Computer Fundamentals Index

Computer Introduction Types of computer Characteristics of computer Uses of computer History of Computers

Computer Languages

Low Level language Middle level Language High level language

Computer Generation

Generation of Computers First Generation of Computer Second generation of Computers Third generation of Computers Fourth generation of Computers Fifth generation of Computers Sixth Generation of Computer

Peripheral Devices

Input devices Output device


Block diagram and basic components Control processing unit (CPU) Software Hardware


Computer Memory Registers Memory Hierarchy RAM Vs ROM Understanding file sizes (Bytes, KB, MB, GB, TB, PB, EB, ZB, YB)

Computer Network

Types of Network Types of Area Networks (LAN, WAN, MAN) TCP Flags

Computer Virus

Computer Virus

Computer Ports

Computer Ports


How to hack a computer How much do Computer Programmers make How does a Computer work How to associate a file with a program How does a computer convert text into binary How does a computer process data into information How to fix a CD-ROM DVD How to fix the no input signal How to install computer memory How to associate a file with a program How to log out of your operating system How do I change my name on Google How to installation or uninstallation Microsoft Paint How to fix a not a valid Win32 application error How to fix missing Microsoft Windows .dll files How to use a computer keyboard How to erase my hard drive and start over How can I test how many words I can write a minute How to shut down a computer How do I open and edit the Windows registry How to edit the registry from the command line How to restart Microsoft Windows How to install a computer processor How to open Microsoft Paint How to fix problems in Windows after installing new software How to enable or disable the preview pane of Microsoft Outlook How to open a Microsoft .wps or Works file in Word How to view the HTML source code in Microsoft Word How to View or Change the Screen Resolution of a Monitor How to Connect and Install a Computer Keyboard How to Delete Temporary Files in Windows 10 How to determine Which Version of Microsoft Office I'm using How to find out how much hard drive space is available How to Fix PC Stuck on Verifying DMI Pool Data How to choose which items show in the notification area How to find similar images using Search by Image How to fix Low Memory and out of memory errors How To Replace the CMOS Battery How do I Update my Antivirus Program How to fix a general protection fault How to Identify problems in the Windows Device Manager How can the Base be Shown How to test if a Website or Web Page is down How Much is 1 Byte, Kilobyte, Megabyte, Gigabyte, etc How to fix a CMOS checksum error How to Fix a Windows CD-ROM, DVD, or Disc Drive Issue How to Open Safe Mode How to Password Protect Files and Folders in Windows How to Reset CMOS or BIOS Settings How to use Computer Keyboard How to create a text file How to enable or disable DHCP in Windows How to test computer memory to determine if its bad How do double space or change line spacing in Microsoft Word How do I know if I have Windows Administrator Rights How many cores does my computer have How to Create a Directory or Folder How to Enter and Exit the BIOS or CMOS Setup How to change Windows Compatibility mode How to clear your internet browser history How to Connect Computer Speakers How to Copy a Web Page Link or URL How to install a Hard Drive or SSD How to Open the Windows Control Panel How to split a screen in Windows How to copy text from a scanned PDF


Who invented Computer What are the advantages of the Internet? What are the disadvantages of the Internet? Is my computer 64 bit? What is Edge Computing? What is a Router? What is Monitor What is Printer What is a Web Browser What is Microphone What is a Webcam What is PC What is Keyboard What is Motherboard What is WAP What is URL What is a Digital Assistant When was the first Computer Invented What is Modem What is Firmware What is Imperative Programming What is Protocol What is Safe Mode What is Device Driver What is Hybrid Topology What is Mesh Topology What is Procedural language What is a hyperlink What is a Username Who invented the Internet What is Video Card What is Sound Card What is Binary What does Alt+B do What does Alt+D do What does Alt+E do What does Alt+Esc do What does Alt+R do What does ALT + Q do What does Alt + Tab do What is Data Manipulation What is a touch screen What is Back Panel What is Analog Monitor What is AR lens What is an ATX Style Connector What is a File System What is Hard Disk Drive (HDD) What is a boot device What is accessibility What is Line In What is network Interface card (NIC) What is Optical Disk Where can I ask questions on the internet What is Auto Rotate What is CAD (Computer-aided design) What is Cable Modem What is Home Page What is boot menu What is braille reader What is flash memory What is Windows What is Clipboard What is Cyber Warfare What is Myspace Why has my IP address changed What is Jacquard Loom My computer is running slow, what steps can I do to fix it What is a Kensington Lock What is a multicore processor What is automation Are smartphones and tablets computers What is a Login Script What is a Loosely Typed Language What is Multitasking? Why my computer monitor shows no display or black screen What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is the Pg Dn Key (Page Down Key) What is the Pg up Key (Page up Key) What is Palmtop Computer What is a Processing Device What is a Print Preview What is the Print Screen Key What can I do if my computer or laptop is lost or stolen What is a Model Number What are the currently available antivirus programs What are Toggle keys What is a Case fan What is a Silicon Chip What is a Slate PC What is a TAB stop What is an Octothorpe What is Task Pane What is Task View What is the svchost.exe file used for in Windows Where can I find free online virus scanners Why am I unable to increase the resolution in Windows What is Autofill When I click my mouse, it sometimes double-clicks What is Scratch What is UDIMM What is MsConfig What is an Expansion Card What is an Executable File What is an Elevated Command Prompt What is an AC Adapter What is AIMBOT What is a Software Suite What is a LED Monitor What does Alt + X do What does alt + space do What does Alt + O do Now that I’ve got a Computer, what can i do What is a Punch Card What is RDIMM What is Select All What is Serial number What is Thermos flask What programs can I use for speech recognition What are the Advantages of Computers What are the Disadvantages of Computers What does Alt + T do What Hardware Device Drivers should be Updated What is a Desktop What is a Ring Topology What is CMOS What is a Directory What is a Mechanical Mouse What is a Plotter What is a Variable What is an Icon What is Data What is HDMI What is Remote What is Right-Click What is SMPS Why does my Laptop not turn on What is a Copyright What is a Cordless Mouse What is a CSV file What is a Joystick What is a Start Button What is a Taskbar What is an Alignment What is an Output Device What is Cat 5 What is Google Chrome What is Post What are Recordable DVD Drives What Does Alt + F4 Do What Does Alt + L Do What is a bit (Binary Digit) What is a cable What is a Calculator What is a capacitor What is a Cold Boot What is a Dialog Box What is a Dual-boot What is a Slide What is A4 What is AM What is Barcode Reader What is EHCI What is a Header What is a Joystick What is a Secondary Storage Device What is Access Time What is Account Sharing What is an Asterisk What is Asynchronous DRAM What is Back Quote What is BIOS What is Borderless Printing What is Case Badge What is CD-ROM What is Chat Slang What is Composite What is RJ Cable What Are Bottom Row Keys What is SAN What is Tray What is VDU What Does Alt + M Do What Does Alt + P Do What is a Cell What is a Command Key What is a key Combination What is a Menu Bar What is a Startup What is a T What is Chat What are the F1 through F12 keys What does Alt + Enter do What Does Alt + Home DO What does Alt + R do What does Ctrl + B do What Does Ctrl + Enter Do What Does Ctrl + R Do What does Ctrl + G do What does Ctrl + 9 do What does Ctrl + End do What does Ctrl + O do What Does Ctrl + P do What Does Ctrl + Q do What is a Colon What is a Core What is Apple Touch Icon What is Clock What is Code What is Computer Crime What is Ctrl What is DAT What is Data diddling What is Date Why won't my computer turn on What Does Alt + N Do What does ctrl + 2 do What does ctrl + space do What does Ctrl + W do What does Ctrl + T Do What Does Ctrl + 2 do What does Ctrl + 5 Do What are the most common file types and file extensions What are Sticky keys What Does Ctrl + Shift + Esc Do What is Settings What is Task Manager What is Taskbar What is a DNS Resolver What does ctrl + 1 do What does ctrl + 0 do How to install software What is a Folder What is a Legend What is a MAC Address What is a Path What is a Ruler What is a Toolbar What is an Intranet Meaning and Differences with Internet What is an SSD What is Inheritance What is Tablet What is Depth What is Docking Station What is Double Click What is a Solid Ink Printer What is a Temporary File What is Backup and Restore What is Electronic Payment Systems Eps What is Marshalling


Difference between hardware and software Difference between multiprocessor and distributed systems Difference between Desktop and Laptop Difference between File and folder Difference between Hard Copy and Soft Copy Open Source Programs vs Closed Source Programs Difference between Optical Fibre and Coaxial Cable Difference between Website and Webpage Difference between Classes and Objects Input VS Output Difference between Primary and Secondary Storage with Examples


Quantum Computing Computer Software Autoexec.bat and config.sys info Update an Antivirus Use of Internet Advantages and disadvantages of Email Computing Power Internet Explorer Shortcut Keys Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) Augmented Reality Infrastructure Readiness Check Top 10 Internet tips and tricks Introduction and Features of FoxPro Features of Multimedia Top 10 online services and applications Receiving S.M.A.R.T. status bad backup and replacing error Version Control System Uninstalling Software or Apps in Windows Data Warehouse Increase or decrease font size in Word using keyboard shortcuts Mouse not detected or working in Windows Computer Cleaning Information and Steps Function Keys on Keyboard Windows 7 Alt+Tab won’t stay on top or stick 10 Essential Examples of Web Browsers Binary Subtraction using 2’s Complement Case Sensitive Languages Computer Pioneers and people who are CEO Microsoft Word Shortcut Keys Parts of Computers Names, Definitions and Images ROM and its Types Basics of Information Technology Characteristics of a Good Software Design Characteristics of Management Information System Classification of Management Information System Implementation of MIS Input Devices of Computer Definition Limitations of Management Information System 3 Types Of Network in Computer Block Diagram Of Control Unit Difference Between Computer and Embedded System Difference Between Hard Disk and Floppy Disk Abstraction in OOAD Hardware and Software Devices Optomechanical Mouse CMOS Memory What is a Terminal? What is Graphic Design? What is Load? What is Passcode? What is Reboot? What is Registry? What is Safe Mode? What is Standby? What is SYN (Synchronize)? What is Task Manager? Attribute Computing BPS in Computer Bulletin Board System Light Pen Input Device 3 TYPES OF NETWORK IN COMPUTER Block diagram of control unit What is a Solid Ink Printer? What is a Temporary File? What is an App launcher? What is Backup and Restore? What is a Tab Character? What is the Core i3? What is Paint? What is a Workbook? Advantages and Disadvantages of Online Education What is a String? What is a VDU (Visible Display Unit)? 50 Uses of Computer What is Workspace? What is a Procedural Language? What is VGA (Video Graphics Array)?

Third Generation of Computer

The period of the third generation was from 1965 – 1971.  The integrated circuits are used in the computers of the third generation. The transistors are not used in these computers. A single integrated circuit has many transistors, registers, and capacitors grown on a single chip of silicon. The integrated circuits (ICs) was developed by the "Jack Killby."

This invention makes computers smaller in size, reliable, and efficient. The remote processing, time-sharing, and multiprogramming operating systems were used in this generation. The integrated circuits were small in size, less power consuming and less expensive than transistors which are used in the previous generation of computer. The high-level languages were improved in these type of computers.

The computer of this generation created large capacity magnetic disks and tapes and large magnetic core based on random access memory. The FORTRAN IV and optimizing FORTRAN compilers were developed in this computer generation. The computers of this generation reduced the size, price, and use of electricity.

Third Generation of Computer

                                    Fig: Computer architecture of the third generation.

The transistors were reduced in size and placed on silicon chips, called semiconductors. These are capable of increasing the speed and efficiency of the computers of the third generation. Users can interact with keyboards, monitors, and interface with an operating system in the third generation of computers. The integrated circuit was a single component that contains the number of transistors.

Features of the third generation

  1. The integrated circuits (ICs) are used in the computer of this generation.
  2. These computers are more reliable as compare to previous generations.
  3. These are small in size.
  4. The computer of the third generation supports the high-level language.
  5. These consumed lesser electricity.
  6. The AC is also required in this generation of computer.
  7. The maintenance is not good in the third generation of computer.
  8. The computers of this generation are faster in speed.
  9.  These type of computers generate less heat
  10. These are very costly computers.

Some computers of the third generation which are given below:

  • IBM-360 series.
  • Honeywell-6000 series.
  • PDP (personal data processor).
  • IBM 370/168.
  • TDC - 316.
  • PDP-8.
  • PDP-11.
  • ICL2900.
  • IBM 370.

IBM 360 series

The IBM 360 computer system is the family of mainframe computers. IBM invented it on April 7, 1964. These computers are used for both commercial and scientific purpose. These are the most expensive computer systems, which used microcode to implement the instructions.

IBM initially announced the series of six computers and forty common peripheral devices. The large 360 models have up to 8 MB of memory. The IBM 360 was the successful computer in the market, which allow the customers to purchase a smaller system with various kinds of knowledge.

All computers of the IBM 360 series used the same instruction set. The IBM delivered fourteen models of this series of computer, includes a rare one-off model for NASA. There was a least expensive model that was model 20 with 4096 bytes of core memory.

Third Generation of Computer

                                Fig: Model diagram of IBM 360 computer series.

Honeywell 6000 series

The Honeywell 6000 computer series were the versions of general electric’s 600 series mainframe computers, manufactured by Honeywell International, from 1970 to 1989. The Honeywell 6000 used various operating systems such as GCOS, Multics, and CP-6, etc.

Different types of model exist in this series, and those models were the 6070, 6060, 6050, 6040, 6030. The even number models include the enhanced instruction set feature, which added decimal arithmetic and storage to storage operations. The CPU of these computers operated on 32-bit words. The Honeywell 6000 series systems were said "memory oriented." The memory module contained 128k words. One system can support one or two memory modules for a maximum of 256k words. The memory protection and relocation have used the base and bound register in the processor.

PDP-8 Computer

The PDP-8  is the 12-bit minicomputer. This computer was developed on 22 March 1965 by digital equipment corporation.

 It was commercially successful minicomputer. This computer has a smaller instruction set, which is an expanded version of the PDP-5 instruction set.

The earliest PDP-8 model, informally known as “straight-8”. These computers are available in desktop and rack-mount model. It used the diode transistor logic packaged on flip-chip cards in the machine. These computers are the best-selling computer in history at that time.

The PDP-8 computer has various features such as low cost, simplicity, expandability. It has the ability of low complexity algorithms. The design of these computers make programming easy to the coders, and we can use large instruction sets.

The PDP-8 uses 12 bits to the word size and arithmetic calculation. The interpreter was available for the floating-point operation in these computers. These PDP-8 computers can perform the calculation similar to contemporary electronic computers. The memory address space is also 12 bits in these computers.

The PDP-8 was designed in parts to handle the telecommunication and text. The six-bit character codes were used widespread at a time in these type of computers. The PDP-8 have 3-bit opcode, so there are only eight instructions.    

Advantage of the third generation

  1. These computers have good data storage.
  2. The computers of the third generation can calculate the data in nanoseconds.
  3. The maintenance cost of these computers is very low as compared to the previous generation.
  4. The computers of the third generation are used for general purpose.
  5. These computers are used as an operating system to better resource management and also used time-sharing and multi-programming.

The disadvantage of the third generation

  1. The air conditioner was required for these computers.
  2. IC chips are not easy to maintain.
  3. The high technology requires to manufacture the integrated circuit chips.

Transmission system

The third-generation transmission system is required to support multimedia services, global roaming, and operation in multiple environments for mobile. It is also required for high-speed data services.

Third Generation of Computer

Fig: The block diagram of the third generation transmission system.

The cdma2000 radio transmission technology (RTT) is based on the evolution of current cdmaOne. The cdmaOne is the multimedia system that offers additional capacity and service enhancement.