Computer Fundamentals Index

Computer Introduction Types of computer Characteristics of computer Uses of computer History of Computers

Computer Languages

Low Level language Middle level Language High level language

Computer Generation

Generation of Computers First Generation of Computer Second generation of Computers Third generation of Computers Fourth generation of Computers Fifth generation of Computers Sixth Generation of Computer

Peripheral Devices

Input devices Output device


Block diagram and basic components Control processing unit (CPU) Software Hardware


Computer Memory Registers Memory Hierarchy RAM Vs ROM Understanding file sizes (Bytes, KB, MB, GB, TB, PB, EB, ZB, YB)

Computer Network

Types of Network Types of Area Networks (LAN, WAN, MAN) TCP Flags

Computer Virus

Computer Virus

Computer Ports

Computer Ports


How to hack a computer How much do Computer Programmers make How does a Computer work How to associate a file with a program How does a computer convert text into binary How does a computer process data into information How to fix a CD-ROM DVD How to fix the no input signal How to install computer memory How to associate a file with a program How to log out of your operating system How do I change my name on Google How to installation or uninstallation Microsoft Paint How to fix a not a valid Win32 application error How to fix missing Microsoft Windows .dll files How to use a computer keyboard How to erase my hard drive and start over How can I test how many words I can write a minute How to shut down a computer How do I open and edit the Windows registry How to edit the registry from the command line How to restart Microsoft Windows How to install a computer processor How to open Microsoft Paint How to fix problems in Windows after installing new software How to enable or disable the preview pane of Microsoft Outlook How to open a Microsoft .wps or Works file in Word How to view the HTML source code in Microsoft Word How to View or Change the Screen Resolution of a Monitor How to Connect and Install a Computer Keyboard How to Delete Temporary Files in Windows 10 How to determine Which Version of Microsoft Office I'm using How to find out how much hard drive space is available How to Fix PC Stuck on Verifying DMI Pool Data How to choose which items show in the notification area How to find similar images using Search by Image How to fix Low Memory and out of memory errors How To Replace the CMOS Battery How do I Update my Antivirus Program How to fix a general protection fault How to Identify problems in the Windows Device Manager How can the Base be Shown How to test if a Website or Web Page is down How Much is 1 Byte, Kilobyte, Megabyte, Gigabyte, etc How to fix a CMOS checksum error How to Fix a Windows CD-ROM, DVD, or Disc Drive Issue How to Open Safe Mode How to Password Protect Files and Folders in Windows How to Reset CMOS or BIOS Settings How to use Computer Keyboard How to create a text file How to enable or disable DHCP in Windows How to test computer memory to determine if its bad How do double space or change line spacing in Microsoft Word How do I know if I have Windows Administrator Rights How many cores does my computer have How to Create a Directory or Folder How to Enter and Exit the BIOS or CMOS Setup How to change Windows Compatibility mode How to clear your internet browser history How to Connect Computer Speakers How to Copy a Web Page Link or URL How to install a Hard Drive or SSD How to Open the Windows Control Panel How to split a screen in Windows How to copy text from a scanned PDF


Who invented Computer What are the advantages of the Internet? What are the disadvantages of the Internet? Is my computer 64 bit? What is Edge Computing? What is a Router? What is Monitor What is Printer What is a Web Browser What is Microphone What is a Webcam What is PC What is Keyboard What is Motherboard What is WAP What is URL What is a Digital Assistant When was the first Computer Invented What is Modem What is Firmware What is Imperative Programming What is Protocol What is Safe Mode What is Device Driver What is Hybrid Topology What is Mesh Topology What is Procedural language What is a hyperlink What is a Username Who invented the Internet What is Video Card What is Sound Card What is Binary What does Alt+B do What does Alt+D do What does Alt+E do What does Alt+Esc do What does Alt+R do What does ALT + Q do What does Alt + Tab do What is Data Manipulation What is a touch screen What is Back Panel What is Analog Monitor What is AR lens What is an ATX Style Connector What is a File System What is Hard Disk Drive (HDD) What is a boot device What is accessibility What is Line In What is network Interface card (NIC) What is Optical Disk Where can I ask questions on the internet What is Auto Rotate What is CAD (Computer-aided design) What is Cable Modem What is Home Page What is boot menu What is braille reader What is flash memory What is Windows What is Clipboard What is Cyber Warfare What is Myspace Why has my IP address changed What is Jacquard Loom My computer is running slow, what steps can I do to fix it What is a Kensington Lock What is a multicore processor What is automation Are smartphones and tablets computers What is a Login Script What is a Loosely Typed Language What is Multitasking? Why my computer monitor shows no display or black screen What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is the Pg Dn Key (Page Down Key) What is the Pg up Key (Page up Key) What is Palmtop Computer What is a Processing Device What is a Print Preview What is the Print Screen Key What can I do if my computer or laptop is lost or stolen What is a Model Number What are the currently available antivirus programs What are Toggle keys What is a Case fan What is a Silicon Chip What is a Slate PC What is a TAB stop What is an Octothorpe What is Task Pane What is Task View What is the svchost.exe file used for in Windows Where can I find free online virus scanners Why am I unable to increase the resolution in Windows What is Autofill When I click my mouse, it sometimes double-clicks What is Scratch What is UDIMM What is MsConfig What is an Expansion Card What is an Executable File What is an Elevated Command Prompt What is an AC Adapter What is AIMBOT What is a Software Suite What is a LED Monitor What does Alt + X do What does alt + space do What does Alt + O do Now that I’ve got a Computer, what can i do What is a Punch Card What is RDIMM What is Select All What is Serial number What is Thermos flask What programs can I use for speech recognition What are the Advantages of Computers What are the Disadvantages of Computers What does Alt + T do What Hardware Device Drivers should be Updated What is a Desktop What is a Ring Topology What is CMOS What is a Directory What is a Mechanical Mouse What is a Plotter What is a Variable What is an Icon What is Data What is HDMI What is Remote What is Right-Click What is SMPS Why does my Laptop not turn on What is a Copyright What is a Cordless Mouse What is a CSV file What is a Joystick What is a Start Button What is a Taskbar What is an Alignment What is an Output Device What is Cat 5 What is Google Chrome What is Post What are Recordable DVD Drives What Does Alt + F4 Do What Does Alt + L Do What is a bit (Binary Digit) What is a cable What is a Calculator What is a capacitor What is a Cold Boot What is a Dialog Box What is a Dual-boot What is a Slide What is A4 What is AM What is Barcode Reader What is EHCI What is a Header What is a Joystick What is a Secondary Storage Device What is Access Time What is Account Sharing What is an Asterisk What is Asynchronous DRAM What is Back Quote What is BIOS What is Borderless Printing What is Case Badge What is CD-ROM What is Chat Slang What is Composite What is RJ Cable What Are Bottom Row Keys What is SAN What is Tray What is VDU What Does Alt + M Do What Does Alt + P Do What is a Cell What is a Command Key What is a key Combination What is a Menu Bar What is a Startup What is a T What is Chat What are the F1 through F12 keys What does Alt + Enter do What Does Alt + Home DO What does Alt + R do What does Ctrl + B do What Does Ctrl + Enter Do What Does Ctrl + R Do What does Ctrl + G do What does Ctrl + 9 do What does Ctrl + End do What does Ctrl + O do What Does Ctrl + P do What Does Ctrl + Q do What is a Colon What is a Core What is Apple Touch Icon What is Clock What is Code What is Computer Crime What is Ctrl What is DAT What is Data diddling What is Date Why won't my computer turn on What Does Alt + N Do What does ctrl + 2 do What does ctrl + space do What does Ctrl + W do What does Ctrl + T Do What Does Ctrl + 2 do What does Ctrl + 5 Do What are the most common file types and file extensions What are Sticky keys What Does Ctrl + Shift + Esc Do What is Settings What is Task Manager What is Taskbar What is a DNS Resolver What does ctrl + 1 do What does ctrl + 0 do How to install software What is a Folder What is a Legend What is a MAC Address What is a Path What is a Ruler What is a Toolbar What is an Intranet Meaning and Differences with Internet What is an SSD What is Inheritance What is Tablet What is Depth What is Docking Station What is Double Click What is a Solid Ink Printer What is a Temporary File What is Backup and Restore What is Electronic Payment Systems Eps What is Marshalling


Difference between hardware and software Difference between multiprocessor and distributed systems Difference between Desktop and Laptop Difference between File and folder Difference between Hard Copy and Soft Copy Open Source Programs vs Closed Source Programs Difference between Optical Fibre and Coaxial Cable Difference between Website and Webpage Difference between Classes and Objects Input VS Output Difference between Primary and Secondary Storage with Examples


Quantum Computing Computer Software Autoexec.bat and config.sys info Update an Antivirus Use of Internet Advantages and disadvantages of Email Computing Power Internet Explorer Shortcut Keys Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) Augmented Reality Infrastructure Readiness Check Top 10 Internet tips and tricks Introduction and Features of FoxPro Features of Multimedia Top 10 online services and applications Receiving S.M.A.R.T. status bad backup and replacing error Version Control System Uninstalling Software or Apps in Windows Data Warehouse Increase or decrease font size in Word using keyboard shortcuts Mouse not detected or working in Windows Computer Cleaning Information and Steps Function Keys on Keyboard Windows 7 Alt+Tab won’t stay on top or stick 10 Essential Examples of Web Browsers Binary Subtraction using 2’s Complement Case Sensitive Languages Computer Pioneers and people who are CEO Microsoft Word Shortcut Keys Parts of Computers Names, Definitions and Images ROM and its Types Basics of Information Technology Characteristics of a Good Software Design Characteristics of Management Information System Classification of Management Information System Implementation of MIS Input Devices of Computer Definition Limitations of Management Information System 3 Types Of Network in Computer Block Diagram Of Control Unit Difference Between Computer and Embedded System Difference Between Hard Disk and Floppy Disk Abstraction in OOAD Hardware and Software Devices Optomechanical Mouse CMOS Memory What is a Terminal? What is Graphic Design? What is Load? What is Passcode? What is Reboot? What is Registry? What is Safe Mode? What is Standby? What is SYN (Synchronize)? What is Task Manager? Attribute Computing BPS in Computer Bulletin Board System Light Pen Input Device 3 TYPES OF NETWORK IN COMPUTER Block diagram of control unit What is a Solid Ink Printer? What is a Temporary File? What is an App launcher? What is Backup and Restore? What is a Tab Character? What is the Core i3? What is Paint? What is a Workbook? Advantages and Disadvantages of Online Education What is a String? What is a VDU (Visible Display Unit)? 50 Uses of Computer What is Workspace? What is a Procedural Language? What is VGA (Video Graphics Array)?

Output devices of Computer

The output devices are the hardware parts which can create the whole computer system with the combination of all hardware parts. The user can get the desired output via output devices. The output device converts the data or information into the human-readable form.

The output devices can provide the output in user's readable form due to the output unit. The different types of output devices display the output in various ways such as text, images, hard copies, audio, and videos, etc. These devices are used to communicate between the user and the computer.

The most common output device is a monitor. The audio speakers are also the type of output device. The output device is mainly used to send the data from the computer to the user or any device. A display device is also a form of the output device. This device represents the output visually on the computer screen.

  1. Monitor
    • CRT monitor (Cathode ray tube)
    • Liquid crystal display (LCD) monitor
    • Light-emitting diode (LED) monitor
    • Plasma monitor
  2. Printer
    • Impact printers
      • Character printers
      • Line printers
        • Drum printer
        • Chain printer
      • Non-impact printers
        • Laser printer
        • Inkjet printer
  3. Projector
  4. audio speaker
  5. headphones
  6. GPS
  7. Sound Card
  8. Video Card
  9. Braille Reader
  10. Plotter

A. Monitor

The monitor is an electronic visual computer display which includes a screen, circuitry. The monitors used cathode ray tubes in history, which create large, bulky, and inefficient. In these days the flat screen LCD monitors are used in the devices such as laptops, desktop computer, etc. These monitors are light weighted and more energy efficient. The monitor is also known as a screen or visual display unit. There are mainly four types of monitor related to computer systems which are given below:

1. CRT Monitor (Cathode ray tube)

The CRT monitor contains millions of tiny red, green, and blue phosphor dot. These phosphor dots glow when it struck by the electron beam and travels across the screen to create a visible image.

CRT Monitor

                                     Fig: The CRT Monitor.

The anode and cathode are used in electronics as the synonyms of positive and negative terminals. The cathode is the heated filament in the Cathode ray tube (CRT).

image of the CRT monitor screen

 Fig: The image of the CRT monitor screen.

The ray is the stream of electrons produced by the electron guns. The electrons are harmful, and the anode is positive, so, both of these attract each other. We have three ways to filter the electron beam to obtain the correct image on the monitor screen.

2. Liquid Crystal Display (LCD)

The liquid crystal display is the flat panel display or the electronically modulated optical device which can use the light-modulating properties of liquid crystals. The LCD monitors are used in the full range of applications such as LCD televisions, computer monitors, instrument panels, aircraft cockpit displays, etc.

The small LCD screens are common in portable devices such as digital cameras, watches, calculators, etc. These types of monitor screens do not use phosphors. The LCD screen is more energy-efficient and disposed of more safely than the CRT monitor screen. 

Liquid Crystal Display

Fig: The image of the LCD monitor screen.

The modern LCD monitor screen uses active matrix technology and contains thin-film transistors with capacitors so that the pixels don’t make the screen blur. The screen of the LCD monitor is more efficient than passive matrix displays when images move fast on the screen.

3. Light Emitted Diode Monitor (LED)

The LED monitor is the flat screen, flat panel monitor, or television. This type of monitor screen has very short depth and light-weighted. The LED monitors are less expensive. These monitors have broad dimming range and more reliable than others. The LED monitor can run at a low temperature and consume less electrical power. 

Light Emitted Diode Monitor

Fig: The image of the LED monitor.

The LED monitor is the improved version of the LCD monitor; the basic technology is similar in both of them. The backlighting is the main difference between the LED and the LCD monitor.

4. Plasma Monitor

The plasma monitor is the flat panel display type monitor. It uses small cells containing plasma. These types of monitors have ionized gas that responds to electric fields. The plasma monitor displays sometimes known as the “thin-panel” displays.

These monitors are used to analog video signals or display modes digital computer input. Its display is flat rather than curved as compared to CRT (cathode ray tube) monitor display. Its display comes in the conventional PC display sizes up to 60 inches for the home theater and high definition television. IBM built the monochrome plasma display in the 1980s. These types of monitors display orange letters against the black screen.

Plasma Monitor

In these monitors, each pixel on the screen is illuminated by the tiny bit of plasma or charged gas. The display of these monitors is thinner than cathode ray tube (CRT) displays and brighter than the liquid crystal displays (LCD).

B.  Printer

The printer is the output device, which makes the constant representation of graphics or text on the paper. The expensive printers are used for higher-resolution color printing. The printer is connected to the computer in different ways. Charles Babbage invented the first printer for the use of difference engine in 1822. The printed output generated by the printer is known as a hard copy. This hard copy is the physical version of any electronic document.

Printer: Output devices

Some printers can print only black and white hard copies, but today mostly printer print the color hard copy. Many home printers produce high-quality photos, and this is possible because modern printers have high DPI (dots per inch). This DPI allows the printer to print the document with an excellent resolution. There are mainly two types of printers:

  1. Impact printers
  2. Non-Impact printers

1. Impact printers

The impact printer is referred to the printer class; these types of printers are direct contact of an ink ribbon with the paper. The impact printers are not used widely because of noise. 

Impact printers

Figure: The impact printer.

These printers make a noise when the striker hits on the ink ribbon while printing. The impact printer is two types which are given below:

  • Character printers.
  • Line printers.

Character Printers

The character printers are those printers which can print the single character at a time. These support the individual character only. Nowadays, these printers are used in rare cases. There was a speed issue with these printers, and we can print only text. We were not able to print the picture or any graphical representation.

Changing the size of the font is not possible in these printers because the column printed must have its print hammer. The chain and band printers are medium and high-speed printers; they can print over 300 lines per minute. The dot matrix and the daisy wheel printers are the common impact character printers. 

Character Printers

Figure: The character printer.

Line printer

The line printer is capable of printing the entire line of the text before moving to another line. Mostly the old-line printers were impact printers. The line printers are primarily associated with the unit record equipment. The Line printer is also known as the bar printer. They are still used in some business which is low cost and the ability to print the multi parts from. The disadvantages of a line printer are:

  1. They cannot print the graphics.
  2. The print of this printer is of low quality.
  3. The Line printer was very noisy.


Line printer

 Figure: The Line printers.

The technology of the line printer still used in this modern world. The print speed of the line printer is 600 lines-per-minute. These types of printers were developed in the 1950s. After some time, the speed range of these printers becomes 150 to 2500 lines per minute. There are two types of line printers, which are given below:

  1. Drum printer
  2. Chain printer

Drum printer

The drum printer is designed to fix the font character set. According to the desired character, every column passes to the print position. The drum printer has a feature of drum installations or setups. The newer type of printer is a laser printer that can use the drum to hold the paper in place. In these printers, the drum receives an image from the laser and transfers it onto the paper. The drum is coated with the photoreceptor materials in this printer.

Chain printer

The chain printer is an output device that can print characters, symbols, and graphics on paper. These printers are also called as the band printers. The chain printers are one of the fastest printers that can produce up to 400 to 2500 characters per second. These can contain the characters on the rotation band.

2. Non-impact printers

The Non-impact printers are those printers that can print without banging the ribbon onto the paper. The laser printer, LED, Inkjet, Solid Ink, etc. are the example of Non-impact printer. These printers are also two types which are given below:

  1. Laser printer
  2. Inkjet printer

Laser printer

The laser printer is the type of printer that uses laser and electrical charge model instead of traditional printing of ink onto paper. In the laser printer, the laser beam fire on the mechanical cylinder is called photo receptor.

Laser printer

Fig: The Laser Printer

These results exist in the pattern on the photoreceptor that is coated with the toner. The laser printer uses the powered toner element for the printing instead of liquid ink, and it is one of the biggest difference between the normal impact and non-impact printer.

Inkjet printer

The Inkjet printer is the output device that produces the hard copy by spraying the ink onto the paper. It can generate the text with a resolution of at least 300 dots per inches. Many models of Inkjet printer produce other devices such as scanner, photocopier, etc.

C. Projector

The projector or image projector is the output device which can project the image onto the surface or projection screen. Most projectors create the image by shinning the light through the small transparent lens, but the newer type projectors can project the image directly by using the laser. Some common types projectors used today are known as the video projector. These video projectors are the replacement from the earlier types of projectors. 


Fig: The projector.

The projectors can produce only slides or moving images (videos).  These come in many shapes and sizes — projectors commonly found in the classrooms, conference rooms, auditoriums, and places of worship. The projectors can be categorized into three parts based on the type of input.

D. Audio Speakers

The Audio speakers are the common output device used with the computers systems. The primary purpose of speakers is to produce the audio voice as an output that can be heard by the listener. The speakers can convert the electromagnetic waves into the sound waves.

Audio Speakers

Fig:  The Audio Speakers.

The speakers receive audio as an input from the device such as a computer or an audio receiver then this input may be either in analog or digital form. The speakers can produce the sound which is defined with the help of frequency and amplitude. 

E. Head Phones

The Headphones or earphones are the hardware output devices. We can listen to the audio or watch the movie without disturbing the people around us with the help of headphones or earphones. 

The Headphones or earphones are the hardware output devices

Figure: The Headphones.

The Nathaniel Baldwin developed the first pair of headphones in 1910. The U.S. Navy ordered 100 pairs of the first time. The headphones come in different shapes and styles.

F. GPS (Global positioning system) navigation device

The GPS Navigation device can receive the information from the GPS satellite to calculate the device’s geographical position. The GPS Navigation device was developed for the use of united states military in the 1980s. 

The GPS receiver existed in many commercial products such as automobiles, smartphones, smartwatches, etc. The GPS includes 24 satellites which are expanded in space about 12000 miles above the earth surface.  Every GPS satellite broadcast a message that message has the satellite's current position, orbit and exact time.

GPS Navigation device

Figure: The GPS Navigation device.

G. Sound Card

The sound card is the expansion card or integrated circuit to produce the sound on the computer. That sound can be heard through speakers or headphones. The computer system does not need a sound care device. Every machine contains the sound card in one form another, either in the expansion slot or build in the motherboard. 

Sound Card

H. Video Card

The video card is connected to the motherboard of the computer system and generates the output images to display. The processing unit on the video card is also referred to the graphic cards. These cards include the processing unit, memory, and connections to the display device.

The video card is similar to the CPU, and its design is optimized to work with the images. The memory of the video card is similar to Random access memory on the motherboard. The video card is connected to the motherboard of the computer system by using the slot.

Video Card

Fig: The Video Card.

The video card is the printed circuit board and includes its processing unit and memory. It is like the type of computer system itself.

I. Braille Reader

The Braille reader is also known as the braille display, which is an electronic output device. It allows the blind person to read the text displayed on the monitor of the computer. The computer transfers the text to the output device; inside the device, the text is converted into the Braille.

Braille reader

Fig:  The Braille Reader.

The text is displayed by raising rounded pins through the flat surface on the machine. There are also the braille reader apps for the smartphones and tablets which can work in conjunction with Bluetooth braille output device.

J. Plotter

The plotter is the computer hardware device like the printer. It is used for printing the vector graphics. Plotters use the pen, pencil, marker, or another writing tool to draw multiple continuous lines onto the paper.

plotter is the computer hardware device like the printer