Computer Fundamentals Index

Computer Introduction Types of computer Characteristics of computer Uses of computer History of Computers

Computer Languages

Low Level language Middle level Language High level language

Computer Generation

Generation of Computers First Generation of Computer Second generation of Computers Third generation of Computers Fourth generation of Computers Fifth generation of Computers Sixth Generation of Computer

Peripheral Devices

Input devices Output device


Block diagram and basic components Control processing unit (CPU) Software Hardware


Computer Memory Registers Memory Hierarchy RAM Vs ROM Understanding file sizes (Bytes, KB, MB, GB, TB, PB, EB, ZB, YB)

Computer Network

Types of Network Types of Area Networks (LAN, WAN, MAN) TCP Flags

Computer Virus

Computer Virus

Computer Ports

Computer Ports


How to hack a computer How much do Computer Programmers make How does a Computer work How to associate a file with a program How does a computer convert text into binary How does a computer process data into information How to fix a CD-ROM DVD How to fix the no input signal How to install computer memory How to associate a file with a program How to log out of your operating system How do I change my name on Google How to installation or uninstallation Microsoft Paint How to fix a not a valid Win32 application error How to fix missing Microsoft Windows .dll files How to use a computer keyboard How to erase my hard drive and start over How can I test how many words I can write a minute How to shut down a computer How do I open and edit the Windows registry How to edit the registry from the command line How to restart Microsoft Windows How to install a computer processor How to open Microsoft Paint How to fix problems in Windows after installing new software How to enable or disable the preview pane of Microsoft Outlook How to open a Microsoft .wps or Works file in Word How to view the HTML source code in Microsoft Word How to View or Change the Screen Resolution of a Monitor How to Connect and Install a Computer Keyboard How to Delete Temporary Files in Windows 10 How to determine Which Version of Microsoft Office I'm using How to find out how much hard drive space is available How to Fix PC Stuck on Verifying DMI Pool Data How to choose which items show in the notification area How to find similar images using Search by Image How to fix Low Memory and out of memory errors How To Replace the CMOS Battery How do I Update my Antivirus Program How to fix a general protection fault How to Identify problems in the Windows Device Manager How can the Base be Shown How to test if a Website or Web Page is down How Much is 1 Byte, Kilobyte, Megabyte, Gigabyte, etc How to fix a CMOS checksum error How to Fix a Windows CD-ROM, DVD, or Disc Drive Issue How to Open Safe Mode How to Password Protect Files and Folders in Windows How to Reset CMOS or BIOS Settings How to use Computer Keyboard How to create a text file How to enable or disable DHCP in Windows How to test computer memory to determine if its bad How do double space or change line spacing in Microsoft Word How do I know if I have Windows Administrator Rights How many cores does my computer have How to Create a Directory or Folder How to Enter and Exit the BIOS or CMOS Setup How to change Windows Compatibility mode How to clear your internet browser history How to Connect Computer Speakers How to Copy a Web Page Link or URL How to install a Hard Drive or SSD How to Open the Windows Control Panel How to split a screen in Windows How to copy text from a scanned PDF


Who invented Computer What are the advantages of the Internet? What are the disadvantages of the Internet? Is my computer 64 bit? What is Edge Computing? What is a Router? What is Monitor What is Printer What is a Web Browser What is Microphone What is a Webcam What is PC What is Keyboard What is Motherboard What is WAP What is URL What is a Digital Assistant When was the first Computer Invented What is Modem What is Firmware What is Imperative Programming What is Protocol What is Safe Mode What is Device Driver What is Hybrid Topology What is Mesh Topology What is Procedural language What is a hyperlink What is a Username Who invented the Internet What is Video Card What is Sound Card What is Binary What does Alt+B do What does Alt+D do What does Alt+E do What does Alt+Esc do What does Alt+R do What does ALT + Q do What does Alt + Tab do What is Data Manipulation What is a touch screen What is Back Panel What is Analog Monitor What is AR lens What is an ATX Style Connector What is a File System What is Hard Disk Drive (HDD) What is a boot device What is accessibility What is Line In What is network Interface card (NIC) What is Optical Disk Where can I ask questions on the internet What is Auto Rotate What is CAD (Computer-aided design) What is Cable Modem What is Home Page What is boot menu What is braille reader What is flash memory What is Windows What is Clipboard What is Cyber Warfare What is Myspace Why has my IP address changed What is Jacquard Loom My computer is running slow, what steps can I do to fix it What is a Kensington Lock What is a multicore processor What is automation Are smartphones and tablets computers What is a Login Script What is a Loosely Typed Language What is Multitasking? Why my computer monitor shows no display or black screen What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is the Pg Dn Key (Page Down Key) What is the Pg up Key (Page up Key) What is Palmtop Computer What is a Processing Device What is a Print Preview What is the Print Screen Key What can I do if my computer or laptop is lost or stolen What is a Model Number What are the currently available antivirus programs What are Toggle keys What is a Case fan What is a Silicon Chip What is a Slate PC What is a TAB stop What is an Octothorpe What is Task Pane What is Task View What is the svchost.exe file used for in Windows Where can I find free online virus scanners Why am I unable to increase the resolution in Windows What is Autofill When I click my mouse, it sometimes double-clicks What is Scratch What is UDIMM What is MsConfig What is an Expansion Card What is an Executable File What is an Elevated Command Prompt What is an AC Adapter What is AIMBOT What is a Software Suite What is a LED Monitor What does Alt + X do What does alt + space do What does Alt + O do Now that I’ve got a Computer, what can i do What is a Punch Card What is RDIMM What is Select All What is Serial number What is Thermos flask What programs can I use for speech recognition What are the Advantages of Computers What are the Disadvantages of Computers What does Alt + T do What Hardware Device Drivers should be Updated What is a Desktop What is a Ring Topology What is CMOS What is a Directory What is a Mechanical Mouse What is a Plotter What is a Variable What is an Icon What is Data What is HDMI What is Remote What is Right-Click What is SMPS Why does my Laptop not turn on What is a Copyright What is a Cordless Mouse What is a CSV file What is a Joystick What is a Start Button What is a Taskbar What is an Alignment What is an Output Device What is Cat 5 What is Google Chrome What is Post What are Recordable DVD Drives What Does Alt + F4 Do What Does Alt + L Do What is a bit (Binary Digit) What is a cable What is a Calculator What is a capacitor What is a Cold Boot What is a Dialog Box What is a Dual-boot What is a Slide What is A4 What is AM What is Barcode Reader What is EHCI What is a Header What is a Joystick What is a Secondary Storage Device What is Access Time What is Account Sharing What is an Asterisk What is Asynchronous DRAM What is Back Quote What is BIOS What is Borderless Printing What is Case Badge What is CD-ROM What is Chat Slang What is Composite What is RJ Cable What Are Bottom Row Keys What is SAN What is Tray What is VDU What Does Alt + M Do What Does Alt + P Do What is a Cell What is a Command Key What is a key Combination What is a Menu Bar What is a Startup What is a T What is Chat What are the F1 through F12 keys What does Alt + Enter do What Does Alt + Home DO What does Alt + R do What does Ctrl + B do What Does Ctrl + Enter Do What Does Ctrl + R Do What does Ctrl + G do What does Ctrl + 9 do What does Ctrl + End do What does Ctrl + O do What Does Ctrl + P do What Does Ctrl + Q do What is a Colon What is a Core What is Apple Touch Icon What is Clock What is Code What is Computer Crime What is Ctrl What is DAT What is Data diddling What is Date Why won't my computer turn on What Does Alt + N Do What does ctrl + 2 do What does ctrl + space do What does Ctrl + W do What does Ctrl + T Do What Does Ctrl + 2 do What does Ctrl + 5 Do What are the most common file types and file extensions What are Sticky keys What Does Ctrl + Shift + Esc Do What is Settings What is Task Manager What is Taskbar What is a DNS Resolver What does ctrl + 1 do What does ctrl + 0 do How to install software What is a Folder What is a Legend What is a MAC Address What is a Path What is a Ruler What is a Toolbar What is an Intranet Meaning and Differences with Internet What is an SSD What is Inheritance What is Tablet What is Depth What is Docking Station What is Double Click What is a Solid Ink Printer What is a Temporary File What is Backup and Restore What is Electronic Payment Systems Eps What is Marshalling


Difference between hardware and software Difference between multiprocessor and distributed systems Difference between Desktop and Laptop Difference between File and folder Difference between Hard Copy and Soft Copy Open Source Programs vs Closed Source Programs Difference between Optical Fibre and Coaxial Cable Difference between Website and Webpage Difference between Classes and Objects Input VS Output Difference between Primary and Secondary Storage with Examples


Quantum Computing Computer Software Autoexec.bat and config.sys info Update an Antivirus Use of Internet Advantages and disadvantages of Email Computing Power Internet Explorer Shortcut Keys Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) Augmented Reality Infrastructure Readiness Check Top 10 Internet tips and tricks Introduction and Features of FoxPro Features of Multimedia Top 10 online services and applications Receiving S.M.A.R.T. status bad backup and replacing error Version Control System Uninstalling Software or Apps in Windows Data Warehouse Increase or decrease font size in Word using keyboard shortcuts Mouse not detected or working in Windows Computer Cleaning Information and Steps Function Keys on Keyboard Windows 7 Alt+Tab won’t stay on top or stick 10 Essential Examples of Web Browsers Binary Subtraction using 2’s Complement Case Sensitive Languages Computer Pioneers and people who are CEO Microsoft Word Shortcut Keys Parts of Computers Names, Definitions and Images ROM and its Types Basics of Information Technology Characteristics of a Good Software Design Characteristics of Management Information System Classification of Management Information System Implementation of MIS Input Devices of Computer Definition Limitations of Management Information System 3 Types Of Network in Computer Block Diagram Of Control Unit Difference Between Computer and Embedded System Difference Between Hard Disk and Floppy Disk Abstraction in OOAD Hardware and Software Devices Optomechanical Mouse CMOS Memory What is a Terminal? What is Graphic Design? What is Load? What is Passcode? What is Reboot? What is Registry? What is Safe Mode? What is Standby? What is SYN (Synchronize)? What is Task Manager? Attribute Computing BPS in Computer Bulletin Board System Light Pen Input Device 3 TYPES OF NETWORK IN COMPUTER Block diagram of control unit What is a Solid Ink Printer? What is a Temporary File? What is an App launcher? What is Backup and Restore? What is a Tab Character? What is the Core i3? What is Paint? What is a Workbook? Advantages and Disadvantages of Online Education What is a String? What is a VDU (Visible Display Unit)? 50 Uses of Computer What is Workspace? What is a Procedural Language? What is VGA (Video Graphics Array)? Object Linking and Embedding in MS Word Semiconductor Memory Types of Parallel Computing Web Resources Difference between Virus, Worm and Trojan Horse Difference between HQ (High Quality) and HD (High Definition) What is Text Wrapping What is Timestamp? Semiconductor Ram Memory What is a File Attribute? What is a Video Call? Difference between SDRAM and DDR What is ANSI? Difference between DOS and Windows How to Set the Path and Environment Variables in Windows? Mainframe System What is ScanDisk? C drive in Mac Computer Memory Table How to Change the Keyboard Language in Windows? What is a Video Call? What is a Zoom Slider? What is Floppy Disk in Computer What is the most Popular Operating System? OMR in Computer What is a Work Area?

How to Password Protect Files and Folders in Windows?

To ensure the security of your files and folders, it's a good idea to password-protect them, especially if you share your computer with others. Although Windows does not include a built-in feature for password-protecting files and folders, there are several third-party programs available that can be used for this purpose. It's important to note that the method for encrypting files and folders may vary depending on the version of Windows that is installed on your machine.

How to Password Protect Files and Folders in Windows

When you apply password-protect to a folder, it means that to access the files within the folder, you will need to enter the password you set up at the time of protecting the folder. Additionally, you can also use password-protect individual files or folders. The process for securing files and folders is the same.

It's a good practice to make a backup of your non-password-protected files and folders before password-protecting them in case you forget the password in the future. This way, you can still access your files even if you can't remember the password.

Microsoft Windows Vista, 7, 8, and 10

In order to password-protect files and folders in Windows Vista, Windows 7, Windows 8, and Windows 10, you will need to use a third-party software package.

How to Password Protect Files and Folders in Windows

Here are the detailed steps you can follow:

  1. Choose or highlight the file or folder that you want to encrypt.
  2. Right-click on the file or folder you want to encrypt and choose Properties.
  3. Go to the General tab and click the Advanced button.
  4. In the Advanced Attributes window that appears, tick the box for "Encrypt contents to secure data" and then click OK.
  5. A pop-up window will appear asking if you want to encrypt the file or folder and all its subfolders and files. Click Yes to continue.
  6. You will then be prompted to back up your encryption certificate and key. This step is important as it is required to decrypt the files and folders in the future.
  7. Once the encryption process is complete, the file or folder will be designated with a blue color and a lock icon, indicating that it is now encrypted.

Note: If you do not see the "Encrypt contents to secure data" option, or this option isn't visible or selectable, you may have a Home Edition of Windows, which doesn't support this function. It is also possible that the hard disc needs to be formatted in the NTFS file system, which is required to encrypt files and folders.

Microsoft Windows XP Professional Users

Windows XP Professional users can password-protect files and folders using the built-in Encrypting File System (EFS). Here are the detailed steps you can follow:

  1. Choose or highlight the file or folder that you want to encrypt.
  2. Right-click on the file or folder you want to encrypt and choose Properties.
  3. Go to the Advanced button.
  4. In the Advanced Attributes window that appears, tick the box for "Encrypt contents to secure data" and then click OK.
  5. A pop-up window will appear asking if you want to encrypt the file or folder and all its subfolders and files. Click Yes to continue.
  6. You will then be prompted to back up your encryption certificate and key. This step is important as it is required to decrypt the files and folders in the future.
  7. Once the encryption process is complete, the file or folder will be designated with the green color and a lock icon, indicating that it is now encrypted.

Note: The Encrypting File System (EFS) is only available for the NTFS file system, so you need to format your hard drive with NTFS to use EFS. Also, it is important to backup your encryption certificate and key, otherwise, you won't be able to decrypt your files in the future.

Microsoft Windows XP Home Users

Encrypting files and folders on Microsoft Windows XP Home Edition is a way to protect sensitive information by making it unreadable to unauthorized users.

 Here are the detailed steps to encrypt a file or folder on this operating system:

  • Select the file or folder that you want to encrypt. This can be done by left-clicking on the file or folder and then holding down the "Ctrl" key while clicking on additional files or folders to select multiple items.
  • Right-click on the selected file or folder and select "Properties" from the drop-down menu.
  • In the Properties window, click on the "Sharing" tab.
  • To make the folder private, check the box next to "Make this folder private."
  • Click on the "Apply" button and then the "OK" button to save the changes.

There are some requirements that must be met for this option to work:

  • The hard drive must be formatted in NTFS, not FAT32. This is because the encryption feature is not available on the FAT32 file system.
  • The folder being encrypted must be within the user's personal folder (e.g. C:\Documents and Settings[username]).
  • Encryption is not possible for folders outside of the personal folder.

If these requirements are not met, the option to "Make this folder private" will be grayed out and unable to be selected. In that case, you may consider other security solutions, such as third-party encryption software, to protect sensitive information on your computer.

Other Security Solutions for Protecting Your Files And Folders In Windows

There are several alternative security solutions for protecting files and folders on Windows XP Home Edition, including:

  • Third-party encryption software: There are many encryption software programs available that can be used to encrypt files and folders on your computer. These programs typically use strong encryption algorithms, such as AES or RSA, to protect your data. Some popular encryption software options include VeraCrypt, AxCrypt, and 7-Zip.
  • Password-protecting files and folders: You can use built-in Windows utilities or third-party software to password-protect files and folders. For example, you can use the compress feature in windows to create a password-protected archive of your files and folders.
  • File and folder permissions: Windows XP allows you to set permissions on files and folders so that only certain users or groups can access them. This can be a useful way to restrict access to sensitive information.
  • Cloud-based storage: You can store your files and folders on a cloud-based storage service, such as Google Drive, Dropbox, or Microsoft OneDrive. These services typically have built-in encryption and other security features to protect your data.
  • External hard drive: You can store your files and folders on an external hard drive and disconnect it when not in use. This makes it difficult for hackers to access your data, but it is important to note that physical security should also be considered.
  • Disabling the guest account: Windows XP has a built-in guest account that allows anyone to log in and access files and folders on your computer without a password. Disabling this account can help to prevent unauthorized access to your data.

It is important to note that no one method is completely foolproof, and it is recommended to use a combination of these solutions to ensure maximum protection for your files and folders.

Things To Remember When Encrypting or Password-Protecting Files and Folders

When encrypting or password-protecting files and folders, it is important to remember the following:

  • Keep your encryption key and password safe: Your encryption key or password is the only way to access your encrypted files and folders. Make sure to keep it in a safe place, such as a password manager, and do not share it with anyone.
  • Use strong encryption and password: It is important to use strong encryption algorithms and a strong password to protect your files and folders. Avoid using easily guessable or weak passwords, such as "123456" or "password".
  • Remember to back up your files: Encrypting or password protecting files and folders can make them inaccessible if you forget your key or password. Make sure to back up your files and folders to an external drive or cloud storage before encrypting them.
  • Be aware of the risk of social engineering: Be aware of the risk of social engineering attacks, in which an attacker may try to trick you into revealing your encryption key or password. Always be suspicious of unsolicited emails or phone calls, and never reveal your key or password to anyone.
  • Update your software and operating system: It is important to keep your encryption software and operating system up-to-date to ensure that any security vulnerabilities are patched.
  • Be aware of the legal regulations: It is important to be aware of any legal regulations or compliance requirements that may apply to your data. For example, certain industries have specific regulations regarding the encryption of sensitive data.
  • Be aware of physical security: Encryption and passwords will protect your files and folders from unauthorized access, but it is also important to make sure that your computer and external devices are physically secure.
  • Be aware of the cloud-based storage security: If you choose to store your files and folders on a cloud-based storage service, make sure to choose a reputable provider and check their security features.
  • Have a plan for key or password loss: Have a plan in place for what to do if you lose your encryption key or password. This could include keeping a physical or digital copy of the key or password in a secure location or having a trusted individual hold a copy.

By keeping these things in mind, you can help to ensure that your files and folders remain secure and protected against unauthorized access.

Why Password-Protect Files?

Password-protecting files is important for maintaining the privacy and security of sensitive information. It helps prevent unauthorized access, accidental sharing, and human error. Additionally, it can protect against external threats such as hackers or data breaches. By adding a password to your files, you can ensure that only authorized individuals have access to the information, which can be especially important for businesses or organizations that handle sensitive data. Additionally, password-protecting files can also be useful for personal use, such as protecting personal documents, financial information, and other private information. Overall, password-protecting files is a simple and effective way to safeguard your information and keep it secure.

Difference Between Password Protected File and Encryption File

  1. Password protection refers to the use of a password to restrict access to a file or folder, while encryption refers to the process of converting data into a coded format that can only be accessed with a decryption key.
  2. Password-protected files can be easily unlocked by anyone with the correct password, while encryption requires a more complex process to decrypt the data.
  3. Password-protected files are typically less secure than encrypted files, as passwords can be easily guessed or stolen.
  4. Encryption uses mathematical algorithms to scramble data, making it much more difficult for unauthorized users to access the information.
  5. Password-protected files can be unlocked by simply entering the correct password, while encryption requires a decryption key to be entered in addition to the password.
  6. Encryption can be applied to individual files or to entire drives, while password protection is typically only applied to individual files or folders.
  7. Password-protected files can be easily copied or moved to other locations, while encryption requires the decryption key to be entered before the data can be accessed.
  8. Encryption can be used to protect data in transit, such as email or online transactions, while password protection is typically only used to protect data at rest.
  9. Encryption can be used to protect data in the cloud, while password protection is typically only used to protect data stored on local devices.
  10. Encryption can be used to protect sensitive information, such as financial data or personal information, while password protection is typically only used to protect less sensitive information.