Computer Fundamentals Index

Computer Introduction Types of computer Characteristics of computer Uses of computer History of Computers

Computer Languages

Low Level language Middle level Language High level language

Computer Generation

Generation of Computers First Generation of Computer Second generation of Computers Third generation of Computers Fourth generation of Computers Fifth generation of Computers Sixth Generation of Computer

Peripheral Devices

Input devices Output device


Block diagram and basic components Control processing unit (CPU) Software Hardware


Computer Memory Registers Memory Hierarchy RAM Vs ROM Understanding file sizes (Bytes, KB, MB, GB, TB, PB, EB, ZB, YB)

Computer Network

Types of Network Types of Area Networks (LAN, WAN, MAN) TCP Flags

Computer Virus

Computer Virus

Computer Ports

Computer Ports


How to hack a computer How much do Computer Programmers make How does a Computer work How to associate a file with a program How does a computer convert text into binary How does a computer process data into information How to fix a CD-ROM DVD How to fix the no input signal How to install computer memory How to associate a file with a program How to log out of your operating system How do I change my name on Google How to installation or uninstallation Microsoft Paint How to fix a not a valid Win32 application error How to fix missing Microsoft Windows .dll files How to use a computer keyboard How to erase my hard drive and start over How can I test how many words I can write a minute How to shut down a computer How do I open and edit the Windows registry How to edit the registry from the command line How to restart Microsoft Windows How to install a computer processor How to open Microsoft Paint How to fix problems in Windows after installing new software How to enable or disable the preview pane of Microsoft Outlook How to open a Microsoft .wps or Works file in Word How to view the HTML source code in Microsoft Word How to View or Change the Screen Resolution of a Monitor How to Connect and Install a Computer Keyboard How to Delete Temporary Files in Windows 10 How to determine Which Version of Microsoft Office I'm using How to find out how much hard drive space is available How to Fix PC Stuck on Verifying DMI Pool Data How to choose which items show in the notification area How to find similar images using Search by Image How to fix Low Memory and out of memory errors How To Replace the CMOS Battery How do I Update my Antivirus Program How to fix a general protection fault How to Identify problems in the Windows Device Manager How can the Base be Shown How to test if a Website or Web Page is down How Much is 1 Byte, Kilobyte, Megabyte, Gigabyte, etc How to fix a CMOS checksum error How to Fix a Windows CD-ROM, DVD, or Disc Drive Issue How to Open Safe Mode How to Password Protect Files and Folders in Windows How to Reset CMOS or BIOS Settings How to use Computer Keyboard How to create a text file How to enable or disable DHCP in Windows How to test computer memory to determine if its bad How do double space or change line spacing in Microsoft Word How do I know if I have Windows Administrator Rights How many cores does my computer have How to Create a Directory or Folder How to Enter and Exit the BIOS or CMOS Setup How to change Windows Compatibility mode How to clear your internet browser history How to Connect Computer Speakers How to Copy a Web Page Link or URL How to install a Hard Drive or SSD How to Open the Windows Control Panel How to split a screen in Windows How to copy text from a scanned PDF


Who invented Computer What are the advantages of the Internet? What are the disadvantages of the Internet? Is my computer 64 bit? What is Edge Computing? What is a Router? What is Monitor What is Printer What is a Web Browser What is Microphone What is a Webcam What is PC What is Keyboard What is Motherboard What is WAP What is URL What is a Digital Assistant When was the first Computer Invented What is Modem What is Firmware What is Imperative Programming What is Protocol What is Safe Mode What is Device Driver What is Hybrid Topology What is Mesh Topology What is Procedural language What is a hyperlink What is a Username Who invented the Internet What is Video Card What is Sound Card What is Binary What does Alt+B do What does Alt+D do What does Alt+E do What does Alt+Esc do What does Alt+R do What does ALT + Q do What does Alt + Tab do What is Data Manipulation What is a touch screen What is Back Panel What is Analog Monitor What is AR lens What is an ATX Style Connector What is a File System What is Hard Disk Drive (HDD) What is a boot device What is accessibility What is Line In What is network Interface card (NIC) What is Optical Disk Where can I ask questions on the internet What is Auto Rotate What is CAD (Computer-aided design) What is Cable Modem What is Home Page What is boot menu What is braille reader What is flash memory What is Windows What is Clipboard What is Cyber Warfare What is Myspace Why has my IP address changed What is Jacquard Loom My computer is running slow, what steps can I do to fix it What is a Kensington Lock What is a multicore processor What is automation Are smartphones and tablets computers What is a Login Script What is a Loosely Typed Language What is Multitasking? Why my computer monitor shows no display or black screen What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is the Pg Dn Key (Page Down Key) What is the Pg up Key (Page up Key) What is Palmtop Computer What is a Processing Device What is a Print Preview What is the Print Screen Key What can I do if my computer or laptop is lost or stolen What is a Model Number What are the currently available antivirus programs What are Toggle keys What is a Case fan What is a Silicon Chip What is a Slate PC What is a TAB stop What is an Octothorpe What is Task Pane What is Task View What is the svchost.exe file used for in Windows Where can I find free online virus scanners Why am I unable to increase the resolution in Windows What is Autofill When I click my mouse, it sometimes double-clicks What is Scratch What is UDIMM What is MsConfig What is an Expansion Card What is an Executable File What is an Elevated Command Prompt What is an AC Adapter What is AIMBOT What is a Software Suite What is a LED Monitor What does Alt + X do What does alt + space do What does Alt + O do Now that I’ve got a Computer, what can i do What is a Punch Card What is RDIMM What is Select All What is Serial number What is Thermos flask What programs can I use for speech recognition What are the Advantages of Computers What are the Disadvantages of Computers What does Alt + T do What Hardware Device Drivers should be Updated What is a Desktop What is a Ring Topology What is CMOS What is a Directory What is a Mechanical Mouse What is a Plotter What is a Variable What is an Icon What is Data What is HDMI What is Remote What is Right-Click What is SMPS Why does my Laptop not turn on What is a Copyright What is a Cordless Mouse What is a CSV file What is a Joystick What is a Start Button What is a Taskbar What is an Alignment What is an Output Device What is Cat 5 What is Google Chrome What is Post What are Recordable DVD Drives What Does Alt + F4 Do What Does Alt + L Do What is a bit (Binary Digit) What is a cable What is a Calculator What is a capacitor What is a Cold Boot What is a Dialog Box What is a Dual-boot What is a Slide What is A4 What is AM What is Barcode Reader What is EHCI What is a Header What is a Joystick What is a Secondary Storage Device What is Access Time What is Account Sharing What is an Asterisk What is Asynchronous DRAM What is Back Quote What is BIOS What is Borderless Printing What is Case Badge What is CD-ROM What is Chat Slang What is Composite What is RJ Cable What Are Bottom Row Keys What is SAN What is Tray What is VDU What Does Alt + M Do What Does Alt + P Do What is a Cell What is a Command Key What is a key Combination What is a Menu Bar What is a Startup What is a T What is Chat What are the F1 through F12 keys What does Alt + Enter do What Does Alt + Home DO What does Alt + R do What does Ctrl + B do What Does Ctrl + Enter Do What Does Ctrl + R Do What does Ctrl + G do What does Ctrl + 9 do What does Ctrl + End do What does Ctrl + O do What Does Ctrl + P do What Does Ctrl + Q do What is a Colon What is a Core What is Apple Touch Icon What is Clock What is Code What is Computer Crime What is Ctrl What is DAT What is Data diddling What is Date Why won't my computer turn on What Does Alt + N Do What does ctrl + 2 do What does ctrl + space do What does Ctrl + W do What does Ctrl + T Do What Does Ctrl + 2 do What does Ctrl + 5 Do What are the most common file types and file extensions What are Sticky keys What Does Ctrl + Shift + Esc Do What is Settings What is Task Manager What is Taskbar What is a DNS Resolver What does ctrl + 1 do What does ctrl + 0 do How to install software What is a Folder What is a Legend What is a MAC Address What is a Path What is a Ruler What is a Toolbar What is an Intranet Meaning and Differences with Internet What is an SSD What is Inheritance What is Tablet What is Depth What is Docking Station What is Double Click What is a Solid Ink Printer What is a Temporary File What is Backup and Restore What is Electronic Payment Systems Eps What is Marshalling


Difference between hardware and software Difference between multiprocessor and distributed systems Difference between Desktop and Laptop Difference between File and folder Difference between Hard Copy and Soft Copy Open Source Programs vs Closed Source Programs Difference between Optical Fibre and Coaxial Cable Difference between Website and Webpage Difference between Classes and Objects Input VS Output Difference between Primary and Secondary Storage with Examples


Quantum Computing Computer Software Autoexec.bat and config.sys info Update an Antivirus Use of Internet Advantages and disadvantages of Email Computing Power Internet Explorer Shortcut Keys Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) Augmented Reality Infrastructure Readiness Check Top 10 Internet tips and tricks Introduction and Features of FoxPro Features of Multimedia Top 10 online services and applications Receiving S.M.A.R.T. status bad backup and replacing error Version Control System Uninstalling Software or Apps in Windows Data Warehouse Increase or decrease font size in Word using keyboard shortcuts Mouse not detected or working in Windows Computer Cleaning Information and Steps Function Keys on Keyboard Windows 7 Alt+Tab won’t stay on top or stick 10 Essential Examples of Web Browsers Binary Subtraction using 2’s Complement Case Sensitive Languages Computer Pioneers and people who are CEO Microsoft Word Shortcut Keys Parts of Computers Names, Definitions and Images ROM and its Types Basics of Information Technology Characteristics of a Good Software Design Characteristics of Management Information System Classification of Management Information System Implementation of MIS Input Devices of Computer Definition Limitations of Management Information System 3 Types Of Network in Computer Block Diagram Of Control Unit Difference Between Computer and Embedded System Difference Between Hard Disk and Floppy Disk Abstraction in OOAD Hardware and Software Devices Optomechanical Mouse CMOS Memory What is a Terminal? What is Graphic Design? What is Load? What is Passcode? What is Reboot? What is Registry? What is Safe Mode? What is Standby? What is SYN (Synchronize)? What is Task Manager? Attribute Computing BPS in Computer Bulletin Board System Light Pen Input Device 3 TYPES OF NETWORK IN COMPUTER Block diagram of control unit What is a Solid Ink Printer? What is a Temporary File? What is an App launcher? What is Backup and Restore? What is a Tab Character? What is the Core i3? What is Paint? What is a Workbook? Advantages and Disadvantages of Online Education What is a String? What is a VDU (Visible Display Unit)? 50 Uses of Computer What is Workspace? What is a Procedural Language? What is VGA (Video Graphics Array)? Object Linking and Embedding in MS Word Semiconductor Memory Types of Parallel Computing Web Resources Difference between Virus, Worm and Trojan Horse Difference between HQ (High Quality) and HD (High Definition) What is Text Wrapping What is Timestamp? Semiconductor Ram Memory What is a File Attribute? What is a Video Call? Difference between SDRAM and DDR What is ANSI? Difference between DOS and Windows How to Set the Path and Environment Variables in Windows? Mainframe System What is ScanDisk? C drive in Mac Computer Memory Table How to Change the Keyboard Language in Windows? What is a Video Call? What is a Zoom Slider? What is Floppy Disk in Computer What is the most Popular Operating System? OMR in Computer What is a Work Area?

What is a Folder?

A folder is a digital object that allows users to organize files for easy access and retrieval into groups and storage locations on their computers. Pictures, documents, spreadsheets, movies, and other types of files may all be included in the file.

These folders, often called directories on a computer's hard drive or other storage devices, are nothing less than virtual spaces of infinite complexity used to gather and hold multiple files, folders, and shortcuts. They are an essential part of the file management system of operating systems like Windows, macOS, and Linux, and their significance cannot be overstated.

What is a Folder

In the digital world, folders can organize related files and folders, making finding and accessing them easier. For instance, one can easily designate a distinct folder for music files and images or establish a folder to house all their documents. Further subfolders can be created inside each folder to organize the files and folders further.   

For those unfamiliar with the term, a subfolder is a folder contained within another folder. For example, consider the hypothetical scenario of someone creating subfolders within their documents folder to house specific categories of documents - work-related, personal, and educational records. These subfolders serve the dual purpose of keeping the files organized and easy to locate.

Note: Folders possess a remarkable degree of flexibility regarding their functionality. They can be renamed, moved, copied, deleted, and shared with others - all following the user's or administrator's permissions. They can also be password-protected for added security, safeguarding sensitive files from unauthorized access.

Why are folders important?

Folders, an indispensable component of file management in computing, are crucial to organizing files and keeping them separate based on their function, type, or other criteria. The significance of folders lies in the following reasons:

  • Organization: Folders provide a structured way to categorize files and folders, making locating and managing them easier. With folders, you can group files based on their type, project, or any other classification that makes sense, thereby streamlining file management.
  • Easy access: By grouping similar files and folders in a folder, you can easily access them without scouring multiple locations on your computer. This feature saves time and makes it more convenient to work with files, increasing productivity.
  • Simplifies file management: Folders simplify managing files on your computer. You can effortlessly copy, move, rename, or delete entire folders and their contents without affecting the files in other folders. This flexibility makes file management less complicated and more efficient.
  • Avoid file name conflicts: Without folders, files with the same name must be located in different directories or have unique names, which can be confusing and time-consuming. Folders provide a way to organize and categorize files, allowing you to have multiple files with the same name as long as they are in different folders. This feature helps to avoid naming conflicts and prevent potential data loss.
  • Better privacy and security: Folders can be password-protected or encrypted, which provides better privacy and security for sensitive files. This feature is particularly important if you share your computer with others or work with confidential information. By ensuring better security, folders allow you to protect sensitive information from unauthorized access, safeguarding your data and personal information.

What can be stored in a folder?

Folders, a crucial aspect of digital file management, provide users with a virtual container to store and categorize their files on a computer or other digital device. The files in these folders can be of any format, from documents, spreadsheets, presentations, images, videos, audio files, and more. The power of folders doesn't stop there. With the ability to create folders & subfolders, users can further categorize their files and ensure easy access later.

Folders within folders create a hierarchical structure of the organization, allowing users to create a main folder for a project and subfolders within that folder for specific aspects of the project. A research project, for example, could have subfolders for articles, notes, and data. Folders also provide a shortcut to programs or other files, allowing users to access frequently used files or programs without the hassle of searching for them each time.

Users can modify their folders, renaming, moving, copying, and deleting them. Users can reorganize their files as their needs change, increasing productivity and workflow efficiency. Using folders to manage their digital files allows users to save time and find the files they need more quickly and efficiently.

Where are my folders?

The location of folders is hidden deep within the hard disc of a computer. One needs to use a file manager to access these directories. The ability to examine and manage files and directories stored within a computer's file system is provided by this vital tool.

Consider the possibility that you are using the Windows operating system. Windows Explorer is the file manager that will enable you to examine all of the folders and files present on your computer in that situation. In addition to giving you a complete overview of every folder and file in the system, it also gives you the freedom to create, move, copy, and delete folders and files as you see fit. On the other hand, if you decide to utilize the macOS operating system, Finder will be the standard file manager and give you access to and control over your computer's files and folders. Chrome OS uses My Files as its default file manager for managing files and folders on a computer.

You can easily use your file manager's search feature if you find yourself in a position where finding a specific folder is difficult. This nifty feature enables you to peruse files and folders based on their name, date of modification, or even their file type, thereby facilitating your search efforts. Once the folder you seek has been discovered, you can effortlessly open it and access the files stowed within its confines.

How to open a folder on a computer?

Opening a folder on a computer is a rather simple process, requiring only the double mouse clicks. It is imperative to begin the process by locating the specific folder of interest. Depending on the operating system, this can be accomplished using a file managers application such as Windows Explorer, Finder, or My Files.

It is crucial to note that the accessibility of the folder is dependent on the user's permissions. If the folder is not accessible for any reason, an error message will be displayed, thus precluding the user's ability to access it.

Once successfully contained in the folder, the user can navigate through any subfolders or files within the said folder. To accomplish this task, a double-click must be performed on the folder icon of any subfolder of interest. Suppose the user wishes to open a specific file. In that case, a double-click must be executed on the icon, launching the file in its associated program, such as Microsoft Word for a Word document.

Is it necessary to save my files in a Folder?

It is debatable that saving files in folders is a wise practice with significant advantages for better file management. As folders are digital containers, users may group and arrange files according to their type, purpose, or other relevant criteria. By grouping files into folders, users may avoid the tedious chore of searching through a disorganized desktop or file system and instead benefit from faster access to their data, saving valuable time and effort.

To clarify, Microsoft Windows offers default folders for storing papers and images, respectively, such as Documents and Photographs.

Note: Making subfolders within the main folder is wise if the user has many files of the same type. For instance, subfolders for various people, families, events, or any other category that is thought significant might be established within the pictures folder. With no need to laboriously browse through endless lists of files, the user now has an easy way to find and retrieve the needed pictures.

Furthermore, it is imperative to acknowledge that organizing files into folders also forestalls any accidental deletions or overwriting of files. If all files are saved in one folder, a dangerous tendency exists to delete or overwrite a file inadvertently. However, by storing files in separate folders, the user can promptly discern and retrieve the necessary file without fear of inadvertently deleting other files, thus ensuring the integrity of the user's file system.

How are files added to a folder?

Various methods and contexts exist to consider when adding files to a folder. One of the most commonly used methods is to save a file directly to a specific folder by designating it as the destination during the save operation. To achieve this, select "Save As" or "Save" from the program's menu and then navigate to the desired folder location to save the file.

Another way to add a file to a folder is by copying or cutting it from another location and then pasting it into the desired folder. This requires you to select the file, press "Ctrl+C" to copy or "Ctrl+X" to cut it, go to the destination folder, and then paste the file by using "Ctrl+V." This is a relatively straightforward and quick way to move files around on a computer.

A program and its related files may be installed directly into a folder during installation. This process typically involves running an installer program that copies the necessary files to the designated folder. By doing so, all the program's files are stored in one location, making managing and organizing them easier.

Furthermore, certain programs may be set to save their files in a specific folder by default. This option can be adjusted in the program's settings or options, making it more convenient to store all files created by the program in a particular location.

Likewise, some programs use a specific folder to store temporary files as they are being used. This is particularly useful for programs that generate temporary files for various tasks, such as an image or video editing software.

Note: Malware or viruses may copy files into a folder without the user's knowledge or consent. This is typically done as part of an attack on the computer system. To minimize the risk of malware infection, using antivirus software and practicing safe browsing habits is essential.

How are files different than a folder?

A computer notion called a file that contains digital information like data, programs, and many kinds of electronic content. Large amounts of information can be stored in files, including audio and video recordings, pictures, and other digital content accessed, edited, or scheduled by users or programs.

A folder is a digital storage container that holds more files and folders. It is a holding place for assembling related files according to kind, use, or other reasonable criteria. Users can arrange their files into folders to provide a logical structure, making it simpler to find and manage them.

The primary distinction between files and folders is that whereas a folder can house multiple files and folders, a file only contains one data unit. A folder organizes files and directories into a useful structure, whereas a file typically serves a specific purpose, such as holding a document or image.

The attributes of files and folders are a crucial distinction as well. Files can have many characteristics, such as read-only or hidden, that affect how they are accessed and used. The digital world can get even more complicated through folders, which can have additional rights that control who can view and edit their content.

How can I merge or combine folders?

Combining or merging folders is a procedure that can be completed quickly and efficiently on most operating systems. Here's how you can perform it on Windows:

1. Open File Explorer first, then select the folder you want to merge.

2. Select all the files and folders within that folder. To do this, click on the first item while holding down the Shift key, then click on the last thing. Alternatively, you can press the Ctrl key and select each item one at a time.

3. After selecting everything, right-click on any highlighted items and select "Cut" from the context menu. You may also use Ctrl+X on your keyboard.

4. Navigate to the folder you want to merge the files into.

5. Right-click on the folder and select "Paste" from the context menu. Alternatively, use Ctrl+V on your keyboard.

6. If any files or folders have the same name in both folders, you may be prompted to replace the existing files. If you want to keep both files, you will need to rename one of them before continuing.

7. Once the copy process is completed, you can verify that all files and folders have been moved to the new folder. If any files or folders were skipped during the copy process, compare them to the existing files to ensure they are not duplicates.

Note: When merging folders, it is always advisable to have a backup of the files you're moving. Accidentally deleting or overwriting crucial files can be a significant issue, so it's always better to be safe than sorry.

Is there an Extension on a Folder?

The answer is no. In computing, an extension is a suffix added to a file name to indicate its format or type, such as .txt, .pdf, or .jpeg. A folder, on the other hand, is not a file but a container that stores files and other folders. It does not have a format or type and, therefore, does not require an extension.

Operating systems use different graphical representations to differentiate between files and folders. For example, in Windows, folders are typically represented by an icon resembling a yellow folder with tabs or a blue folder with a white arrow. In Unix-based systems, folders are often referred to as directories and are indicated by a slash (/) in file paths. Regardless of the terminology used, the concept of a folder remains the same: it is a container for files and other folders and does not have an extension like a file.

Understanding this difference is essential because knowing whether you're dealing with a file or a folder can affect your interaction. For example, when creating a new file, you'll need to specify the file type or extension, but when creating a new folder, you'll only need to provide a name. Similarly, when searching for a specific file, you can use its extension as a filter, whereas you can't do the same for folders.

What contains a folder on a computer?

A folder on a computer is a container that holds many digital items and is often used to manage and organize files. It's like a box that stores papers but in a digital form. When a folder is created on a computer, it's saved to a specific location, such as a hard drive, a USB, or a cloud storage service. The folder can then be accessed and modified by the user or the programs installed on the computer.

Inside a folder, you can find many different files of various types, including text documents, photos, videos, music, and even other folders. These files can be organized further by creating subfolders within the folder. This creates a hierarchical structure called a directory tree, with each folder having a unique name that identifies it within the structure. Renaming, moving, or copying folders can be done easily, giving you the flexibility to manage your files efficiently.

The user or the operating system can restrict access to folders to protect sensitive data from unauthorized access. For example, you can set a folder password or only allow specific users to access it. This adds a layer of security to your files and helps prevent them from being deleted or altered accidentally.

Which kind of drives can store a folder?

The storage of folders, in essence, is not contingent upon a specific kind of drive but, instead, any drive capable of storing files.

First and foremost, the quintessential hard drive, which functions as the primary storage device for most computers, can house both folders and files. These drives can be categorized as either internal or external, with the former housed within the computer case. At the same time, the latter is affixed to the computer via a USB or Thunderbolt port.

Another popular storage device, the flash drive, can also store folders. These portable devices, also known as USB drives or thumb drives, are commonly employed to transfer data between disparate computers or to create backups of critical information.

Memory cards, another storage medium, have become ubiquitous in cameras, smartphones, and other electronic devices. With the ability to retain photos, videos, and files, memory cards can be extracted from the device and inserted into a card reader to access the information stored on them.

Optical discs, like CDs and DVDs, are another way folders may be stored. Optical discs offer an alternative to the storage above media, with the added benefit of being capable of storing large amounts of data. These media are frequently used to distribute software or backup important files.

Last but not least, we arrive at network drives, which provide access to storage devices accessible over a network. These drives are typically situated on a server or another computer and are often leveraged to share files in a home or business network.

In sum, one need not worry about the type of drive required to store folders, as virtually any drive that can store files will also be able to keep folders. However, the subtle distinctions between the various drives, including the hard drive, flash drive, memory card, CD, DVD, and network drive, are worth considering when choosing the most appropriate storage medium for your particular needs.

What is a web folder?

A web folder, a depository of data in the nebulous realm of the Internet, is a virtual location where files may be deposited, stored, and accessed from virtually anywhere with an Internet connection. This laudable feature renders web folders a popular choice for those seeking to share files with others or to access their files from various devices.

Cloud storage services like Google Drive, Dropbox, OneDrive, and iCloud allow users to establish their web folders by uploading files to their respective cloud storage accounts. This prevents users from relying on a single device or location to access their files, as web folders can be accessed from any device with an internet connection.

This task is typically performed by website administrators who desire to allow users access to specific files or directories via the Internet. For instance, a website may possess a web folder designated solely for downloadable files, such as PDFs or images.

To access a web folder, users must often enter a web address or URL into their web browser. Depending on the level of security implemented, users may also be prompted to provide login credentials to gain access to password-protected web folders. Once logged in, users may view, download, and upload files to the web folder.

Web folders boast many capabilities, including sharing files with others, facilitating collaborative document creation, and accessing files from multiple devices. Nevertheless, ensuring that the web folder is secure and safeguarding sensitive information from unscrupulous hands are prerequisites for successful implementation.