much do Computer Programmers make How does a Computer work How to associate a file with a program How does a computer convert text into binary How does a computer process data into information How to fix a CD-ROM DVD How to fix the no input signal How to install computer memory How to associate a file with a program How to log out of your operating system How do I change my name on Google How to installation or uninstallation Microsoft Paint How to fix a not a valid Win32 application error How to fix missing Microsoft Windows .dll files How to use a computer keyboard How to erase my hard drive and start over How can I test how many words I can write a minute How to shut down a computer How do I open and edit the Windows registry How to edit the registry from the command line How to restart Microsoft Windows How to install a computer processor How to open Microsoft Paint How to fix problems in Windows after installing new software How to enable or disable the preview pane of Microsoft Outlook How to open a Microsoft .wps or Works file in Word How to view the HTML source code in Microsoft Word How to View or Change the Screen Resolution of a Monitor How to Connect and Install a Computer Keyboard How to Delete Temporary Files in Windows 10 How to determine Which Version of Microsoft Office I'm using How to find out how much hard drive space is available How to Fix PC Stuck on Verifying DMI Pool Data How to choose which items show in the notification area How to find similar images using Search by Image How to fix Low Memory and out of memory errors How To Replace the CMOS Battery How do I Update my Antivirus Program How to fix a general protection fault How to Identify problems in the Windows Device Manager How can the Base be Shown How to test if a Website or Web Page is down How Much is 1 Byte, Kilobyte, Megabyte, Gigabyte, etc How to fix a CMOS checksum error How to Fix a Windows CD-ROM, DVD, or Disc Drive Issue How to Open Safe Mode How to Password Protect Files and Folders in Windows How to Reset CMOS or BIOS Settings How to use Computer Keyboard How to create a text file How to enable or disable DHCP in Windows How to test computer memory to determine if its bad How do double space or change line spacing in Microsoft Word How do I know if I have Windows Administrator Rights How many cores does my computer have How to Create a Directory or Folder How to Enter and Exit the BIOS or CMOS Setup How to change Windows Compatibility mode How to clear your internet browser history How to Connect Computer Speakers How to Copy a Web Page Link or URL How to install a Hard Drive or SSD How to Open the Windows Control Panel How to split a screen in Windows How to copy text from a scanned PDF


Who invented Computer What are the advantages of the Internet? What are the disadvantages of the Internet? Is my computer 64 bit? What is Edge Computing? What is a Router? What is Monitor What is Printer What is a Web Browser What is Microphone What is a Webcam What is PC What is Keyboard What is Motherboard What is WAP What is URL What is a Digital Assistant When was the first Computer Invented What is Modem What is Firmware What is Imperative Programming What is Protocol What is Safe Mode What is Device Driver What is Hybrid Topology What is Mesh Topology What is Procedural language What is a hyperlink What is a Username Who invented the Internet What is Video Card What is Sound Card What is Binary What does Alt+B do What does Alt+D do What does Alt+E do What does Alt+Esc do What does Alt+R do What does ALT + Q do What does Alt + Tab do What is Data Manipulation What is a touch screen What is Back Panel What is Analog Monitor What is AR lens What is an ATX Style Connector What is a File System What is Hard Disk Drive (HDD) What is a boot device What is accessibility What is Line In What is network Interface card (NIC) What is Optical Disk Where can I ask questions on the internet What is Auto Rotate What is CAD (Computer-aided design) What is Cable Modem What is Home Page What is boot menu What is braille reader What is flash memory What is Windows What is Clipboard What is Cyber Warfare What is Myspace Why has my IP address changed What is Jacquard Loom My computer is running slow, what steps can I do to fix it What is a Kensington Lock What is a multicore processor What is automation Are smartphones and tablets computers What is a Login Script What is a Loosely Typed Language What is Multitasking? Why my computer monitor shows no display or black screen What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is the Pg Dn Key (Page Down Key) What is the Pg up Key (Page up Key) What is Palmtop Computer What is a Processing Device What is a Print Preview What is the Print Screen Key What can I do if my computer or laptop is lost or stolen What is a Model Number What are the currently available antivirus programs What are Toggle keys What is a Case fan What is a Silicon Chip What is a Slate PC What is a TAB stop What is an Octothorpe What is Task Pane What is Task View What is the svchost.exe file used for in Windows Where can I find free online virus scanners Why am I unable to increase the resolution in Windows What is Autofill When I click my mouse, it sometimes double-clicks What is Scratch What is UDIMM What is MsConfig What is an Expansion Card What is an Executable File What is an Elevated Command Prompt What is an AC Adapter What is AIMBOT What is a Software Suite What is a LED Monitor What does Alt + X do What does alt + space do What does Alt + O do Now that I’ve got a Computer, what can i do What is a Punch Card What is RDIMM What is Select All What is Serial number What is Thermos flask What programs can I use for speech recognition What are the Advantages of Computers What are the Disadvantages of Computers What does Alt + T do What Hardware Device Drivers should be Updated What is a Desktop What is a Ring Topology What is CMOS What is a Directory What is a Mechanical Mouse What is a Plotter What is a Variable What is an Icon What is Data What is HDMI What is Remote What is Right-Click What is SMPS Why does my Laptop not turn on What is a Copyright What is a Cordless Mouse What is a CSV file What is a Joystick What is a Start Button What is a Taskbar What is an Alignment What is an Output Device What is Cat 5 What is Google Chrome What is Post What are Recordable DVD Drives What Does Alt + F4 Do What Does Alt + L Do What is a bit (Binary Digit) What is a cable What is a Calculator What is a capacitor What is a Cold Boot What is a Dialog Box What is a Dual-boot What is a Slide What is A4 What is AM What is Barcode Reader What is EHCI What is a Header What is a Joystick What is a Secondary Storage Device What is Access Time What is Account Sharing What is an Asterisk What is Asynchronous DRAM What is Back Quote What is BIOS What is Borderless Printing What is Case Badge What is CD-ROM What is Chat Slang What is Composite What is RJ Cable What Are Bottom Row Keys What is SAN What is Tray What is VDU What Does Alt + M Do What Does Alt + P Do What is a Cell What is a Command Key What is a key Combination What is a Menu Bar What is a Startup What is a T What is Chat What are the F1 through F12 keys What does Alt + Enter do What Does Alt + Home DO What does Alt + R do What does Ctrl + B do What Does Ctrl + Enter Do What Does Ctrl + R Do What does Ctrl + G do What does Ctrl + 9 do What does Ctrl + End do What does Ctrl + O do What Does Ctrl + P do What Does Ctrl + Q do What is a Colon What is a Core What is Apple Touch Icon What is Clock What is Code What is Computer Crime What is Ctrl What is DAT What is Data diddling What is Date Why won't my computer turn on What Does Alt + N Do What does ctrl + 2 do What does ctrl + space do What does Ctrl + W do What does Ctrl + T Do What Does Ctrl + 2 do What does Ctrl + 5 Do What are the most common file types and file extensions What are Sticky keys What Does Ctrl + Shift + Esc Do What is Settings What is Task Manager What is Taskbar What is a DNS Resolver What does ctrl + 1 do What does ctrl + 0 do How to install software What is a Folder What is a Legend What is a MAC Address What is a Path What is a Ruler What is a Toolbar What is an Intranet Meaning and Differences with Internet What is an SSD What is Inheritance What is Tablet What is Depth What is Docking Station What is Double Click What is a Solid Ink Printer What is a Temporary File What is Backup and Restore What is Electronic Payment Systems Eps What is Marshalling


Difference between hardware and software Difference between multiprocessor and distributed systems Difference between Desktop and Laptop Difference between File and folder Difference between Hard Copy and Soft Copy Open Source Programs vs Closed Source Programs Difference between Optical Fibre and Coaxial Cable Difference between Website and Webpage Difference between Classes and Objects Input VS Output Difference between Primary and Secondary Storage with Examples


Quantum Computing Computer Software Autoexec.bat and config.sys info Update an Antivirus Use of Internet Advantages and disadvantages of Email Computing Power Internet Explorer Shortcut Keys Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) Augmented Reality Infrastructure Readiness Check Top 10 Internet tips and tricks Introduction and Features of FoxPro Features of Multimedia Top 10 online services and applications Receiving S.M.A.R.T. status bad backup and replacing error Version Control System Uninstalling Software or Apps in Windows Data Warehouse Increase or decrease font size in Word using keyboard shortcuts Mouse not detected or working in Windows Computer Cleaning Information and Steps Function Keys on Keyboard Windows 7 Alt+Tab won’t stay on top or stick 10 Essential Examples of Web Browsers Binary Subtraction using 2’s Complement Case Sensitive Languages Computer Pioneers and people who are CEO Microsoft Word Shortcut Keys Parts of Computers Names, Definitions and Images ROM and its Types Basics of Information Technology Characteristics of a Good Software Design Characteristics of Management Information System Classification of Management Information System Implementation of MIS Input Devices of Computer Definition Limitations of Management Information System 3 Types Of Network in Computer Block Diagram Of Control Unit Difference Between Computer and Embedded System Difference Between Hard Disk and Floppy Disk Abstraction in OOAD Hardware and Software Devices Optomechanical Mouse CMOS Memory What is a Terminal? What is Graphic Design? What is Load? What is Passcode? What is Reboot? What is Registry? What is Safe Mode? What is Standby? What is SYN (Synchronize)? What is Task Manager? Attribute Computing BPS in Computer Bulletin Board System Light Pen Input Device 3 TYPES OF NETWORK IN COMPUTER Block diagram of control unit What is a Solid Ink Printer? What is a Temporary File? What is an App launcher? What is Backup and Restore? What is a Tab Character? What is the Core i3? What is Paint? What is a Workbook? Advantages and Disadvantages of Online Education What is a String? What is a VDU (Visible Display Unit)? 50 Uses of Computer What is Workspace? What is a Procedural Language? What is VGA (Video Graphics Array)?

What Are Bottom Row Keys?

The bottom row keys, also known as the "home row" keys, are important for several reasons:

  • The bottom row keys are where the fingers rest when not typing and are the starting point for many typing movements. Being able to type on these keys quickly and accurately is essential for touch typing.
  • Many common letter combinations, such as "ing" and "tion," are typed using the bottom row keys. Therefore, proficiency in typing on these keys can greatly improve typing speed and efficiency.
  • Many common words like "and", "the", "was", "but" etc., are typed using bottom row keys, thus it becomes important to master these keys to improving typing speed and accuracy.
  • Many commands and shortcuts used in various software and operating systems are also typed using the bottom row keys. Therefore, it is important to be able to type on these keys quickly and accurately in order to use the computer efficiently.
What Are Bottom Row Keys?

Importance of Bottom Rows Keys

The bottom row keys on a keyboard play a significant role in typing and inputting commands, as they often include important keys such as the spacebar, enter key, and shift key. The spacebar separates words and creates spaces between sentences, while the enter key is used to end a line of text or submit a command. The shift key is used to create capital letters and access alternate characters on certain keys.

The control key and alt key, located on the bottom row, are used in combination with other keys to execute specific commands or shortcuts. For example, the control key is often used in combination with the letter 'C' to copy text, or with the letter 'V' to paste the text. The alt key is often used in combination with other keys to access alternate characters or special symbols.

In short, bottom-row keys are the backbone of a keyboard, and it is used to perform various functions and operations, making the typing and inputting process more efficient and faster.

How to Practice Bottom Rows Keys?

What Are Bottom Row Keys?

Here are a few ways to practice typing on the bottom row keys of a keyboard:

  1. Use typing practice software: Various typing practice software available online can help you improve your typing skills. This software typically includes exercises that focus on specific keys or key combinations, such as the bottom row keys.
  2. Practice with typing games: Many typing games are available online that can make practicing fun and engaging. Some typing games specifically focus on the bottom row keys, while others include exercises that require the use of those keys.
  3. Use typing tutorials: Some websites offer typing tutorials that provide step-by-step instructions on how to type correctly, including exercises that focus on the bottom row keys.
  4. Try typing out a text or document: To practice bottom row keys, you can try typing out a text or document, which will give you an opportunity to use the bottom row keys in context.
  5. Repeat the practice: It is important to practice regularly, so set aside sometime each day to practice typing on the bottom row keys. With enough practice, you'll improve your typing skills and easily type on the bottom row keys.

Some bottom row keys are given below with their functions

1) Control Key

The Control key (often abbreviated as "Ctrl") is a modifier key located on a computer keyboard, typically to the left of the function keys. The Control key's function is to allow keyboard shortcuts or combinations of keys that, when pressed together, perform a specific function.

The most common uses of the Control key include the following:

  • Copy and paste: Pressing the Control key in combination with the letter "C" will copy highlighted text or an image. Pressing the Control key in combination with the letter "V" will paste the copied text or image.
  • Undo and redo: Pressing the Control key in combination with the letter "Z" will undo the last action. Pressing the Control key in combination with the letter "Y" will redo the last action.
  • Select multiple items: Pressing the Control key in combination with the mouse can be used to select multiple items, such as multiple files or folders.
  • Open the context menu: Pressing the Control key with the mouse can open the context menu, allowing you to perform various actions on an item or file.
  • Shortcut keys: Many software has shortcut keys assigned to the Control key, which can be used to access certain features quickly.
  • Terminal: The control key is also used on the terminal for various commands like copy, paste, etc.

The Control key is an important part of a computer keyboard and its function can save a lot of time when working with different software.

2) Context Menu Key

The context menu key, also known as the "Application key" is a key typically located on the bottom row of a keyboard, usually to the right of the spacebar. It is used to open a context menu. A context menu is a menu that appears when you right-click on an object or area in a program or operating system. It displays a list of options or commands that are specific to the selected object or area. The context menu key serves as a keyboard alternative for opening a context menu. It can be used in place of right-clicking with a mouse.

The options available in a context menu can vary depending on the program or application you are using, but they generally include basic commands such as Cut, Copy, Paste, and Delete. Some programs also include additional options such as formatting, properties, and other specific commands. It's a quick way to access frequently used commands on a specific object.

3) Function Key

The function keys (F1-F12) located on the bottom row keys are used to perform specific functions in certain programs and operating systems. Some multimedia keys which are located on the bottom row keys are used for controlling volume, brightness, playback, etc.

The most common uses of function keys include:

  • Shortcuts: Many software and operating systems use function keys as shortcuts to access specific features or functions. For example, pressing F1 often opens help or support in many programs.
  • Volume and Brightness: Function keys are often used to control the volume and brightness of the computer screen.
  • Media control: Function keys are used to control media playback, such as play, pause, next, and previous.
  • Application switching: Function keys are used to switch between open applications, usually by pressing Alt + function key (e.g., Alt+F4 closes the active window)
  • System-level functions: Some function keys perform system-level functions such as sleep, hibernate, and reboot.
  • BIOS/UEFI: Function keys are used to access the BIOS/UEFI settings during startup.
  • Special keys: Some function keys are designed to perform specific functions such as print screen, scroll lock, and pause/break.

Function keys are an important part of a computer keyboard, and their functions vary depending on your software or operating system. It's worth noting that the user can change the function of function keys; some software or operating system can be configured to use function keys for a different purpose.

4) What is Window Key

The Windows key is a key on a computer keyboard that displays the Windows logo and is located between the left Ctrl and Alt keys. The Windows key is used to access various functions of the Windows operating system.

The most common uses of the Windows key include:

  • Opening the Start menu: Pressing the Windows key will open the Start menu, allowing you to access various programs and settings on your computer.
  • Switching between open windows: Pressing the Windows key in combination with the Tab key will open the Task View, allowing you to switch between open windows.
  • Opening the Run dialog box: Pressing the Windows key in combination with the letter "R" will open the Run dialog box, allowing you to run various commands and programs.
  • Opening the Search bar: Pressing the Windows key in combination with the letter "S" will open the Search bar, allowing you to search for files, apps, and settings on your computer.
  • Opening the Action Center: Pressing the Windows key in combination with the letter "A" will open the Action Center, which displays notifications and quick actions.
  • Shortcut keys: Many software has shortcut keys assigned to Windows keys, which can easily access certain features.
  • Virtual Desktops: Windows key + Ctrl + D creates a new virtual desktop, and the Windows key + Ctrl + Left/Right arrow can be used to switch between virtual desktops.

The Windows key is an essential part of a computer keyboard, and it's used to access various functions of the Windows operating system. It's a quick way to access and navigate around the operating system, saving time and effort.

5) Alt Key

The "Alt" key is a modifier key found on most computer keyboards. It is typically located on the bottom row of the keyboard, to the left of the spacebar. The primary function of the Alt key is to provide a way to access additional functions or characters that are not normally visible on the keyboard. For example, when used in combination with other keys, the Alt key can be used to type special characters or access hidden menus.

In the Windows operating system, the Alt key is often used in combination with other keys to perform keyboard shortcuts, such as Alt+Tab to switch between open windows, or Alt+F4 to close the current window.

In MacOS the "Alt" key is called "Option" key and has the similar functionality. Additionally, some software or applications may use the Alt key for specific functions, such as in some software for graphic design or video editing.

6) Spacebar Key

The spacebar key is a large horizontal key located in the bottom row of a keyboard, typically in the middle. It is used to create a space between words while typing. It is used to separate words and sentences when typing, making the text more readable. By pressing the spacebar key, you can create a space between words, which helps to separate them and make them more legible.

The spacebar key is also used in many keyboard shortcuts, such as the spacebar + arrow keys to select text, the spacebar + backspace to delete a word, and many others depending on the application or program in use. Some touch typing techniques also use spacebar key to move cursor.