Computer Fundamentals Index

Computer Introduction Types of computer Characteristics of computer Uses of computer History of Computers

Computer Languages

Low Level language Middle level Language High level language

Computer Generation

Generation of Computers Second generation of Computers Third generation of Computers Fourth generation of Computers Fifth generation of Computers

Peripheral Devices

Input devices Output device

Components

Block diagram and basic components Control processing unit (CPU) Software Hardware

Memory

Computer Memory Registers Memory Hierarchy RAM Vs ROM Understanding file sizes (Bytes, KB, MB, GB, TB, PB, EB, ZB, YB)

Computer Network

Types of Network Types of Area Networks (LAN, WAN, MAN) TCP Flags

Computer Virus

Computer Virus

Computer Ports

Computer Ports

How

How to hack a computer How much do Computer Programmers make How does a Computer work How to associate a file with a program How does a computer convert text into binary How does a computer process data into information How to fix a CD-ROM DVD How to fix the no input signal How to install computer memory How to associate a file with a program How to log out of your operating system How do I change my name on Google How to installation or uninstallation Microsoft Paint How to fix a not a valid Win32 application error How to fix missing Microsoft Windows .dll files How to use a computer keyboard How to erase my hard drive and start over How can I test how many words I can write a minute How to shut down a computer How do I open and edit the Windows registry How to edit the registry from the command line How to restart Microsoft Windows How to install a computer processor How to open Microsoft Paint How to fix problems in Windows after installing new software How to enable or disable the preview pane of Microsoft Outlook How to open a Microsoft .wps or Works file in Word How to view the HTML source code in Microsoft Word How to View or Change the Screen Resolution of a Monitor How to Connect and Install a Computer Keyboard How to Delete Temporary Files in Windows 10 How to determine Which Version of Microsoft Office I'm using How to find out how much hard drive space is available How to Fix PC Stuck on Verifying DMI Pool Data How to choose which items show in the notification area How to find similar images using Search by Image How to fix Low Memory and out of memory errors How To Replace the CMOS Battery How do I Update my Antivirus Program How to fix a general protection fault How to Identify problems in the Windows Device Manager How can the Base be Shown How to test if a Website or Web Page is down How Much is 1 Byte, Kilobyte, Megabyte, Gigabyte, etc

Questions

Who invented Computer What are the advantages of the Internet? What are the disadvantages of the Internet? Is my computer 64 bit? What is Edge Computing? What is a Router? What is Monitor What is Printer What is a Web Browser What is Microphone What is a Webcam What is PC What is Keyboard What is Motherboard What is WAP What is URL What is a Digital Assistant When was the first Computer Invented What is Modem What is Firmware What is Imperative Programming What is Protocol What is Safe Mode What is Device Driver What is Hybrid Topology What is Mesh Topology What is Procedural language What is a hyperlink What is a Username Who invented the Internet What is Video Card What is Sound Card What is Binary What does Alt+B do What does Alt+D do What does Alt+E do What does Alt+Esc do What does Alt+R do What does ALT + Q do What does Alt + Tab do What is Data Manipulation What is a touch screen What is Back Panel What is Analog Monitor What is AR lens What is an ATX Style Connector What is a File System What is Hard Disk Drive (HDD) What is a boot device What is accessibility What is Line In What is network Interface card (NIC) What is Optical Disk Where can I ask questions on the internet What is Auto Rotate What is CAD (Computer-aided design) What is Cable Modem What is Home Page What is boot menu What is braille reader What is flash memory What is Windows What is Clipboard What is Cyber Warfare What is Myspace Why has my IP address changed What is Jacquard Loom My computer is running slow, what steps can I do to fix it What is a Kensington Lock What is a multicore processor What is automation Are smartphones and tablets computers What is a Login Script What is a Loosely Typed Language What is Multitasking? Why my computer monitor shows no display or black screen What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is the Pg Dn Key (Page Down Key) What is the Pg up Key (Page up Key) What is Palmtop Computer What is a Processing Device What is a Print Preview What is the Print Screen Key What can I do if my computer or laptop is lost or stolen What is a Model Number What are the currently available antivirus programs What are Toggle keys What is a Case fan What is a Silicon Chip What is a Slate PC What is a TAB stop What is an Octothorpe What is Task Pane What is Task View What is the svchost.exe file used for in Windows Where can I find free online virus scanners Why am I unable to increase the resolution in Windows What is Autofill When I click my mouse, it sometimes double-clicks What is Scratch What is UDIMM What is MsConfig What is an Expansion Card What is an Executable File What is an Elevated Command Prompt What is an AC Adapter What is AIMBOT What is a Software Suite What is a LED Monitor What does Alt + X do What does alt + space do What does Alt + O do Now that I’ve got a Computer, what can i do What is a Punch Card What is RDIMM What is Select All What is Serial number What is Thermos flask What programs can I use for speech recognition What are the Advantages of Computers What are the Disadvantages of Computers What does Alt + T do What Hardware Device Drivers should be Updated What is a Desktop What is a Ring Topology What is CMOS What is a Directory What is a Mechanical Mouse What is a Plotter What is a Variable What is an Icon What is Data What is HDMI What is Remote What is Right-Click What is SMPS Why does my Laptop not turn on What is a Copyright What is a Cordless Mouse What is a CSV file What is a Joystick What is a Start Button What is a Taskbar What is an Alignment What is an Output Device What is Cat 5 What is Google Chrome What is Post

Difference

Difference between hardware and software Difference between multiprocessor and distributed systems Difference between Desktop and Laptop Difference between File and folder Difference between Hard Copy and Soft Copy Open Source Programs vs Closed Source Programs

Misc

Quantum Computing Computer Software Autoexec.bat and config.sys info Update an Antivirus Use of Internet Advantages and disadvantages of Email Computing Power Internet Explorer Shortcut Keys Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) Augmented Reality Infrastructure Readiness Check Top 10 Internet tips and tricks Introduction and Features of FoxPro Features of Multimedia Top 10 online services and applications Receiving S.M.A.R.T. status bad backup and replacing error Version Control System Uninstalling Software or Apps in Windows Data Warehouse Increase or decrease font size in Word using keyboard shortcuts Mouse not detected or working in Windows Computer Cleaning Information and Steps Function Keys on Keyboard Windows 7 Alt+Tab won’t stay on top or stick

High-Level Language in Computer

High-Level Language

The high-level language is the programming language such as BASIC, C, C++, COBOL, FORTRAN, Java, Perl, PHP, Python, Ruby, Visual Basic, and Pascal, etc. These languages have strong abstraction, the style and the context which are more comfortable to learn. It never needs the addressing of hardware constraints when developing a program.

The program of high-level language must be interpreted before the execution. The high-level language deal with the variables, arrays, objects, complex arithmetic or Boolean expression, subroutines and functions, loops, threads, locks, etc. The high-level languages are closer to human languages and far from machine languages. It is similar to human language, and the machine is not able to understand this language.

high level language

High-level languages are coders friendly, easy to code, debug, and maintain. These languages do not interact directly with the hardware. These languages are easy to implement. The software of translation plays an important role in the conversion of a high-level language to machine level language. 

#include<stdio.h>
int main()
{
Printf(“hello”);
getch();
return 0;
} 

This is the example of C language, which is a middle-level language because it has the feature of both the low and high-level language. The human can understand this example easily, but the machine is not able to understand it without the translator. Every high-level language uses a different type of syntax.

Some languages are designed for writing desktop software programs, and other languages are used for web development.

high level language 1

These all languages are considered as the high-level language because they must be processed with the help of a compiler or interpreter before the code execution. The source code is written in scripting languages like Perl and PHP can be run by the interpreter. These languages can convert the high-level code into binary code so that the machine can understand. 

high level language 2

The advantage and disadvantage both exist in a high-level language. The slow processing time is the disadvantage of high-level language because the translator converts the program into binary language before the execution. The high-level language is close to the programmer and far away from the machine. We are explaining some high-level languages, which are given below:

1) FORTRAN

                 The name of this language indicates its meaning, which is "formula translation" because it was designed for the easy translation of math formulas into code. This language was published in 1957, and it is the first high-level programming language which is used for the scientific purpose.

 The coders were able to write the programs 500% faster in high-level language as compared to low-level language. The efficiency was reduced by 20%, and this thing allowed the programmers to focus more on the problem-solving aspect of the problem.

2) COBOL

The full form of COBOL is "Common Business Oriented Language." It is developed in 1959 and used for the business and administrative purpose. When we save some data due to business purpose, and we compute that data after some time, then we require the COBOL language. 

This language still used by the banks and other major companies which depends heavily on the accuracy and stability of their programs to keep their companies growing.

The COBOL language is divided into four parts:

  1. Identification Division.
  2. Environment Division.
  3. Data Division.
  4. Procedure Division.

3) BASIC

The BASIC language was the first language developed for the non-professional programmers. There is no need of any prerequisite to learn the BASIC language. The meaning of BASIC language is “Beginners all-purpose symbolic instruction code."

4) PASCAL

The PASCAL is the first programming language used for the teaching tool. It is a procedural programming language. This language supports structured programming and data structure.

5) SIMULA(OOPL)

The SIMULA was the first object-oriented programming language. It was developed in the 1960s. The first version of this language was developed as an extension of ALGOL, and the second version that is Simula67 was developed in 19.67. The main purpose of this language is to create computer simulations.

high level language 3

                               Fig. The Growth of various high-level languages.

The high-level languages are machine-independent. The programmers or coders do not require to know anything about the internal structure of the computer on which high-level language programs will be executed. Deal with high-level coders, enabling the programmers to write instructions using English word and familiar with the mathematical symbols and expressions.

Compiler

                         The compiler is the translator program software. This software can translate into its equivalent machine language program. The compiler compiles a set of machine language instructions for every program in a high-level language.  

high level language 4

Linker

           The linker is used for the large programs in which we can create some modules for the different task. When we call the module, the whole job is to link to that module and program is processed. We can use a linker for the huge software, storing all the lines of program code in a single source file.

Interpreter

                  The interpreter is the high-level language translator. It takes one statement of the high-level language program and translates it into machine level language instruction. Interpreter immediately executes the resulting machine language instruction. The compiler translates the entire source program into an object program, but the interpreter translates line by line.

high level language 5

Advantage of High-level language

  • The high-level language is machine-independent.
  • It is easier to learn and use.
  • Few errors exist during the program development.
  • The high-level language provides better documentation.
  •  It is easier to maintain.

The disadvantage of the high-level language

  • The high-level language takes additional time to translate the source code to machine code.
  • The programs of high-level language are comparatively slower than the programs of a low-level language.
  • It cannot communicate directly with the hardware.

Limitations of the high-level language

  • Less flexibility to control the computer's CPU, memory, and registers.
high level language 6

                                     Fig. Learning high-level programming from the text.

Gaming software is the best example of learning high-level programming from the text.  There are various game servers used in gaming Software. The high level of language always supports the portable code. The source code of high-level language is not designed to run on one type of machine — no need to acquire hardware knowledge for the creation of programs in the high-level language.