Computer Fundamentals Index

Computer Introduction Types of computer Characteristics of computer Uses of computer History of Computers

Computer Languages

Low Level language Middle level Language High level language

Computer Generation

Generation of Computers First Generation of Computer Second generation of Computers Third generation of Computers Fourth generation of Computers Fifth generation of Computers Sixth Generation of Computer

Peripheral Devices

Input devices Output device


Block diagram and basic components Control processing unit (CPU) Software Hardware


Computer Memory Registers Memory Hierarchy RAM Vs ROM Understanding file sizes (Bytes, KB, MB, GB, TB, PB, EB, ZB, YB)

Computer Network

Types of Network Types of Area Networks (LAN, WAN, MAN) TCP Flags

Computer Virus

Computer Virus

Computer Ports

Computer Ports


How to hack a computer How much do Computer Programmers make How does a Computer work How to associate a file with a program How does a computer convert text into binary How does a computer process data into information How to fix a CD-ROM DVD How to fix the no input signal How to install computer memory How to associate a file with a program How to log out of your operating system How do I change my name on Google How to installation or uninstallation Microsoft Paint How to fix a not a valid Win32 application error How to fix missing Microsoft Windows .dll files How to use a computer keyboard How to erase my hard drive and start over How can I test how many words I can write a minute How to shut down a computer How do I open and edit the Windows registry How to edit the registry from the command line How to restart Microsoft Windows How to install a computer processor How to open Microsoft Paint How to fix problems in Windows after installing new software How to enable or disable the preview pane of Microsoft Outlook How to open a Microsoft .wps or Works file in Word How to view the HTML source code in Microsoft Word How to View or Change the Screen Resolution of a Monitor How to Connect and Install a Computer Keyboard How to Delete Temporary Files in Windows 10 How to determine Which Version of Microsoft Office I'm using How to find out how much hard drive space is available How to Fix PC Stuck on Verifying DMI Pool Data How to choose which items show in the notification area How to find similar images using Search by Image How to fix Low Memory and out of memory errors How To Replace the CMOS Battery How do I Update my Antivirus Program How to fix a general protection fault How to Identify problems in the Windows Device Manager How can the Base be Shown How to test if a Website or Web Page is down How Much is 1 Byte, Kilobyte, Megabyte, Gigabyte, etc How to fix a CMOS checksum error How to Fix a Windows CD-ROM, DVD, or Disc Drive Issue How to Open Safe Mode How to Password Protect Files and Folders in Windows How to Reset CMOS or BIOS Settings How to use Computer Keyboard How to create a text file How to enable or disable DHCP in Windows How to test computer memory to determine if its bad How do double space or change line spacing in Microsoft Word How do I know if I have Windows Administrator Rights How many cores does my computer have How to Create a Directory or Folder How to Enter and Exit the BIOS or CMOS Setup How to change Windows Compatibility mode How to clear your internet browser history How to Connect Computer Speakers How to Copy a Web Page Link or URL How to install a Hard Drive or SSD How to Open the Windows Control Panel How to split a screen in Windows How to copy text from a scanned PDF


Who invented Computer What are the advantages of the Internet? What are the disadvantages of the Internet? Is my computer 64 bit? What is Edge Computing? What is a Router? What is Monitor What is Printer What is a Web Browser What is Microphone What is a Webcam What is PC What is Keyboard What is Motherboard What is WAP What is URL What is a Digital Assistant When was the first Computer Invented What is Modem What is Firmware What is Imperative Programming What is Protocol What is Safe Mode What is Device Driver What is Hybrid Topology What is Mesh Topology What is Procedural language What is a hyperlink What is a Username Who invented the Internet What is Video Card What is Sound Card What is Binary What does Alt+B do What does Alt+D do What does Alt+E do What does Alt+Esc do What does Alt+R do What does ALT + Q do What does Alt + Tab do What is Data Manipulation What is a touch screen What is Back Panel What is Analog Monitor What is AR lens What is an ATX Style Connector What is a File System What is Hard Disk Drive (HDD) What is a boot device What is accessibility What is Line In What is network Interface card (NIC) What is Optical Disk Where can I ask questions on the internet What is Auto Rotate What is CAD (Computer-aided design) What is Cable Modem What is Home Page What is boot menu What is braille reader What is flash memory What is Windows What is Clipboard What is Cyber Warfare What is Myspace Why has my IP address changed What is Jacquard Loom My computer is running slow, what steps can I do to fix it What is a Kensington Lock What is a multicore processor What is automation Are smartphones and tablets computers What is a Login Script What is a Loosely Typed Language What is Multitasking? Why my computer monitor shows no display or black screen What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is the Pg Dn Key (Page Down Key) What is the Pg up Key (Page up Key) What is Palmtop Computer What is a Processing Device What is a Print Preview What is the Print Screen Key What can I do if my computer or laptop is lost or stolen What is a Model Number What are the currently available antivirus programs What are Toggle keys What is a Case fan What is a Silicon Chip What is a Slate PC What is a TAB stop What is an Octothorpe What is Task Pane What is Task View What is the svchost.exe file used for in Windows Where can I find free online virus scanners Why am I unable to increase the resolution in Windows What is Autofill When I click my mouse, it sometimes double-clicks What is Scratch What is UDIMM What is MsConfig What is an Expansion Card What is an Executable File What is an Elevated Command Prompt What is an AC Adapter What is AIMBOT What is a Software Suite What is a LED Monitor What does Alt + X do What does alt + space do What does Alt + O do Now that I’ve got a Computer, what can i do What is a Punch Card What is RDIMM What is Select All What is Serial number What is Thermos flask What programs can I use for speech recognition What are the Advantages of Computers What are the Disadvantages of Computers What does Alt + T do What Hardware Device Drivers should be Updated What is a Desktop What is a Ring Topology What is CMOS What is a Directory What is a Mechanical Mouse What is a Plotter What is a Variable What is an Icon What is Data What is HDMI What is Remote What is Right-Click What is SMPS Why does my Laptop not turn on What is a Copyright What is a Cordless Mouse What is a CSV file What is a Joystick What is a Start Button What is a Taskbar What is an Alignment What is an Output Device What is Cat 5 What is Google Chrome What is Post What are Recordable DVD Drives What Does Alt + F4 Do What Does Alt + L Do What is a bit (Binary Digit) What is a cable What is a Calculator What is a capacitor What is a Cold Boot What is a Dialog Box What is a Dual-boot What is a Slide What is A4 What is AM What is Barcode Reader What is EHCI What is a Header What is a Joystick What is a Secondary Storage Device What is Access Time What is Account Sharing What is an Asterisk What is Asynchronous DRAM What is Back Quote What is BIOS What is Borderless Printing What is Case Badge What is CD-ROM What is Chat Slang What is Composite What is RJ Cable What Are Bottom Row Keys What is SAN What is Tray What is VDU What Does Alt + M Do What Does Alt + P Do What is a Cell What is a Command Key What is a key Combination What is a Menu Bar What is a Startup What is a T What is Chat What are the F1 through F12 keys What does Alt + Enter do What Does Alt + Home DO What does Alt + R do What does Ctrl + B do What Does Ctrl + Enter Do What Does Ctrl + R Do What does Ctrl + G do What does Ctrl + 9 do What does Ctrl + End do What does Ctrl + O do What Does Ctrl + P do What Does Ctrl + Q do What is a Colon What is a Core What is Apple Touch Icon What is Clock What is Code What is Computer Crime What is Ctrl What is DAT What is Data diddling What is Date Why won't my computer turn on What Does Alt + N Do What does ctrl + 2 do What does ctrl + space do What does Ctrl + W do What does Ctrl + T Do What Does Ctrl + 2 do What does Ctrl + 5 Do What are the most common file types and file extensions What are Sticky keys What Does Ctrl + Shift + Esc Do What is Settings What is Task Manager What is Taskbar What is a DNS Resolver What does ctrl + 1 do What does ctrl + 0 do How to install software What is a Folder What is a Legend What is a MAC Address What is a Path What is a Ruler What is a Toolbar What is an Intranet Meaning and Differences with Internet What is an SSD What is Inheritance What is Tablet What is Depth What is Docking Station What is Double Click What is a Solid Ink Printer What is a Temporary File What is Backup and Restore What is Electronic Payment Systems Eps What is Marshalling


Difference between hardware and software Difference between multiprocessor and distributed systems Difference between Desktop and Laptop Difference between File and folder Difference between Hard Copy and Soft Copy Open Source Programs vs Closed Source Programs Difference between Optical Fibre and Coaxial Cable Difference between Website and Webpage Difference between Classes and Objects Input VS Output Difference between Primary and Secondary Storage with Examples


Quantum Computing Computer Software Autoexec.bat and config.sys info Update an Antivirus Use of Internet Advantages and disadvantages of Email Computing Power Internet Explorer Shortcut Keys Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) Augmented Reality Infrastructure Readiness Check Top 10 Internet tips and tricks Introduction and Features of FoxPro Features of Multimedia Top 10 online services and applications Receiving S.M.A.R.T. status bad backup and replacing error Version Control System Uninstalling Software or Apps in Windows Data Warehouse Increase or decrease font size in Word using keyboard shortcuts Mouse not detected or working in Windows Computer Cleaning Information and Steps Function Keys on Keyboard Windows 7 Alt+Tab won’t stay on top or stick 10 Essential Examples of Web Browsers Binary Subtraction using 2’s Complement Case Sensitive Languages Computer Pioneers and people who are CEO Microsoft Word Shortcut Keys Parts of Computers Names, Definitions and Images ROM and its Types Basics of Information Technology Characteristics of a Good Software Design Characteristics of Management Information System Classification of Management Information System Implementation of MIS Input Devices of Computer Definition Limitations of Management Information System 3 Types Of Network in Computer Block Diagram Of Control Unit Difference Between Computer and Embedded System Difference Between Hard Disk and Floppy Disk Abstraction in OOAD Hardware and Software Devices Optomechanical Mouse CMOS Memory What is a Terminal? What is Graphic Design? What is Load? What is Passcode? What is Reboot? What is Registry? What is Safe Mode? What is Standby? What is SYN (Synchronize)? What is Task Manager? Attribute Computing BPS in Computer Bulletin Board System Light Pen Input Device 3 TYPES OF NETWORK IN COMPUTER Block diagram of control unit What is a Solid Ink Printer? What is a Temporary File? What is an App launcher? What is Backup and Restore? What is a Tab Character? What is the Core i3? What is Paint? What is a Workbook? Advantages and Disadvantages of Online Education What is a String? What is a VDU (Visible Display Unit)? 50 Uses of Computer What is Workspace? What is a Procedural Language? What is VGA (Video Graphics Array)? Object Linking and Embedding in MS Word Semiconductor Memory Types of Parallel Computing Web Resources Difference between Virus, Worm and Trojan Horse Difference between HQ (High Quality) and HD (High Definition) What is Text Wrapping What is Timestamp? Semiconductor Ram Memory What is a File Attribute? What is a Video Call? Difference between SDRAM and DDR What is ANSI? Difference between DOS and Windows How to Set the Path and Environment Variables in Windows? Mainframe System What is ScanDisk? C drive in Mac Computer Memory Table How to Change the Keyboard Language in Windows? What is a Video Call? What is a Zoom Slider? What is Floppy Disk in Computer What is the most Popular Operating System? OMR in Computer What is a Work Area?

What is Procedural language?

A procedural language is a PC programming language with many capacities, guidelines, and explanations that should be executed in a specific request to achieve a task or program. As a rule, the procedural language indicates the means that the PC takes to tackle an issue. PC procedural languages incorporate the programming languages such as BASIC, C, FORTRAN, Java, and Pascal. To make programs, they use factors, contingent explanations, and capacities that grant a PC to process and give the ideal result.

Even though it permits the clients to give PCs directions in a characteristic language like Chinese, French, or English, PCs can't grasp human correspondence. Hence, clients can't do that. Human knowledge can make ambiguities in correspondence with everyday language, yet a PC needs proper guidance and a numerically exact correspondence framework. Without fail, all images or assortments of images should have importance.

They likewise utilize unforeseen limits, components, and clarifications to introduce an ideal yield and make codes that permit a PC to find. Content and programming developers utilize procedural languages as perhaps the most regular types of programming language. The programming manager or ides, like Microsoft Visual Studio, Eclipse, or Adobe Dreamweaver, are utilized to make a program using a procedural language. With the assistance of these editors, clients can utilize at least one procedural language to foster code, test the code, and fix bugs in the code.

As its name proposes, procedural programming languages rely on capacities, efficient methods, or subroutines in a program's design, which assists the PC with giving an ideal state or result. A procedural language program is separated into explanations, capacities, factors, and contingent administrators. Capacities and methods are applied to the information and factors to finish a task. These systems permit the clients to call themselves between the program order and different methods. A procedural language program has at least one system.

The procedural programming language based on use is truly being made, either organized or unraveled. For instance, FORTRAN is created to manage a huge task for mathematical and sensible applications. The execution's speed is generally significant; hence, this language is typically realized with a gatherer. Of course, BASIC was made for juvenile engineers; thus, it is by and large executed with a go-between.

Sorts of Procedural Languages

Following is a list of certain sorts of procedural languages:

  • Pascal
  • C
  • Ad


The FORTRAN is a critical authentic, high-level language. It is a short form of FORmula TRANslator. FORTRAN is developed in 1954. The cost of programming firmly influenced the cost of working a PC, and as PCs got more reasonable, the situation disintegrated. John Backus, an American PC specialist, got the opportunity to persuade IBM's bosses that a language with a compiler fit for making incredible article code could be made. He was at the top of the social occasion, which had Peter Sheridan, David Sayre, Irving Ziller, and Roy Nutt made FORTRAN.

He expected to cultivate a language that would be legitimate for scientists and originators to make programs in isolation for the IBM 704. In 1957, the principal type of FORTRAN was introduced, and FORTRAN II was conveyed following it in 1958. In FORTRAN II, better scientific messages and limited clarifications are available. The FORTRAN III, a general type of the FORTRAN language, was not made into a business thing that depended seriously upon the plan of the IBM 704. Regardless, its overall FORTRAN IV, which was disseminated in 1962 and had more than fifteen years, consolidated different components.

By the mid-1970s, FORTRAN IV was, at this point, not a continuous language; in any case, the interest in FORTRAN programs was so immense. A while later, work started on making FORTRAN 77 out of 1967, and in April of 1978, it transformed into the power standard. With the time, in December 1997, a development of FORTRAN 90, FORTRAN 95, was appropriated. In 2001, working was underway on FORTRAN 200x, which had support for object-arranged programming, and exclusion managing and further created interoperability with C. Likewise, it was a suitable upward development of FORTRAN 95.


In the scope of 1956 and 1959, because numerous languages and lingos were created to convey capacity issues, different PC bunches requested ACM to propose an action to develop a general programming language. Beginning in January 1958, delegates from creation and schools were named to a gathering that met commonly and concurred that the new lingo would be a logarithmic language like FORTRAN. Since FORTRAN was made by IBM and is firmly connected to IBM innovation, it couldn't be utilized as a general language.

At the gatherings, John Backus and Alan Perlis and different individuals from the gathering were chosen to address the American perspective. ALGOL 58 quickly joined the best parts of programming languages with express endeavors to address the movability troubles; thus, it was a cooperative exertion. It accompanied new terms like three degrees of language portrayal; the starting end delimiters, type, for the explanation, and formal versus a real boundary.

Backus and Perlis, six different Americans, Peter Naur and Fritz Bauer, and agents from seven European nations, assembled in Paris in January 1960 to make ALGOL 60. They had the aim to become a general device by including a few elements inside it, like call by worth and call by name, block, worldwide and nearby factors, if, else, until, while, dynamic clusters, and recursion. ALGOL 60 incredibly affected future language advancements, and it turned into the norm for the distribution of calculations.


During the 1960s, there were no personal computers. The programmers expected to punch their program onto cards, transport them to the nearest computers, and subsequently hold on hours for the results. PC composing PC programs were unnecessarily crucial to building understudies and expert developers, which was recognized by Thomas E. Kurtz, Kemeny, and John G, educators at Dartmouth College. They arranged and manufactured a period-sharing system and fostered the BASIC (Beginners All-reason Symbolic Instruction Code) in 1964. Their objectives incorporated a reasonable goof message in English, the ability to oblige gigantic ventures, straightforwardness of learning for the beginner, stuff, and working framework freedom. In 1964, BASIC opened up for clients. Regardless of the way that the ongoing varieties of BASIC run under go-betweens, Kemeny and Kurtz acknowledged it to run with a compiler around then, at that point.

Since BASIC can manage a business, coherent, and informational applications, it is portrayed as an extensively helpful language. Sadly, programming associations and PC creators have extensively extended and changed this language. A more exceptional and adaptable design, "real BASIC," was made by Kemeny and Kurtz in 1983 that keeps the proposed ANSI rules. It integrated a couple of components, for instance, free subprograms, display managing clarifications, a SELECT case structure, line numbers, and long variable names. Moreover, BASIC was a straightforward language to teach and learn; subsequently, it was extensively recognized in the enlightening neighborhood.


Following the declaration of FORTRAN in April 1959, a gathering of scholastics, PC clients, and PC makers, including American programming pioneer Grace Hopper, met to examine the possibility of fostering a programming language that would satisfy the needs of the business organization and become a norm. Business applications manage huge information measures yet don't do troublesome calculations; hence FORTRAN didn't generally fulfill their needs. Living programming languages were not compact; they could run on one kind of PC, logical or business. Huge ventures' utilization of a few PCs brought about an expansion in the expense of programming in specific conditions since their engineers expected to dominate a couple of languages. For instance, the United States Division of Protection had north of 1,000 PCs, and it cost the Department of Defense nearly $499 million every year to program and keep up with them.

COBOL variable names can rely upon 30 characters long, and their orders are formed using English words and punctuation, making them understood. These components help nonprogrammers scrutinize and understand COBOL tasks and even make them fit for examining and staying aware of them easily. The American business neighborhood recognized COBOL programs as they were significantly reduced. The Report Writer and Sort feature incorporated the hidden pattern of COBOL, which was generally sent in 1961. In 1965 and 1968, COBOL changed again into the fundamental ANSI standard compiler. COBOL 85 consolidated an in-line PERFORM, END IF, and a quick case structure, END PERFORM, as an element of work to make it more coordinated programming cordial.


A Swiss PC researcher, Niklaus Wirth, created the Pascal language. He was vital to the ALGOL 68 panel's prosperity. He thought ALGOL was excessively messy, and he needed to concoct a coding language that could rapidly educate undergrads. The new language was conveyed in 1971, a subsidiary of ALGOL and was subsequently known as Pascal. Pascal joins the 1960s thoughts of organized programming and techniques, revising ALGOL's idea of parting code into belts, systems, and limits, as well as enhancing a portion of ALGOL's elements with the option of extra data types and control structures.

When contrasted with the first developer, its structure simplifies codes to examine and keep up with individuals. Programs are compact between various PCs since there are assortments between Pascal gatherers; the language has a genuinely standard structure. At the University of California at San Diego, the possibility of Wirth was tracked down its most significant crowd, wherein late 1974 work started on the compiler and Pascal working framework by Kenneth Bowles. He kept on making an entire framework, including a content tool, a linker, a compiler, a constructing agent, a bunch of utility projects, and a record dealing with utility.

It began to get public consideration by 1978. In the instructive local area, it accomplished wide acknowledgment with the development of PCs. Since Pascal's feedback and result highlights were restricted, it was utilized as a showing instrument, making it impossible to create business programming. It was, by the by, the establishment of Modula-2, Ada, and other programming languages.


Dennis Ritchie and Ken Thompson of Bell Laboratories made the C programming language in 1972. It is a descendant of the ALGOL 60 or a relative of the ALGOL 60. Their goal was to foster a language that would interface significant level tongue features with those that manage low-level programming. This fabricated C proper for composing compilers, firm applications, as well as working frameworks. A norm for C was characterized in 1988 as C compilers can basically run on all devices; besides, most C projects are versatile. Then again, C, made by a designer, has been characterized as a programming language, which infers that it is hard to learn.

C offers a few information types and maintains coordinated programming languages. For case, a vital piece of C is pointer math, very much like the utilization of limits that might be called recursively. Even though info and result explanations are not pieces of the language, they are capacities that have been recognized in a "library" and are fit to be used when required. Memory portion, character limits, and string the board are a couple of the capacities tracked down in a regular UNIX C library.

Notwithstanding outer, unaltered factors and projects, C offers register factors, which abridge execution time as they use files. C offers the capacity to the developers to deal with huge information by involving the bit administrators for SHIFT LEFT, SHIFT RIGHT, Exclusive OR, AND, one's supplement, besides giving incredible command over information control.

In contrast with other programming languages, for example, Pascal or FORTRAN, C has remained somewhat steady. Its fame in the mid-1980s was attributable to its accessibility on PCs and its tight connections to UNIX. Besides, it can satisfy the necessities of framework and application developers. There are various languages that depend on C's grammar, like C, Perl, and JavaScript.


Ada was first developed in 1975 with support from the US Department of Defense (DoD) for use in military PC frameworks. The cost of making and staying aware of DoD applications was expanding owing to the collection of programming languages being utilized; subsequently, these techniques were required. The Department of Defense used 450 exceptional items and languages during the 1970s.

The DoD utilizes many of its changing undertakings to facilitate military gear, similar to tanks, atomic bombs, and planes. Meanwhile, those errands execute ceaselessly as a tank is moving or a plane is in the air. For case, a tactical pilot can barely believe that the PC will propel back the outcomes later in the day to play out its central goal. But ceaseless frameworks can work past the contraption they make due; they can, in like manner, be embedded inside a more noteworthy construction, like a machine or robot.

To find the particular language for DoD's necessities, the HOLWG High Order Language Working Group was molded in 1975. The Pascal, ALGOL 68, and PL/I were the foundations for the definition and plan of this language. That was known as Ada. In 1982, a superior variation arose, and ANSI took on one more standard for Ada in 1995. The fundamental point of making Ada was to reduce the cost of programming improvement, for the most part, for immense programming that will be used for a broad time interval. The "pack" is the vital thought about this language that works for separating a program into modules, which can be taken care of in a library until required, requested, and attempted freely. This helps designers easy to make, explore, and stay aware of immense undertakings.

It is very little difficult to learn the Ada language for beginners, yet programming data and experience are supposed to use its full breaking point. Subsequently, Ada is a language suitable for state-of-the-art designers, especially legitimate for structure programming, continuous systems, and immense errands.

The benefit of Procedural Languages

There are different benefits of Procedural Languages, which are given beneath:

  • The program of Procedural Programming language imposition apace with the use of interpreters.
  • This language explains the source code and can be seen without any problem.
  • Without the requirement for replicating this, the code might reuse in different pieces of code.
  • For different purposes, the Procedural Programming language uses various pieces of memory.
  • Multiple General-Purpose programming languages support it.
  • Tracking is easy as it flows the program linearly.

Burdens of Procedural Languages

Different burdens of Procedural Languages are given beneath:

  • When procedural languages are utilized, its program is more earnestly to compose.
  • Likewise, with a real issue, this language isn't viable.
  • It assembles less security welcoming because the data is accessible to the entire code.
  • It can shape an intricate program as it can tackle real issues.
  • The data is weak, and it isn't practicable with a genuine issue.

Utilizations of Procedural languages

Procedural programming languages are used by happy and programming engineers. For doing projects and showing the ideal yield, they use factors, prohibitive decrees, and limits. This is the explanation; it is known as a procedural programming language. Making a program by utilizing a procedural language might execute by utilizing a programming chief, Android Studio, or an eclipse.