Computer Fundamentals Index

Computer Introduction Types of computer Characteristics of computer Uses of computer History of Computers

Computer Languages

Low Level language Middle level Language High level language

Computer Generation

Generation of Computers First Generation of Computer Second generation of Computers Third generation of Computers Fourth generation of Computers Fifth generation of Computers Sixth Generation of Computer

Peripheral Devices

Input devices Output device


Block diagram and basic components Control processing unit (CPU) Software Hardware


Computer Memory Registers Memory Hierarchy RAM Vs ROM Understanding file sizes (Bytes, KB, MB, GB, TB, PB, EB, ZB, YB)

Computer Network

Types of Network Types of Area Networks (LAN, WAN, MAN) TCP Flags

Computer Virus

Computer Virus

Computer Ports

Computer Ports


How to hack a computer How much do Computer Programmers make How does a Computer work How to associate a file with a program How does a computer convert text into binary How does a computer process data into information How to fix a CD-ROM DVD How to fix the no input signal How to install computer memory How to associate a file with a program How to log out of your operating system How do I change my name on Google How to installation or uninstallation Microsoft Paint How to fix a not a valid Win32 application error How to fix missing Microsoft Windows .dll files How to use a computer keyboard How to erase my hard drive and start over How can I test how many words I can write a minute How to shut down a computer How do I open and edit the Windows registry How to edit the registry from the command line How to restart Microsoft Windows How to install a computer processor How to open Microsoft Paint How to fix problems in Windows after installing new software How to enable or disable the preview pane of Microsoft Outlook How to open a Microsoft .wps or Works file in Word How to view the HTML source code in Microsoft Word How to View or Change the Screen Resolution of a Monitor How to Connect and Install a Computer Keyboard How to Delete Temporary Files in Windows 10 How to determine Which Version of Microsoft Office I'm using How to find out how much hard drive space is available How to Fix PC Stuck on Verifying DMI Pool Data How to choose which items show in the notification area How to find similar images using Search by Image How to fix Low Memory and out of memory errors How To Replace the CMOS Battery How do I Update my Antivirus Program How to fix a general protection fault How to Identify problems in the Windows Device Manager How can the Base be Shown How to test if a Website or Web Page is down How Much is 1 Byte, Kilobyte, Megabyte, Gigabyte, etc How to fix a CMOS checksum error How to Fix a Windows CD-ROM, DVD, or Disc Drive Issue How to Open Safe Mode How to Password Protect Files and Folders in Windows How to Reset CMOS or BIOS Settings How to use Computer Keyboard How to create a text file How to enable or disable DHCP in Windows How to test computer memory to determine if its bad How do double space or change line spacing in Microsoft Word How do I know if I have Windows Administrator Rights How many cores does my computer have How to Create a Directory or Folder How to Enter and Exit the BIOS or CMOS Setup How to change Windows Compatibility mode How to clear your internet browser history How to Connect Computer Speakers How to Copy a Web Page Link or URL How to install a Hard Drive or SSD How to Open the Windows Control Panel How to split a screen in Windows How to copy text from a scanned PDF


Who invented Computer What are the advantages of the Internet? What are the disadvantages of the Internet? Is my computer 64 bit? What is Edge Computing? What is a Router? What is Monitor What is Printer What is a Web Browser What is Microphone What is a Webcam What is PC What is Keyboard What is Motherboard What is WAP What is URL What is a Digital Assistant When was the first Computer Invented What is Modem What is Firmware What is Imperative Programming What is Protocol What is Safe Mode What is Device Driver What is Hybrid Topology What is Mesh Topology What is Procedural language What is a hyperlink What is a Username Who invented the Internet What is Video Card What is Sound Card What is Binary What does Alt+B do What does Alt+D do What does Alt+E do What does Alt+Esc do What does Alt+R do What does ALT + Q do What does Alt + Tab do What is Data Manipulation What is a touch screen What is Back Panel What is Analog Monitor What is AR lens What is an ATX Style Connector What is a File System What is Hard Disk Drive (HDD) What is a boot device What is accessibility What is Line In What is network Interface card (NIC) What is Optical Disk Where can I ask questions on the internet What is Auto Rotate What is CAD (Computer-aided design) What is Cable Modem What is Home Page What is boot menu What is braille reader What is flash memory What is Windows What is Clipboard What is Cyber Warfare What is Myspace Why has my IP address changed What is Jacquard Loom My computer is running slow, what steps can I do to fix it What is a Kensington Lock What is a multicore processor What is automation Are smartphones and tablets computers What is a Login Script What is a Loosely Typed Language What is Multitasking? Why my computer monitor shows no display or black screen What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is the Pg Dn Key (Page Down Key) What is the Pg up Key (Page up Key) What is Palmtop Computer What is a Processing Device What is a Print Preview What is the Print Screen Key What can I do if my computer or laptop is lost or stolen What is a Model Number What are the currently available antivirus programs What are Toggle keys What is a Case fan What is a Silicon Chip What is a Slate PC What is a TAB stop What is an Octothorpe What is Task Pane What is Task View What is the svchost.exe file used for in Windows Where can I find free online virus scanners Why am I unable to increase the resolution in Windows What is Autofill When I click my mouse, it sometimes double-clicks What is Scratch What is UDIMM What is MsConfig What is an Expansion Card What is an Executable File What is an Elevated Command Prompt What is an AC Adapter What is AIMBOT What is a Software Suite What is a LED Monitor What does Alt + X do What does alt + space do What does Alt + O do Now that I’ve got a Computer, what can i do What is a Punch Card What is RDIMM What is Select All What is Serial number What is Thermos flask What programs can I use for speech recognition What are the Advantages of Computers What are the Disadvantages of Computers What does Alt + T do What Hardware Device Drivers should be Updated What is a Desktop What is a Ring Topology What is CMOS What is a Directory What is a Mechanical Mouse What is a Plotter What is a Variable What is an Icon What is Data What is HDMI What is Remote What is Right-Click What is SMPS Why does my Laptop not turn on What is a Copyright What is a Cordless Mouse What is a CSV file What is a Joystick What is a Start Button What is a Taskbar What is an Alignment What is an Output Device What is Cat 5 What is Google Chrome What is Post What are Recordable DVD Drives What Does Alt + F4 Do What Does Alt + L Do What is a bit (Binary Digit) What is a cable What is a Calculator What is a capacitor What is a Cold Boot What is a Dialog Box What is a Dual-boot What is a Slide What is A4 What is AM What is Barcode Reader What is EHCI What is a Header What is a Joystick What is a Secondary Storage Device What is Access Time What is Account Sharing What is an Asterisk What is Asynchronous DRAM What is Back Quote What is BIOS What is Borderless Printing What is Case Badge What is CD-ROM What is Chat Slang What is Composite What is RJ Cable What Are Bottom Row Keys What is SAN What is Tray What is VDU What Does Alt + M Do What Does Alt + P Do What is a Cell What is a Command Key What is a key Combination What is a Menu Bar What is a Startup What is a T What is Chat What are the F1 through F12 keys What does Alt + Enter do What Does Alt + Home DO What does Alt + R do What does Ctrl + B do What Does Ctrl + Enter Do What Does Ctrl + R Do What does Ctrl + G do What does Ctrl + 9 do What does Ctrl + End do What does Ctrl + O do What Does Ctrl + P do What Does Ctrl + Q do What is a Colon What is a Core What is Apple Touch Icon What is Clock What is Code What is Computer Crime What is Ctrl What is DAT What is Data diddling What is Date Why won't my computer turn on What Does Alt + N Do What does ctrl + 2 do What does ctrl + space do What does Ctrl + W do What does Ctrl + T Do What Does Ctrl + 2 do What does Ctrl + 5 Do What are the most common file types and file extensions What are Sticky keys What Does Ctrl + Shift + Esc Do What is Settings What is Task Manager What is Taskbar What is a DNS Resolver What does ctrl + 1 do What does ctrl + 0 do How to install software What is a Folder What is a Legend What is a MAC Address What is a Path What is a Ruler What is a Toolbar What is an Intranet Meaning and Differences with Internet What is an SSD What is Inheritance What is Tablet What is Depth What is Docking Station What is Double Click What is a Solid Ink Printer What is a Temporary File What is Backup and Restore What is Electronic Payment Systems Eps What is Marshalling


Difference between hardware and software Difference between multiprocessor and distributed systems Difference between Desktop and Laptop Difference between File and folder Difference between Hard Copy and Soft Copy Open Source Programs vs Closed Source Programs Difference between Optical Fibre and Coaxial Cable Difference between Website and Webpage Difference between Classes and Objects Input VS Output Difference between Primary and Secondary Storage with Examples


Quantum Computing Computer Software Autoexec.bat and config.sys info Update an Antivirus Use of Internet Advantages and disadvantages of Email Computing Power Internet Explorer Shortcut Keys Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) Augmented Reality Infrastructure Readiness Check Top 10 Internet tips and tricks Introduction and Features of FoxPro Features of Multimedia Top 10 online services and applications Receiving S.M.A.R.T. status bad backup and replacing error Version Control System Uninstalling Software or Apps in Windows Data Warehouse Increase or decrease font size in Word using keyboard shortcuts Mouse not detected or working in Windows Computer Cleaning Information and Steps Function Keys on Keyboard Windows 7 Alt+Tab won’t stay on top or stick 10 Essential Examples of Web Browsers Binary Subtraction using 2’s Complement Case Sensitive Languages Computer Pioneers and people who are CEO Microsoft Word Shortcut Keys Parts of Computers Names, Definitions and Images ROM and its Types Basics of Information Technology Characteristics of a Good Software Design Characteristics of Management Information System Classification of Management Information System Implementation of MIS Input Devices of Computer Definition Limitations of Management Information System 3 Types Of Network in Computer Block Diagram Of Control Unit

What is Modem?

A modem is a device that is responsible for modulating and demodulating the signals in a computer network. The modem is an abbreviation for Modulator - Demodulator. It allows the user to use telephone lines to connect the internet. The digital signal from a computer cannot be send through the telephone line. Similarly, it is impossible to transmit the telephone line data to the computer network.

What is Modem?

This is because the data in a computer network is in digital format while the data is transmitted in the form of analog signals on telephone lines. It is necessary to convert the data from one format into another to successfully transmit the data from the computer network to the telephone line or vice versa. The modem performs both functions in the computer network. The modulator in the modem is responsible for converting the data from digital mode to analog mode, while the demodulator converts the analog signals into digital.

The conversion of an analog signal into a digital signal is called digitizing.

The data from a Data Terminal Equipment is modulated into an analog signal and transmitted into the telephone line, and the receiving end receives the signal from the telephone lines. These analog signals are first converted into a digital signals using a demodulator. Then, they are sent to the receiver. Thus, to facilitate communication between two DTE, having a modem on both sides is necessary. The connection between the two computer networks is established using telephone lines either it can be a dedicated connection or a switched telephone circuit.

When the connection is dedicated, the modem is located near the DTE, but if the connection is a switch circuit, the modem is located at the telephone exchange. The modems are connected to the telephone line whenever the data transmission is needed.

Types of Modems

There are various categories based on which modems can be further divided:

  • Based on directional capacity. They can be classified into full-duplex and half-duplex.
  • Based on several connections to the telephone line, it can be either a 2-wire modem or a 4-wire modem.
  • Based on the mode of transmission, they can be asynchronous or synchronous.
  • And, based on the type of technology used, they can be further classified into five types. These are optical modems, digital modems, acoustic modems, smart modems, and short-haul models.

Half And Full-Duplex

Half Duplex

What is Modem?

It is unidirectional, which means you cannot send data from only one direction at once. There is only one carrier in this modem.

Working of Half -Duplex

When the modem detects a carrier in the network, it sends a signal to the DTE informing about the presence of the carrier in the network line. It uses a controller to send this signal.

The modem first camels the incoming signal before allowing the DTE to transmit the signal in the line.

Full Duplex

What is Modem?

A full-duplex can transmit the data in both directions at once. This device has two carriers; one is responsible for sending the signals in the line, and the other is responsible for receiving the signals.

4-Wire Modem and 2-Wire Modem

4-Wire modem

What is Modem?

There are two types of full-duplex modems in the market. One with a 2-wire connection and the other with a 4-wire connection.

In a 4-wire connection, one pair is for outgoing signals, and the other is for incoming signals.

In a 4-wire duplex, the user can perform both half and full-duplex data transmission. It is possible as the path for transmitting the data is separate, allowing for transmission of the data in each direction, even at the same frequency.

What is Modem?

2-Wire Modem

It has a single pair of wires used to send and receive the signals. This device is cheaper than a 4-Wire connection as it requires only one pair extended to the user's premises.

The connection between the device and the network is established through a telephone exchange. The telephone exchange is a 2-wire connection.

In a 2-wire modem, the data can be transmitted as half-duplex and full-duplex.

When transmitting the data as a half-duplex, the modem uses the same frequency to send and receive the signals.

In the full-duplex mode of data transmissions, the user needs to have two channels; one for transmitting the signals in the network from the DTE, and the second channel is responsible for sending the signals from DTE to the network line.

In a 2-wire modem, the full-duplex transmission mode is achieved by multiplexing the two different frequencies from the different carriers. A fixed bandwidth bounds the channel frequencies, and the frequency should lie between that range only.

Features of Modem

  • Along with acting as a modulator and demodulator, a modem can also perform additional features. Some of the features of a modem are mentioned below:
  • It provides a high data transmission speed. The bandwidth to upload data on the network in an X2 modem can be from 28.8 to 56 Kbps.
  • To perform an update on the modem is very easy. They can be upgraded using a software patch that enables the modem to meet the universal standards.
  • They also allow high-speed downstream data transmission as the data while downloading is encoded while the average upstream transfer rate is 33.6 Kbps.
  • Some modems are designed to perform additional functions, such as detecting the originating telephone number used for calling. These modems can be used to verify the caller ID of the caller.
  • Some modems also allow the user to transmit the data and transfer analog voice using the same connection. This is possible because they allow dual simultaneous voice and data.
  • Some modems are smart as they provide advanced features such as voice mails and can also act as answering machines simultaneously. They are used as digital information systems.

Asynchronous and Synchronous Modem

Asynchronous Modem

What is Modem?

In an asynchronous modem, data transmission is handled in the form of data bytes. The transmission ensures the starting and the stop bits reach the destination.

It does not require a clock or any mechanism that sends the time signals from the modem to the DTE; instead, there is an internal timing pulse that is synchronized with the data bytes. They are attached to every leading edge of the start bit.

Synchronous Modem

What is Modem?

The synchronous modem allows the user to send and receive the data in the form of the data stream. It can handle the continuous data, but it requires a clock signal to do so.

Each data bit is synchronized with a clock signal. There are two separate clocks in the synchronous modem; one clock is used to synchronize the transmitting data bits while the other performs the synchronization for the receiving data bits.

It also allows the DTE to use its internal clock to synchronize the data bits. The DTE supplies the same time to the modem also.

Modem based on technology

1. Optical Modem

The data transmission takes place using optical fibres instead of other cables. The data in an optical cable is transferred in light, which means that the digital signal from the computer is converted into a pulse of light, and the pulse of light is again converted into a digital signal at the receiving end.

2. Digital Modem

In this modem, the data is transmitted in the digital format only. The digital signal from the computer is modulated on a digital carrier signal, so there is minimum data loss while transmission through the transmission media lines.

3. Acoustic Modem

It is a special type of modem that allows the user to couple their device with a telephone set. It has an embedded speaker and a microphone. This type of modem is usually used by traveling salespeople that allow them to connect to the hotel phones.

4. Smart Modem

This modem provides an additional feature for auto-dial and redial. It also has auto answering capabilities. It is equipped with a microprocessor that uses the Hayes AT command set for providing the features enlisted above.

5. Short Haul Modem

These modems are present in your personal computers at home or workspace. They are capable of transmitting signals within a range of 20 miles. These modems are usually used for establishing a private network within the computers of an organization or office building.

Modulation Techniques that are implemented in modem

Modulation is the process of converting a digital signal into analog signals. The following technique is used to perform modulation by a modem:

  • Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK)
  • Phase Shift Keying (PSK)
  • Differential Phase Shift Keying (DPSK)
  • And Frequency Shift Key (FSK)

Modems are required to be present on either side of the network. Whether the mode of transmission is simplex, half, or full-duplex, each mode requires a modem at both the receiving and transmitting end.

The device acts as a bridge between digital and analog signals.

Process of Data Transmission using a modem

The process is initiated by an end device, also known as Data Terminal Equipment or DTE. They can be a computer, laptop, etc. They send a signal to the Data Communication Equipment telling them they are Ready to Send. The signal is called the RTS signal. This is also known as a wake-up call. The modem then sends a Data Carrier Detect signal to the modem at the receiving end. It takes time to establish a communication channel. Meanwhile, both modems transmit and receive a series of signals. The process of exchange of signals for establishing the signal is called handshaking.

Once the channel is established, the receiving modem indicates that it is Data Send Ready by sending a DSR signal to its DTE. It waits for the system to reply. The system then sends a Data Terminal Ready Signal. This is the final step in establishing the connection between both systems.

Once this process is completed, the first modem sends a CTS signal directed to the system, and finally, the whole data transmission starts.

All the signals that are mentioned above are sent through different pins. Each signal has a dedicated pin in the modem. You can learn more about the pins and the signal transmitted or received through them by reading the manual of the modem. The various organizations have reached an agreement, therefore, standardizing the role of the pins for a variety of equipment. The cable that is used to attach the modem is 232.