Computer Fundamentals Index

Computer Introduction Types of computer Characteristics of computer Uses of computer History of Computers

Computer Languages

Low Level language Middle level Language High level language

Computer Generation

Generation of Computers First Generation of Computer Second generation of Computers Third generation of Computers Fourth generation of Computers Fifth generation of Computers Sixth Generation of Computer

Peripheral Devices

Input devices Output device


Block diagram and basic components Control processing unit (CPU) Software Hardware


Computer Memory Registers Memory Hierarchy RAM Vs ROM Understanding file sizes (Bytes, KB, MB, GB, TB, PB, EB, ZB, YB)

Computer Network

Types of Network Types of Area Networks (LAN, WAN, MAN) TCP Flags

Computer Virus

Computer Virus

Computer Ports

Computer Ports


How to hack a computer How much do Computer Programmers make How does a Computer work How to associate a file with a program How does a computer convert text into binary How does a computer process data into information How to fix a CD-ROM DVD How to fix the no input signal How to install computer memory How to associate a file with a program How to log out of your operating system How do I change my name on Google How to installation or uninstallation Microsoft Paint How to fix a not a valid Win32 application error How to fix missing Microsoft Windows .dll files How to use a computer keyboard How to erase my hard drive and start over How can I test how many words I can write a minute How to shut down a computer How do I open and edit the Windows registry How to edit the registry from the command line How to restart Microsoft Windows How to install a computer processor How to open Microsoft Paint How to fix problems in Windows after installing new software How to enable or disable the preview pane of Microsoft Outlook How to open a Microsoft .wps or Works file in Word How to view the HTML source code in Microsoft Word How to View or Change the Screen Resolution of a Monitor How to Connect and Install a Computer Keyboard How to Delete Temporary Files in Windows 10 How to determine Which Version of Microsoft Office I'm using How to find out how much hard drive space is available How to Fix PC Stuck on Verifying DMI Pool Data How to choose which items show in the notification area How to find similar images using Search by Image How to fix Low Memory and out of memory errors How To Replace the CMOS Battery How do I Update my Antivirus Program How to fix a general protection fault How to Identify problems in the Windows Device Manager How can the Base be Shown How to test if a Website or Web Page is down How Much is 1 Byte, Kilobyte, Megabyte, Gigabyte, etc How to fix a CMOS checksum error How to Fix a Windows CD-ROM, DVD, or Disc Drive Issue How to Open Safe Mode How to Password Protect Files and Folders in Windows How to Reset CMOS or BIOS Settings How to use Computer Keyboard How to create a text file How to enable or disable DHCP in Windows How to test computer memory to determine if its bad How do double space or change line spacing in Microsoft Word How do I know if I have Windows Administrator Rights How many cores does my computer have How to Create a Directory or Folder How to Enter and Exit the BIOS or CMOS Setup How to change Windows Compatibility mode How to clear your internet browser history How to Connect Computer Speakers How to Copy a Web Page Link or URL How to install a Hard Drive or SSD How to Open the Windows Control Panel How to split a screen in Windows How to copy text from a scanned PDF


Who invented Computer What are the advantages of the Internet? What are the disadvantages of the Internet? Is my computer 64 bit? What is Edge Computing? What is a Router? What is Monitor What is Printer What is a Web Browser What is Microphone What is a Webcam What is PC What is Keyboard What is Motherboard What is WAP What is URL What is a Digital Assistant When was the first Computer Invented What is Modem What is Firmware What is Imperative Programming What is Protocol What is Safe Mode What is Device Driver What is Hybrid Topology What is Mesh Topology What is Procedural language What is a hyperlink What is a Username Who invented the Internet What is Video Card What is Sound Card What is Binary What does Alt+B do What does Alt+D do What does Alt+E do What does Alt+Esc do What does Alt+R do What does ALT + Q do What does Alt + Tab do What is Data Manipulation What is a touch screen What is Back Panel What is Analog Monitor What is AR lens What is an ATX Style Connector What is a File System What is Hard Disk Drive (HDD) What is a boot device What is accessibility What is Line In What is network Interface card (NIC) What is Optical Disk Where can I ask questions on the internet What is Auto Rotate What is CAD (Computer-aided design) What is Cable Modem What is Home Page What is boot menu What is braille reader What is flash memory What is Windows What is Clipboard What is Cyber Warfare What is Myspace Why has my IP address changed What is Jacquard Loom My computer is running slow, what steps can I do to fix it What is a Kensington Lock What is a multicore processor What is automation Are smartphones and tablets computers What is a Login Script What is a Loosely Typed Language What is Multitasking? Why my computer monitor shows no display or black screen What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is the Pg Dn Key (Page Down Key) What is the Pg up Key (Page up Key) What is Palmtop Computer What is a Processing Device What is a Print Preview What is the Print Screen Key What can I do if my computer or laptop is lost or stolen What is a Model Number What are the currently available antivirus programs What are Toggle keys What is a Case fan What is a Silicon Chip What is a Slate PC What is a TAB stop What is an Octothorpe What is Task Pane What is Task View What is the svchost.exe file used for in Windows Where can I find free online virus scanners Why am I unable to increase the resolution in Windows What is Autofill When I click my mouse, it sometimes double-clicks What is Scratch What is UDIMM What is MsConfig What is an Expansion Card What is an Executable File What is an Elevated Command Prompt What is an AC Adapter What is AIMBOT What is a Software Suite What is a LED Monitor What does Alt + X do What does alt + space do What does Alt + O do Now that I’ve got a Computer, what can i do What is a Punch Card What is RDIMM What is Select All What is Serial number What is Thermos flask What programs can I use for speech recognition What are the Advantages of Computers What are the Disadvantages of Computers What does Alt + T do What Hardware Device Drivers should be Updated What is a Desktop What is a Ring Topology What is CMOS What is a Directory What is a Mechanical Mouse What is a Plotter What is a Variable What is an Icon What is Data What is HDMI What is Remote What is Right-Click What is SMPS Why does my Laptop not turn on What is a Copyright What is a Cordless Mouse What is a CSV file What is a Joystick What is a Start Button What is a Taskbar What is an Alignment What is an Output Device What is Cat 5 What is Google Chrome What is Post What are Recordable DVD Drives What Does Alt + F4 Do What Does Alt + L Do What is a bit (Binary Digit) What is a cable What is a Calculator What is a capacitor What is a Cold Boot What is a Dialog Box What is a Dual-boot What is a Slide What is A4 What is AM What is Barcode Reader What is EHCI What is a Header What is a Joystick What is a Secondary Storage Device What is Access Time What is Account Sharing What is an Asterisk What is Asynchronous DRAM What is Back Quote What is BIOS What is Borderless Printing What is Case Badge What is CD-ROM What is Chat Slang What is Composite What is RJ Cable What Are Bottom Row Keys What is SAN What is Tray What is VDU What Does Alt + M Do What Does Alt + P Do What is a Cell What is a Command Key What is a key Combination What is a Menu Bar What is a Startup What is a T What is Chat What are the F1 through F12 keys What does Alt + Enter do What Does Alt + Home DO What does Alt + R do What does Ctrl + B do What Does Ctrl + Enter Do What Does Ctrl + R Do What does Ctrl + G do What does Ctrl + 9 do What does Ctrl + End do What does Ctrl + O do What Does Ctrl + P do What Does Ctrl + Q do What is a Colon What is a Core What is Apple Touch Icon What is Clock What is Code What is Computer Crime What is Ctrl What is DAT What is Data diddling What is Date Why won't my computer turn on What Does Alt + N Do What does ctrl + 2 do What does ctrl + space do What does Ctrl + W do What does Ctrl + T Do What Does Ctrl + 2 do What does Ctrl + 5 Do What are the most common file types and file extensions What are Sticky keys What Does Ctrl + Shift + Esc Do What is Settings What is Task Manager What is Taskbar What is a DNS Resolver What does ctrl + 1 do What does ctrl + 0 do How to install software What is a Folder What is a Legend What is a MAC Address What is a Path What is a Ruler What is a Toolbar What is an Intranet Meaning and Differences with Internet What is an SSD What is Inheritance What is Tablet What is Depth What is Docking Station What is Double Click What is a Solid Ink Printer What is a Temporary File What is Backup and Restore What is Electronic Payment Systems Eps What is Marshalling


Difference between hardware and software Difference between multiprocessor and distributed systems Difference between Desktop and Laptop Difference between File and folder Difference between Hard Copy and Soft Copy Open Source Programs vs Closed Source Programs Difference between Optical Fibre and Coaxial Cable Difference between Website and Webpage Difference between Classes and Objects Input VS Output Difference between Primary and Secondary Storage with Examples


Quantum Computing Computer Software Autoexec.bat and config.sys info Update an Antivirus Use of Internet Advantages and disadvantages of Email Computing Power Internet Explorer Shortcut Keys Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) Augmented Reality Infrastructure Readiness Check Top 10 Internet tips and tricks Introduction and Features of FoxPro Features of Multimedia Top 10 online services and applications Receiving S.M.A.R.T. status bad backup and replacing error Version Control System Uninstalling Software or Apps in Windows Data Warehouse Increase or decrease font size in Word using keyboard shortcuts Mouse not detected or working in Windows Computer Cleaning Information and Steps Function Keys on Keyboard Windows 7 Alt+Tab won’t stay on top or stick 10 Essential Examples of Web Browsers Binary Subtraction using 2’s Complement Case Sensitive Languages Computer Pioneers and people who are CEO Microsoft Word Shortcut Keys Parts of Computers Names, Definitions and Images ROM and its Types Basics of Information Technology Characteristics of a Good Software Design Characteristics of Management Information System Classification of Management Information System Implementation of MIS Input Devices of Computer Definition Limitations of Management Information System 3 Types Of Network in Computer Block Diagram Of Control Unit Difference Between Computer and Embedded System Difference Between Hard Disk and Floppy Disk Abstraction in OOAD Hardware and Software Devices Optomechanical Mouse CMOS Memory What is a Terminal? What is Graphic Design? What is Load? What is Passcode? What is Reboot? What is Registry? What is Safe Mode? What is Standby? What is SYN (Synchronize)? What is Task Manager? Attribute Computing BPS in Computer Bulletin Board System Light Pen Input Device 3 TYPES OF NETWORK IN COMPUTER Block diagram of control unit What is a Solid Ink Printer? What is a Temporary File? What is an App launcher? What is Backup and Restore? What is a Tab Character? What is the Core i3? What is Paint? What is a Workbook? Advantages and Disadvantages of Online Education What is a String? What is a VDU (Visible Display Unit)? 50 Uses of Computer What is Workspace? What is a Procedural Language? What is VGA (Video Graphics Array)?

What Does Ctrl + R Do?

Ctrl + R is a commonly used keyboard shortcut to refresh a web page in many popular web browsers, such as Google Chrome, Mozilla Firefox, and Microsoft Edge.

What Does Ctrl + R Do

The shortcut works by sending a reload command to the browser, causing it to fetch the latest version of the page from the server and display it on your screen. This can be useful if you want to see the most up-to-date version of a web page or if you've made changes to a page and want to see them reflected in the browser. In addition to refreshing the page, Ctrl + R can also be used as a shortcut for various other actions depending on the context and the software being used.

How To Use the Ctrl + R Keyboard Shortcut

Press and hold the Ctrl key, then press R to refresh the current page or document in most software applications.

Ctrl + R in an Internet Browser

In most major internet browsers, the keyboard shortcut Ctrl + R is used to refresh or reload the current web page. This can be useful if you need to update the information on the page or if you suspect that the page has changed since you last loaded it. By using this keyboard shortcut, you can quickly reload the current web page without having to navigate to the reload button in the browser's toolbar.

Ctrl + R In Excel and Other Spreadsheet Programs

In Microsoft Excel and other spreadsheet programs, the keyboard shortcut Ctrl + R is used to fill the contents of a cell or a range of cells to the right. To use this keyboard shortcut, you first need to select the source cell or range of cells that you want to copy and then press Ctrl + R. This will copy the contents of the selected cell or cells to the right, filling the adjacent cells with the same information.

If you want to fill more than one cell, you can select the source cell and press Ctrl + Shift + Right arrow to select additional cells. Then, press Ctrl + R to fill them with the contents of the original cell. This keyboard shortcut can be a quick and efficient way to fill a large range of cells with the same information, saving you time and effort compared to manually copying and pasting the data.

Ctrl + R In Microsoft PowerPoint

In Microsoft PowerPoint, the keyboard shortcut Ctrl + R is used to align an object or selected text to the right. To use this keyboard shortcut, select the object or text that you want to align and then press Ctrl + R. This will immediately right-align the selected item within the slide.

Aligning objects and text within a PowerPoint slide can help to create a clean and visually appealing presentation, and board shortcuts like Ctrl + R can make this process faster and more efficient. Additionally, by using keyboard shortcuts like this, you can keep your hands on the keyboard and minimize the time spent switching back and forth between the keyboard and mouse.

Ctrl + R in Outlook

In Microsoft Outlook, the keyboard shortcut Ctrl + R is used to reply to an email. To use this keyboard shortcut, open an email that you want to reply to and then press Ctrl + R. This will create a new email message pre-populated with the recipient's address and a quoted version of the original email, allowing you to quickly and easily respond to the message.

Using keyboard shortcuts like Ctrl + R in Microsoft Outlook can help to increase your productivity and efficiency by allowing you to quickly perform common tasks without having to navigate through menus or use the mouse.

Ctrl + R In Word and Other Word Processors

In Microsoft Word and other word processors, the keyboard shortcut Ctrl + R is used to align a paragraph or object to the right. To use this keyboard shortcut, select the text or object that you want to align and then press Ctrl + R. This will immediately right-align the selected item within the document.

Aligning text and objects within a word processor document can help to create a clean and visually appealing document, and using keyboard shortcuts like Ctrl + R can make this process faster and more efficient.

Ctrl + R In Adobe Photoshop

To enable the Ruler in Photoshop, go to the "View" menu and select "Rulers" or use the keyboard shortcut "Ctrl+R" (Windows) or "Command+R" (Mac).

To disable the Ruler in Photoshop, go to the "View" menu and uncheck "Rulers" or use the keyboard shortcut "Ctrl+R" (Windows) or "Command+R" (Mac) again to toggle it off.

Ctrl+R In Windows Calculator

In the Microsoft Windows calculator, pressing Ctrl+R is a keyboard shortcut for recalling the number stored in memory, which is equivalent to pressing the "MR" (Memory Recall) button. This can be a convenient shortcut for users who frequently use the memory function in the calculator.

What Does Ctrl + R In Popular Programs?

Text Editing

  • Zathura 0.4.5:  Recolor (grayscale and inverted colors). 
  • Microsoft OneNote:  Right-align the selected paragraph. 
  • Sublime Text:  Go to symbol. 
  • Nuance Power PDF:  Toggle displaying rulers. 
  • Cherry Tree 0.38.8:  Insert Horizontal Rule. 
  • Texmaker 5.0.4:  Replace. 
  • QuarkXPress 2019:  Rulers. 
  • Notepad2:  Run command. 
  • LibreOffice Writer:  Align Right. 
  • WriteMonkey:  Comment / uncomment line or selection. 
  • WordPerfect X8: Justify Right. 
  • PSPad:  Reopen Active File. 
  • Microsoft FrontPage:  Right-align a paragraph. 
  • Metapad:  Primary font.
  • Nano:  Insert another file into the current one. 
  • Scrivener 1.9.9:  Align right. 
  • Evince 3.32:  Reload the document (effectively closes and re-opens the document). 
  • CudaText 1.88.3:  Replace. 
  • Zim:  Reload the page (saves first).  
  • TextRoom:  Align right. 
  • ZenWriter 2:  Right Alignment. 
  • TreePad Lite:  Article replace.
  • QOwnNotes 19.10.10:  Replace in the current note.


  • Siemens NX:  Rotate. 
  • Adobe After Effects 2021:  Show or hide rulers. 
  • Clip Studio Paint Pro:  Ruler [PRO/EX]. 
  • Krita 4.2.2:  Rectangular selection tool. 
  • Blender:  Loop Cut.
  • Autodesk 3ds Max 2021:  Orbit View Mode. 
  • Microsoft Paint:  Show or hide the ruler. 
  • IrfanView:  Resample dialog. 
  • Adobe Illustrator:  Show/Hide artboard rulers. 
  • PureRef: Lock Canvas. 
  • Paint.NET:  Resize. 
  • Adobe Photoshop CC:  Open selected images in the Camera Raw dialog box from Bridge.
  • Global Mapper 21:  RESTORE Last SAVED View. 
  • Moho 13:  Preview… 
  • Marmoset Toolbag 4:  Enable raytracing. 
  • FastStone Image Viewer:  Resize the image. 
  • Adobe Premiere Pro (Windows):  Speed/Duration... 
  • Adobe Animate CC (Windows):  Import image, sound, etc. 

System Tools

  • iTerm2:  Search as you type. 
  • Bash (Unix shell):  Recall the last command matching the characters you provide. Press this shortcut and start typing to search your bash history for a command. 
  • XenCenter:  Reboot the selected VM. 
  • PRTG Network Monitor:  Edit > Pause > Resume. 
  • Cisco IOS:  Refresh (start a new line with the same command shown). 
  • zsh: Search the command history. 
  • Everything: Toggle Regex. 
  • VMware Workstation 5.0:  Reset the power. 
  • FastStone Capture 9.2:  Resize the image. 
  • SyncBack:  Run selected profiles.  
  • SplashTop 3.2.6:  Refresh the computer list. 
  • Royal TS:  Reconnect.

Developer Tools

  • Visual Studio Code (Windows):  Open recently.  
  • NetBeans:  Rename. 
  • Roblox Studio:  Rotate about the Y axis. 
  • Toad For Oracle (Windows):  Find and replace. 
  • Unity:  Refresh.
  • Sublime Text 4:  Show overlay. 
  • Arduino IDE:  Verify. 
  • HeidiSQL:  Replace text. 
  • IntelliJ IDEA (Windows, Linux):  Replace. 
  • PyCharm 2018.2:  Initiate text search and replace. 
  • Skipper:  Create Association.  
  • WinHex:  Convert. 
  • SQLyog:  Set Focus To The Active Tab In Result Pane.
  • IDA Pro 7.4:  Offset (user-defined)… 
  • Code::Blocks 20.03:  Replace. 
  • Meld 3.21:  Refresh the current comparison.
  • Android Studio:  Replace. 
  • Delphi:  Replace Dialog.  
  • GitHub Desktop:  Create pull request. 
  • Code::Blocks 17.12:  Replace. 
  • pgAdmin 4.19:  Redo last edit un-done. 
  • EOS Family 3.0.0:  Record Only. 
  • Adobe Dreamweaver 20.2 (Windows):  Add Next Match to Selection. 
  • STM32CubeMX:  Generate report.

File Manager

  • Midnight Commander:  Refresh the active panel. 
  • PuTTY: Search through previously used commands. 
  • Total Commander:  Refresh the current directory. 
  • 7-Zip:  Refresh the items list. 
  • FileZilla:  Reconnect to the server. 
  • Adobe Bridge CC:  Open in camera raw.  
  • Midnight Commander (macOS):  Rescan. 
  • WinSCP:  Re-read panel.
  • PeaZip: Rename. 
  • WinNc:  Reread directory. 
  • Mp3tag:  Remove tag.

Media Player

  • PotPlayer 1.7:  Sharpen. 
  • GOM Player:  Refresh skins. 
  • KMPlayer:  Open recent file. 
  • Tidal:  Toggle repeats all / Repeat single / Repeat off. 
  • VLC Media Player:  Advanced open file. 
  • Winamp:  Reverse playlist. 
  • MusicBee:  Auto-organize files. 
  • BSPlayer:  Refresh skin. 
  • Spotify:  Repeat.
  • iTunes 11 for Windows:  Show where a song file is located.  

Games - PC

  • Assetto Corsa:  Replay. 
  • BeamNG: Reload vehicle. 
  • League of Legends:  Add an ability point to the champion's ultimate ability. 
  • Age of Empires III: Definitive Edition:  Find dock.
  • X-Plane 11 - Rot up slowly. 
  • Football Manager 2020:  Training (Coaches). On the intro or start-up screen, this will load the last game if available. 
  • iRacing:  Reload car textures. 
  • Warhammer 40,000: Dawn of War:  Cycle through research. 
  • Myth of Empires (PC): Turn on/hide the info promptly.  

Social & Messaging

  • Discord:  Refresh Discord.
  • Soundpad: Sound recorder. 
  • eM Client:  Reply email. 
  • Zimbra Web Client:  Align to right. 
  • NewsBin Pro:  Read post body. 
  • Claws Mail:  Reply. 
  • Cisco Jabber:  Answer calls with chat. 
  • mIRC:  Reverse text. 
  • HexChat 2.14.2:  Insert in the buffer. 
  • Blackboard Collaborate:  Raise or lower your hand. 


  • Blue Iris 5:  Record Start / Stop.  
  • KeePass:  Align right. 
  • 1Password (Android):  Reload the page. 
  • Comodo IceDragon:  Reload. 


  • Figma: Rename selection. 
  • REAPER:  Transport: Record.  
  • Studio One 5.4:  Reverse Audio. 
  • Steinberg Cubase 10.5:  Open Score Editor. 
  • Adobe InDesign 2020 (Windows):  Hide Rulers.
  • FL Studio 20:  Export wave file.  
  • SAGE PE Batigest i7:  Search request by reference or designation. 
  •  Turn / rotate 90° clockwise. 
  • Bluebeam Revu:  Show / hide rulers. 
  • MetaTrader 5:  Open/close the "Tester" window. 
  • Onyx:  Record. 
  • Davinci Resolve 17 (Windows):  Retime Controls. 
  • Final Draft 11 (Windows):  Mark revised.  
  • Quip:  Fill right in the selection. 
  • Avidemux 2.8.7:  Load saved settings. 
  • Sierra Chart (version 2296):  Replay chart > Replay Chart (Control Panel).
  • Lacerte: Reset the page and cumulative hash totals to zero. 
  • AutoQuotes:  Reconfigure. 
  • MYOB AccountRight:  Recap transaction. 
  • Xactimate:  Go to Parameters. 
  • Edraw Max 9.4:  Rotate the selected shape or shapes right 90 degree. 
  • Tracktion T7 DAW (Windows):  Abort current recording and discard anything recorded. 
  • CCH Axcess Tax:  Calculate and recalculate the return. 
  • Nuendo 10:  Open score editor. 
  • Articulate Storyline:  Align text to the right.