Computer Fundamentals Index

Computer Introduction Types of computer Characteristics of computer Uses of computer History of Computers

Computer Languages

Low Level language Middle level Language High level language

Computer Generation

Generation of Computers First Generation of Computer Second generation of Computers Third generation of Computers Fourth generation of Computers Fifth generation of Computers Sixth Generation of Computer

Peripheral Devices

Input devices Output device


Block diagram and basic components Control processing unit (CPU) Software Hardware


Computer Memory Registers Memory Hierarchy RAM Vs ROM Understanding file sizes (Bytes, KB, MB, GB, TB, PB, EB, ZB, YB)

Computer Network

Types of Network Types of Area Networks (LAN, WAN, MAN) TCP Flags

Computer Virus

Computer Virus

Computer Ports

Computer Ports


How to hack a computer How much do Computer Programmers make How does a Computer work How to associate a file with a program How does a computer convert text into binary How does a computer process data into information How to fix a CD-ROM DVD How to fix the no input signal How to install computer memory How to associate a file with a program How to log out of your operating system How do I change my name on Google How to installation or uninstallation Microsoft Paint How to fix a not a valid Win32 application error How to fix missing Microsoft Windows .dll files How to use a computer keyboard How to erase my hard drive and start over How can I test how many words I can write a minute How to shut down a computer How do I open and edit the Windows registry How to edit the registry from the command line How to restart Microsoft Windows How to install a computer processor How to open Microsoft Paint How to fix problems in Windows after installing new software How to enable or disable the preview pane of Microsoft Outlook How to open a Microsoft .wps or Works file in Word How to view the HTML source code in Microsoft Word How to View or Change the Screen Resolution of a Monitor How to Connect and Install a Computer Keyboard How to Delete Temporary Files in Windows 10 How to determine Which Version of Microsoft Office I'm using How to find out how much hard drive space is available How to Fix PC Stuck on Verifying DMI Pool Data How to choose which items show in the notification area How to find similar images using Search by Image How to fix Low Memory and out of memory errors How To Replace the CMOS Battery How do I Update my Antivirus Program How to fix a general protection fault How to Identify problems in the Windows Device Manager How can the Base be Shown How to test if a Website or Web Page is down How Much is 1 Byte, Kilobyte, Megabyte, Gigabyte, etc How to fix a CMOS checksum error How to Fix a Windows CD-ROM, DVD, or Disc Drive Issue How to Open Safe Mode How to Password Protect Files and Folders in Windows How to Reset CMOS or BIOS Settings How to use Computer Keyboard How to create a text file How to enable or disable DHCP in Windows How to test computer memory to determine if its bad How do double space or change line spacing in Microsoft Word How do I know if I have Windows Administrator Rights How many cores does my computer have How to Create a Directory or Folder How to Enter and Exit the BIOS or CMOS Setup How to change Windows Compatibility mode How to clear your internet browser history How to Connect Computer Speakers How to Copy a Web Page Link or URL How to install a Hard Drive or SSD How to Open the Windows Control Panel How to split a screen in Windows How to copy text from a scanned PDF


Who invented Computer What are the advantages of the Internet? What are the disadvantages of the Internet? Is my computer 64 bit? What is Edge Computing? What is a Router? What is Monitor What is Printer What is a Web Browser What is Microphone What is a Webcam What is PC What is Keyboard What is Motherboard What is WAP What is URL What is a Digital Assistant When was the first Computer Invented What is Modem What is Firmware What is Imperative Programming What is Protocol What is Safe Mode What is Device Driver What is Hybrid Topology What is Mesh Topology What is Procedural language What is a hyperlink What is a Username Who invented the Internet What is Video Card What is Sound Card What is Binary What does Alt+B do What does Alt+D do What does Alt+E do What does Alt+Esc do What does Alt+R do What does ALT + Q do What does Alt + Tab do What is Data Manipulation What is a touch screen What is Back Panel What is Analog Monitor What is AR lens What is an ATX Style Connector What is a File System What is Hard Disk Drive (HDD) What is a boot device What is accessibility What is Line In What is network Interface card (NIC) What is Optical Disk Where can I ask questions on the internet What is Auto Rotate What is CAD (Computer-aided design) What is Cable Modem What is Home Page What is boot menu What is braille reader What is flash memory What is Windows What is Clipboard What is Cyber Warfare What is Myspace Why has my IP address changed What is Jacquard Loom My computer is running slow, what steps can I do to fix it What is a Kensington Lock What is a multicore processor What is automation Are smartphones and tablets computers What is a Login Script What is a Loosely Typed Language What is Multitasking? Why my computer monitor shows no display or black screen What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is the Pg Dn Key (Page Down Key) What is the Pg up Key (Page up Key) What is Palmtop Computer What is a Processing Device What is a Print Preview What is the Print Screen Key What can I do if my computer or laptop is lost or stolen What is a Model Number What are the currently available antivirus programs What are Toggle keys What is a Case fan What is a Silicon Chip What is a Slate PC What is a TAB stop What is an Octothorpe What is Task Pane What is Task View What is the svchost.exe file used for in Windows Where can I find free online virus scanners Why am I unable to increase the resolution in Windows What is Autofill When I click my mouse, it sometimes double-clicks What is Scratch What is UDIMM What is MsConfig What is an Expansion Card What is an Executable File What is an Elevated Command Prompt What is an AC Adapter What is AIMBOT What is a Software Suite What is a LED Monitor What does Alt + X do What does alt + space do What does Alt + O do Now that I’ve got a Computer, what can i do What is a Punch Card What is RDIMM What is Select All What is Serial number What is Thermos flask What programs can I use for speech recognition What are the Advantages of Computers What are the Disadvantages of Computers What does Alt + T do What Hardware Device Drivers should be Updated What is a Desktop What is a Ring Topology What is CMOS What is a Directory What is a Mechanical Mouse What is a Plotter What is a Variable What is an Icon What is Data What is HDMI What is Remote What is Right-Click What is SMPS Why does my Laptop not turn on What is a Copyright What is a Cordless Mouse What is a CSV file What is a Joystick What is a Start Button What is a Taskbar What is an Alignment What is an Output Device What is Cat 5 What is Google Chrome What is Post What are Recordable DVD Drives What Does Alt + F4 Do What Does Alt + L Do What is a bit (Binary Digit) What is a cable What is a Calculator What is a capacitor What is a Cold Boot What is a Dialog Box What is a Dual-boot What is a Slide What is A4 What is AM What is Barcode Reader What is EHCI What is a Header What is a Joystick What is a Secondary Storage Device What is Access Time What is Account Sharing What is an Asterisk What is Asynchronous DRAM What is Back Quote What is BIOS What is Borderless Printing What is Case Badge What is CD-ROM What is Chat Slang What is Composite What is RJ Cable What Are Bottom Row Keys What is SAN What is Tray What is VDU What Does Alt + M Do What Does Alt + P Do What is a Cell What is a Command Key What is a key Combination What is a Menu Bar What is a Startup What is a T What is Chat What are the F1 through F12 keys What does Alt + Enter do What Does Alt + Home DO What does Alt + R do What does Ctrl + B do What Does Ctrl + Enter Do What Does Ctrl + R Do What does Ctrl + G do What does Ctrl + 9 do What does Ctrl + End do What does Ctrl + O do What Does Ctrl + P do What Does Ctrl + Q do What is a Colon What is a Core What is Apple Touch Icon What is Clock What is Code What is Computer Crime What is Ctrl What is DAT What is Data diddling What is Date Why won't my computer turn on What Does Alt + N Do What does ctrl + 2 do What does ctrl + space do What does Ctrl + W do What does Ctrl + T Do What Does Ctrl + 2 do What does Ctrl + 5 Do What are the most common file types and file extensions What are Sticky keys What Does Ctrl + Shift + Esc Do What is Settings What is Task Manager What is Taskbar What is a DNS Resolver What does ctrl + 1 do What does ctrl + 0 do How to install software What is a Folder What is a Legend What is a MAC Address What is a Path What is a Ruler What is a Toolbar What is an Intranet Meaning and Differences with Internet What is an SSD What is Inheritance What is Tablet What is Depth What is Docking Station What is Double Click What is a Solid Ink Printer What is a Temporary File What is Backup and Restore What is Electronic Payment Systems Eps What is Marshalling


Difference between hardware and software Difference between multiprocessor and distributed systems Difference between Desktop and Laptop Difference between File and folder Difference between Hard Copy and Soft Copy Open Source Programs vs Closed Source Programs Difference between Optical Fibre and Coaxial Cable Difference between Website and Webpage Difference between Classes and Objects Input VS Output Difference between Primary and Secondary Storage with Examples


Quantum Computing Computer Software Autoexec.bat and config.sys info Update an Antivirus Use of Internet Advantages and disadvantages of Email Computing Power Internet Explorer Shortcut Keys Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) Augmented Reality Infrastructure Readiness Check Top 10 Internet tips and tricks Introduction and Features of FoxPro Features of Multimedia Top 10 online services and applications Receiving S.M.A.R.T. status bad backup and replacing error Version Control System Uninstalling Software or Apps in Windows Data Warehouse Increase or decrease font size in Word using keyboard shortcuts Mouse not detected or working in Windows Computer Cleaning Information and Steps Function Keys on Keyboard Windows 7 Alt+Tab won’t stay on top or stick 10 Essential Examples of Web Browsers Binary Subtraction using 2’s Complement Case Sensitive Languages Computer Pioneers and people who are CEO Microsoft Word Shortcut Keys Parts of Computers Names, Definitions and Images ROM and its Types Basics of Information Technology Characteristics of a Good Software Design Characteristics of Management Information System Classification of Management Information System Implementation of MIS Input Devices of Computer Definition Limitations of Management Information System 3 Types Of Network in Computer Block Diagram Of Control Unit Difference Between Computer and Embedded System Difference Between Hard Disk and Floppy Disk Abstraction in OOAD Hardware and Software Devices Optomechanical Mouse CMOS Memory What is a Terminal? What is Graphic Design? What is Load? What is Passcode? What is Reboot? What is Registry? What is Safe Mode? What is Standby? What is SYN (Synchronize)? What is Task Manager? Attribute Computing BPS in Computer Bulletin Board System Light Pen Input Device 3 TYPES OF NETWORK IN COMPUTER Block diagram of control unit What is a Solid Ink Printer? What is a Temporary File? What is an App launcher? What is Backup and Restore? What is a Tab Character? What is the Core i3? What is Paint? What is a Workbook? Advantages and Disadvantages of Online Education What is a String? What is a VDU (Visible Display Unit)? 50 Uses of Computer What is Workspace? What is a Procedural Language? What is VGA (Video Graphics Array)? Object Linking and Embedding in MS Word Semiconductor Memory Types of Parallel Computing Web Resources Difference between Virus, Worm and Trojan Horse Difference between HQ (High Quality) and HD (High Definition) What is Text Wrapping What is Timestamp? Semiconductor Ram Memory What is a File Attribute? What is a Video Call? Difference between SDRAM and DDR What is ANSI? Difference between DOS and Windows How to Set the Path and Environment Variables in Windows? Mainframe System What is ScanDisk? C drive in Mac Computer Memory Table How to Change the Keyboard Language in Windows? What is a Video Call? What is a Zoom Slider? What is Floppy Disk in Computer What is the most Popular Operating System? OMR in Computer What is a Work Area?

What is Composite?

Composite can have different meanings depending on the context, but generally, it refers to something made up of multiple parts or elements combined to form a whole. In materials science, a composite material comprises two or more different components, such as fibres and a matrix, that are connected to give the material new properties. Composite can be referred to in terms of composite cable and composite chips. 

What is Composite?

A Composite cable is a type of cable that combines multiple signals into a single line. This is typically used for audio and video signals, where the audio is combined with the video in a single cable rather than having separate cables for audio and video. It typically consists of three RCA connectors: one for video and two for left and right audio. Composite lines generally are colour-coded, with yellow for video and red and white for audio. Composite cables are usually considered lower picture quality than audio/video cables, such as HDMI or component cables.

History of Composite cable

The history of composite cable can be traced back to the early days of telecommunications and electrical engineering. In the 19th century, telegraph cables were the first composite cables to transmit electrical signals over long distances. These cables were made up of multiple copper wires, each insulated with gutta-percha, and were bundled inside a protective sheath. In the 20th century, the need for composite cables increased with the advent of new technologies such as the telephone and television.

The first telephone cables were made of copper wires insulated with rubber and bundled together in a protective sheath. As technology continued to evolve, composite cables began to be used in various applications, including audio, video, and data transmission. In the 1960s, the first composite cables for video transmission were developed. These cables were made up of multiple conductors, each carrying a different video signal, such as luminance and colour. In the 1970s, the first composite cables for data transmission were developed.

These cables were composed of multiple conductors, each carrying a different data signal, such as Ethernet and serial data. With the advent of digital technology in the 1980s and 1990s, composite cables have become increasingly important for data transmission, as they can carry multiple digital signals simultaneously. Composite cables are used in various applications, including telecommunications, audio and video transmission, and data transmission.

Features of Composite cable

  • They are widely available and relatively inexpensive, making them a common choice for connecting older devices to TVs.
  • They are analogue cables, meaning they transmit the signal in a continuous wave instead of digital wires that send the password in discrete packets.
  • They are not capable of transmitting HD video, only standard definition video.
  • They provide a single channel for video and audio, as opposed to HDMI or component cables which can provide multiple channels.

Uses of Composite cable

  • Composite cables are typically used for the following purposes. 
  • We connect older devices, such as VCRs, DVD players, and game consoles, to televisions.
  • We are connecting older camcorders to a TV or a video editing device.
  • I am connecting a video output from a computer to a TV or a video projector.
  • We connect audio equipment, such as a stereo or home theatre system, to a TV or other video source.
  • Connecting a security camera to a monitor or recording device
  • Connecting a video output from a medical device to a monitor or recording device in medical settings
  • You connect a video output from an industrial machine or equipment to a monitor or recording device in industrial settings.
  • They were a cost-effective solution for connecting devices that don't support more advanced video connectivity options, such as HDMI or DisplayPort.

Composition of Composite cable

The composition of a composite cable can vary depending on the specific application and requirements, but generally, it is composed of the following components:

  • Insulation: The insulation surrounds each conductor in the cable to protect it from electrical interference and to prevent electrical current from flowing between conductors.
  • Conductors: These wires inside the cable carry electrical current. They can be made of copper, aluminium, or other metals.
  • Shielding: Shielding protects the cable from electromagnetic interference (EMI) and radio frequency interference (RFI).
  • Jacket: The jacket is the cable's outer layer that provides mechanical protection and insulation.
  • Connectors: Connectors are used to terminate the cable and make it possible to connect to other devices or systems.
  • Drain wire: A drain wire is a wire that runs along the cable and serves as a ground connection to dissipate electrostatic and electromagnetic interference.

The number, size, and arrangement of the conductors within a composite cable can vary depending on the application and requirements. For example, a composite cable for a video signal may have three conductors for video and two for stereo audio. In contrast, a composite cable for a data signal may have multiple conductors for different data channels.

Disadvantages of the composite cable

Composite cables have some disadvantages :

  • Complexity: Composite cables contain multiple conductors, so they can be more complex to install and maintain than a single conductor cable.
  • Increased cost: Composite cables can be more expensive than single conductor cables due to the added cost of the multiple conductors and the additional insulation and shielding required.
  • Increased weight: Composite cables can be heavier than single conductor cables due to the added weight of the multiple conductors and the additional insulation and shielding.
  • Limited flexibility: Composite cables can be less flexible than single conductor cables due to the added stiffness of the multiple conductors and the additional insulation and shielding.
  • Limited bending radius: Composite cables have a limited bending radius due to the presence of multiple conductors, which can affect their installation and use in tight spaces.
  • Interference: Composite cables can be more susceptible to (EMI) electromagnetic interference and (RFI) radio frequency interference due to the presence of multiple conductors. This may result in signal degradation and loss of data.
  • Difficult to identify: Composite cables can be difficult to identify the specific conductor within the cable; this can be an issue if a specific conductor is damaged and needs to be repaired.

Limited scalability: Composite cables may have limitations regarding the number of conductors that can be included in a single cable, limiting its scalability and flexibility in certain applications.

It's worth mentioning that despite the above disadvantages, composite cables have many advantages, such as increased functionality and capacity, which makes them suitable for many applications.

Composite chips, also known as System-on-a-Chip (SoC) or System-on-Package (SoP), are integrated circuits that combine multiple components and functions into a single chip. These components can include processors, memory, input/output interfaces, and other details such as wireless or power management. Composite chips aim to reduce the size and cost of electronic devices while increasing their performance and functionality. They can be made using various technologies, including flip-chip and wire bonding.

What is Composite?

History of composite chip

The history of composite chips can be traced back to the early days of integrated circuit technology. In the 1960s and 1970s, early mixed chips were made up of multiple individual integrated circuits (ICs) packaged together in a single package. These early composite chips were used in digital logic and memory applications. As technology continued to evolve, mixed chips began to be used in various applications, including microprocessors, communication systems, and consumer electronics. In the 1980s, the first microprocessor-based composite chips were developed. These chips combined a microprocessor with other components such as memory, digital logic, and analogue circuits. In the 1990s, the first system-on-a-chip (SoC) composite chips were developed.

These chips combine multiple components, such as a microprocessor, memory, digital logic, analogue circuits, and communication interfaces on a single chip. With the advent of advanced manufacturing technologies, such as deep-submicron and 3D integration, composite chips have become increasingly sophisticated, allowing for the integration of more components and increased functionality. Assorted chips are widely used in various applications, including smartphones, laptops, servers, and IoT devices. They are also known as System on Chip (SoC) or Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASIC). Composite chips are now an essential technology in the industry, and their use is expected to continue to grow as the need for increased functionality and performance in electronic devices continues to rise.

Top of Form

Features of Composite chip

Composite chips have several key features that make them useful for a wide range of electronic devices:

  • Increased functionality: Composite chips can offer more functionality than a single chip alone by combining multiple individual chips into a single package.
  • Smaller size: Composite chips take up less space than multiple individual chips, allowing for more compact electronic devices.
  • Increased performance: Composite chips can offer improved performance and faster processing speeds by integrating multiple chips into a single package.
  • Increased reliability: Composite chips are less prone to failure than individual chips, as any damage to one chip will not necessarily affect the other chips in the package.
  • Cost-effective: Composite chips can be more cost-effective than individual chips, as they can be manufactured in larger quantities and at a lower cost per chip.
  • Flexibility: Composite chips can be customized to meet specific requirements and can be used in a wide range of applications, such as in telecommunications, data storage, and consumer electronics.

 Uses of composite chip

Composite chips are used in a wide range of electronic devices and applications, including:

  • Telecommunications: Composite chips are used in telecommunications equipment to integrate multiple functions such as signal processing, data routing, and encryption.
  • Data storage: Composite chips are used in data storage devices to integrate multiple functions such as memory, controllers, and interfaces.
  • Consumer electronics: Composite chips are used in consumer electronic devices such as televisions, DVD players, and home theatre systems to integrate multiple functions such as video and audio processing.
  • Industrial and Medical applications: Composite chips are used in industrial and medical devices, for example, in sensors, control systems and robotics.
  • Space technology: Composite chips are used in space technology, for example, in satellites, rovers and other space crafts to integrate multiple functions, like communication, navigation and control.
  • Smartphones: Composite chips are used in smartphones to integrate multiple functions, such as the application processor, modem, and memory, into a single package.
  • Computers: Composite chips integrate multiple components, such as the CPU, memory, and storage, into a single package.                                                                 
  • Automobiles: Composite chips are used in cars to control various systems, including engine management, transmission control, and infotainment systems.                                                   

Composition of Composite chip

The composition of a composite chip can vary depending on the specific application and the requirements of the device it will be used in. However, a composite chip is generally composed of multiple individual chips combined into a single package. The individual chips that make up a composite chip can include the following:

  • Application processor: This chip runs the device's main operating system and applications.
  • Memory: This chip stores data and instructions for the application processor to access.
  • Modem: This chip handles communication with other devices, such as connecting to a cellular network.
  • Power management: This chip is responsible for managing the power supply to the other components of the device.
  • Analog and digital signal processing: These chips are responsible for converting analogue signals, such as audio and video, into digital signals.
  • Sensors: These chips collect data from the environment, such as temperature, light, and motion.
  • Controllers: These chips control specific functions of the device, such as the display or the touch screen.
  • Interfaces: These chips connect the composite chip with other external devices or systems.

All these chips are interconnected and communicate through a common bus, a set of communication lines to transfer data, address and control signals. Depending on the specific application and requirements of the device, additional chips may be included in the composite chip package.

Disadvantages of composite chip

Composite chips have some disadvantages :

  • Complexity: Composite chips can be more complex to design, manufacture, and test than single-chip solutions due to the increased number of components and interfaces that need to be integrated.
  • Increased cost: Composite chips can be more expensive than single-chip solutions due to the added cost of the multiple components and the additional packaging and testing required.
  • Limited scalability: Composite chips may have limitations in terms of the number of components that can be included in a single package, limiting its scalability and flexibility in certain applications.
  • Power consumption: Integrating multiple components in a single package can increase the device's power consumption, which can be a concern in battery-powered applications.
  • Thermal management: Managing the heat generated by multiple components in a single package can be challenging, affecting the device's performance and reliability.
  • Testing and debugging: Testing and debugging composite chips can be more difficult than testing and debugging single-chip solutions due to the increased complexity of the device.
  • Reliability: Composite chips may be less reliable than single-chip solutions due to the increased number of interfaces and components that can fail.
  • Limited customization: Composite chips may be less customizable than single-chip solutions due to the limited number of components that can be included in a single package.