Computer Fundamentals Index

Computer Introduction Types of computer Characteristics of computer Uses of computer History of Computers

Computer Languages

Low Level language Middle level Language High level language

Computer Generation

Generation of Computers First Generation of Computer Second generation of Computers Third generation of Computers Fourth generation of Computers Fifth generation of Computers Sixth Generation of Computer

Peripheral Devices

Input devices Output device


Block diagram and basic components Control processing unit (CPU) Software Hardware


Computer Memory Registers Memory Hierarchy RAM Vs ROM Understanding file sizes (Bytes, KB, MB, GB, TB, PB, EB, ZB, YB)

Computer Network

Types of Network Types of Area Networks (LAN, WAN, MAN) TCP Flags

Computer Virus

Computer Virus

Computer Ports

Computer Ports


How to hack a computer How much do Computer Programmers make How does a Computer work How to associate a file with a program How does a computer convert text into binary How does a computer process data into information How to fix a CD-ROM DVD How to fix the no input signal How to install computer memory How to associate a file with a program How to log out of your operating system How do I change my name on Google How to installation or uninstallation Microsoft Paint How to fix a not a valid Win32 application error How to fix missing Microsoft Windows .dll files How to use a computer keyboard How to erase my hard drive and start over How can I test how many words I can write a minute How to shut down a computer How do I open and edit the Windows registry How to edit the registry from the command line How to restart Microsoft Windows How to install a computer processor How to open Microsoft Paint How to fix problems in Windows after installing new software How to enable or disable the preview pane of Microsoft Outlook How to open a Microsoft .wps or Works file in Word How to view the HTML source code in Microsoft Word How to View or Change the Screen Resolution of a Monitor How to Connect and Install a Computer Keyboard How to Delete Temporary Files in Windows 10 How to determine Which Version of Microsoft Office I'm using How to find out how much hard drive space is available How to Fix PC Stuck on Verifying DMI Pool Data How to choose which items show in the notification area How to find similar images using Search by Image How to fix Low Memory and out of memory errors How To Replace the CMOS Battery How do I Update my Antivirus Program How to fix a general protection fault How to Identify problems in the Windows Device Manager How can the Base be Shown How to test if a Website or Web Page is down How Much is 1 Byte, Kilobyte, Megabyte, Gigabyte, etc How to fix a CMOS checksum error How to Fix a Windows CD-ROM, DVD, or Disc Drive Issue How to Open Safe Mode How to Password Protect Files and Folders in Windows How to Reset CMOS or BIOS Settings How to use Computer Keyboard How to create a text file How to enable or disable DHCP in Windows How to test computer memory to determine if its bad How do double space or change line spacing in Microsoft Word How do I know if I have Windows Administrator Rights How many cores does my computer have How to Create a Directory or Folder How to Enter and Exit the BIOS or CMOS Setup How to change Windows Compatibility mode How to clear your internet browser history How to Connect Computer Speakers How to Copy a Web Page Link or URL How to install a Hard Drive or SSD How to Open the Windows Control Panel How to split a screen in Windows How to copy text from a scanned PDF


Who invented Computer What are the advantages of the Internet? What are the disadvantages of the Internet? Is my computer 64 bit? What is Edge Computing? What is a Router? What is Monitor What is Printer What is a Web Browser What is Microphone What is a Webcam What is PC What is Keyboard What is Motherboard What is WAP What is URL What is a Digital Assistant When was the first Computer Invented What is Modem What is Firmware What is Imperative Programming What is Protocol What is Safe Mode What is Device Driver What is Hybrid Topology What is Mesh Topology What is Procedural language What is a hyperlink What is a Username Who invented the Internet What is Video Card What is Sound Card What is Binary What does Alt+B do What does Alt+D do What does Alt+E do What does Alt+Esc do What does Alt+R do What does ALT + Q do What does Alt + Tab do What is Data Manipulation What is a touch screen What is Back Panel What is Analog Monitor What is AR lens What is an ATX Style Connector What is a File System What is Hard Disk Drive (HDD) What is a boot device What is accessibility What is Line In What is network Interface card (NIC) What is Optical Disk Where can I ask questions on the internet What is Auto Rotate What is CAD (Computer-aided design) What is Cable Modem What is Home Page What is boot menu What is braille reader What is flash memory What is Windows What is Clipboard What is Cyber Warfare What is Myspace Why has my IP address changed What is Jacquard Loom My computer is running slow, what steps can I do to fix it What is a Kensington Lock What is a multicore processor What is automation Are smartphones and tablets computers What is a Login Script What is a Loosely Typed Language What is Multitasking? Why my computer monitor shows no display or black screen What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is the Pg Dn Key (Page Down Key) What is the Pg up Key (Page up Key) What is Palmtop Computer What is a Processing Device What is a Print Preview What is the Print Screen Key What can I do if my computer or laptop is lost or stolen What is a Model Number What are the currently available antivirus programs What are Toggle keys What is a Case fan What is a Silicon Chip What is a Slate PC What is a TAB stop What is an Octothorpe What is Task Pane What is Task View What is the svchost.exe file used for in Windows Where can I find free online virus scanners Why am I unable to increase the resolution in Windows What is Autofill When I click my mouse, it sometimes double-clicks What is Scratch What is UDIMM What is MsConfig What is an Expansion Card What is an Executable File What is an Elevated Command Prompt What is an AC Adapter What is AIMBOT What is a Software Suite What is a LED Monitor What does Alt + X do What does alt + space do What does Alt + O do Now that I’ve got a Computer, what can i do What is a Punch Card What is RDIMM What is Select All What is Serial number What is Thermos flask What programs can I use for speech recognition What are the Advantages of Computers What are the Disadvantages of Computers What does Alt + T do What Hardware Device Drivers should be Updated What is a Desktop What is a Ring Topology What is CMOS What is a Directory What is a Mechanical Mouse What is a Plotter What is a Variable What is an Icon What is Data What is HDMI What is Remote What is Right-Click What is SMPS Why does my Laptop not turn on What is a Copyright What is a Cordless Mouse What is a CSV file What is a Joystick What is a Start Button What is a Taskbar What is an Alignment What is an Output Device What is Cat 5 What is Google Chrome What is Post What are Recordable DVD Drives What Does Alt + F4 Do What Does Alt + L Do What is a bit (Binary Digit) What is a cable What is a Calculator What is a capacitor What is a Cold Boot What is a Dialog Box What is a Dual-boot What is a Slide What is A4 What is AM What is Barcode Reader What is EHCI What is a Header What is a Joystick What is a Secondary Storage Device What is Access Time What is Account Sharing What is an Asterisk What is Asynchronous DRAM What is Back Quote What is BIOS What is Borderless Printing What is Case Badge What is CD-ROM What is Chat Slang What is Composite What is RJ Cable What Are Bottom Row Keys What is SAN What is Tray What is VDU What Does Alt + M Do What Does Alt + P Do What is a Cell What is a Command Key What is a key Combination What is a Menu Bar What is a Startup What is a T What is Chat What are the F1 through F12 keys What does Alt + Enter do What Does Alt + Home DO What does Alt + R do What does Ctrl + B do What Does Ctrl + Enter Do What Does Ctrl + R Do What does Ctrl + G do What does Ctrl + 9 do What does Ctrl + End do What does Ctrl + O do What Does Ctrl + P do What Does Ctrl + Q do What is a Colon What is a Core What is Apple Touch Icon What is Clock What is Code What is Computer Crime What is Ctrl What is DAT What is Data diddling What is Date Why won't my computer turn on What Does Alt + N Do What does ctrl + 2 do What does ctrl + space do What does Ctrl + W do What does Ctrl + T Do What Does Ctrl + 2 do What does Ctrl + 5 Do What are the most common file types and file extensions What are Sticky keys What Does Ctrl + Shift + Esc Do What is Settings What is Task Manager What is Taskbar What is a DNS Resolver What does ctrl + 1 do What does ctrl + 0 do How to install software What is a Folder What is a Legend What is a MAC Address What is a Path What is a Ruler What is a Toolbar What is an Intranet Meaning and Differences with Internet What is an SSD What is Inheritance What is Tablet What is Depth What is Docking Station What is Double Click What is a Solid Ink Printer What is a Temporary File What is Backup and Restore What is Electronic Payment Systems Eps What is Marshalling


Difference between hardware and software Difference between multiprocessor and distributed systems Difference between Desktop and Laptop Difference between File and folder Difference between Hard Copy and Soft Copy Open Source Programs vs Closed Source Programs Difference between Optical Fibre and Coaxial Cable Difference between Website and Webpage Difference between Classes and Objects Input VS Output Difference between Primary and Secondary Storage with Examples


Quantum Computing Computer Software Autoexec.bat and config.sys info Update an Antivirus Use of Internet Advantages and disadvantages of Email Computing Power Internet Explorer Shortcut Keys Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) Augmented Reality Infrastructure Readiness Check Top 10 Internet tips and tricks Introduction and Features of FoxPro Features of Multimedia Top 10 online services and applications Receiving S.M.A.R.T. status bad backup and replacing error Version Control System Uninstalling Software or Apps in Windows Data Warehouse Increase or decrease font size in Word using keyboard shortcuts Mouse not detected or working in Windows Computer Cleaning Information and Steps Function Keys on Keyboard Windows 7 Alt+Tab won’t stay on top or stick 10 Essential Examples of Web Browsers Binary Subtraction using 2’s Complement Case Sensitive Languages Computer Pioneers and people who are CEO Microsoft Word Shortcut Keys Parts of Computers Names, Definitions and Images ROM and its Types Basics of Information Technology Characteristics of a Good Software Design Characteristics of Management Information System Classification of Management Information System Implementation of MIS Input Devices of Computer Definition Limitations of Management Information System 3 Types Of Network in Computer Block Diagram Of Control Unit Difference Between Computer and Embedded System Difference Between Hard Disk and Floppy Disk Abstraction in OOAD Hardware and Software Devices Optomechanical Mouse CMOS Memory What is a Terminal? What is Graphic Design? What is Load? What is Passcode? What is Reboot? What is Registry? What is Safe Mode? What is Standby? What is SYN (Synchronize)? What is Task Manager? Attribute Computing BPS in Computer Bulletin Board System Light Pen Input Device 3 TYPES OF NETWORK IN COMPUTER Block diagram of control unit What is a Solid Ink Printer? What is a Temporary File? What is an App launcher? What is Backup and Restore? What is a Tab Character? What is the Core i3? What is Paint? What is a Workbook? Advantages and Disadvantages of Online Education What is a String? What is a VDU (Visible Display Unit)? 50 Uses of Computer What is Workspace? What is a Procedural Language? What is VGA (Video Graphics Array)? Object Linking and Embedding in MS Word Semiconductor Memory Types of Parallel Computing Web Resources Difference between Virus, Worm and Trojan Horse Difference between HQ (High Quality) and HD (High Definition) What is Text Wrapping What is Timestamp? Semiconductor Ram Memory What is a File Attribute? What is a Video Call? Difference between SDRAM and DDR What is ANSI? Difference between DOS and Windows How to Set the Path and Environment Variables in Windows? Mainframe System What is ScanDisk? C drive in Mac Computer Memory Table How to Change the Keyboard Language in Windows? What is a Video Call? What is a Zoom Slider? What is Floppy Disk in Computer What is the most Popular Operating System? OMR in Computer What is a Work Area?

Quantum Computing

Quantum Computing

Topics Covered

  1. What is Quantum Computing
  2. Applications of Quantum Computing
  3. How Quantum Computing works
  4. Difference between classical computers and Quantum Computers

What is Quantum Computing?

We all know that quantum physics is based on atoms' concepts and its fundamental particles like electrons and photons. It is known to be one of the most successful modern science inventions that describes the mode our world works at the most fundamental level. The quantum computing theory is based only on the science of quantum physics.

Quantum computing technology operates by controlling the behavior of certain particles in a way that is entirely different from our usual computers and solves complex computer problems. It advances the quantum-mechanical phenomena such as superposition and entanglement and aims to deliver incredible lift in computational power”.

Many people misunderstand the concept of quantum computers as a powerful and upgrade version of our current computers. But this is so no true. For example, we cannot consider the electric bulb's invention as a powerful version of candles. Of course, both ignite and emit light, but both work with a different mechanism. One cannot create an electric bulb by assembling more or more candles of better quality. The electric bulb is a different technology enrooted with in-depth scientific knowledge. Unlike the electric bulb have completed transformed the society and has shown it the value of light even in the darkest and remote areas. Similarly, in the coming years, quantum computers can influence so many aspects of our lives, including our security needs, healthcare, Internet, and other sectors.

Applications of Quantum Computing

Human’s drive to explore has opened the door to new possibilities. There is a new wave in computer technology names as ‘Quantum Computing’ being quietly developed in basement labs and offices. Companies like Google, Microsoft, and IBM are investing proficiently in developing quantum computers in recent years. Indeed, it is faster, safer, and better at solving various levels and industries' problems. Below given is the application where quantum computing can interfere to enhance their performance:



Quantum Computing technology is used to create private keys for encrypting messages sent from one location to another. Quantum theory possesses uncertainty that blocks the path for hackers to copy the private key and breach the security secretly. It requires hackers to break the laws of quantum physics to hack the key. Quantum mechanics is reinventing the aspects of security though the unbreakable encryption.

Healthcare & Medicine Industry


Secondly, quantum technologies have an enormous scope to amend the healthcare and medicine industry's laws and behavior. Medicines and chemicals are made by the brief study, analysis, and development of various drugs. It is an incredibly difficult and challenging aspect to compute and calculate all the properties of an atom and molecule involved and usually takes our drug scientist a reasonable timespan in its creation.

The acknowledgment of Quantum Computing will benefit from simplifying those areas and can help operate its quantum properties as atoms and molecules. Different organizations are trying to develop a future involving large-scale quantum simulations for drug development. Thus, it could perhaps help treat diseases like Alzheimer's, Cancer, which endangers thousands of lives.

Teleport Technology


The third quantum application is the teleportation of information from one place to another without using any physical medium to transmit it. In other words, you can relate to ‘sci-fi.’ This teleportation is feasible because the quantum particles' fluid identity is capable enough to entangle through space and time. This whole theory creates a balance so that if you alter something about one particle, the impact could be seen in other particles. Thus, creating a portal for teleportation. Scientists have conducted various research to demonstrate this theory. Even it could be primarily involved in the invention of quantum internet (the future of quantum computing). 

Quantum Cryptography


The art of protecting information by transferring it into an unreadable format is called quantum cryptography. It uses the fundamental laws of physics and makes encryption stronger. This technology is based on constructing and analyzing protocols that prevent third parties or hackers from reading private data. It uses the concept of the encryption key and decryption key to secure the connections. It firstly converts the readable message to an unreadable form or random numbers and uses a key to encrypt the message through encryption algorithms. It fetches a new value called ciphertext, which is sent to the other communication channel. If somebody tries to discover the message, he won’t decrypt the message without having the proper key to unlock the message. Thus, your message is safe and secure, and nobody could tamper it.

Quantum Machine Learning & AI


Artificial learning has its foundations in machines that learn from experience, and in the future, this technology will transform everything. On the other hand, we have quantum computing experiencing rapid growth to solve problems. If we combine both these technologies, a concept will emerge named Quantum machine learning. This learning replaces possibilities of much more sophisticated decision making.

Financial Industry


The core of any financial services is to build an investment strategy. Indeed, it involves big risks as its always skeptical whether the investment will make you any returns. But, it is all about decision-making. There are plenty of options to consider, and all that matters is the best judgment to make decisions at the right time. But too many variables make it complicated. For Example: To fetch a 4-digit code, we have 10,000 options, and if we use classical computing methods to look at all those possibilities, it could take months or even years. Thus, quantum computing has inspired computers and enabled fast computing. It looks at all of the millions of options simultaneously and can provide the information in a real-time accelerated way.

How Quantum Computing works

The classical computers use transistors to operate the information in Bits, where each bit represents a combination of 0 or 1. The computer switches on or off, up or down (0 and 1), and translates the information into binary to compute functions and perform its calculation.



Unlike classical computers have bits, quantum computers have Qubits. The quantum qubit state has undefined properties of an object and represents 0 or 1 or can be in any proportions of both states at once. Multiple Qubits are properly aligned in groups to generate incredibly powerful processing systems. It can only possess the properties, unlike superposition and entanglement, only if the qubit is coupled with another qubit. The qubits are exceedingly small in a structure such as you can place 100 million qubits inside one square centimeter of the chip.

Qubits are made up of semiconducting materials, unlike the outer electron of a phosphorus atom can also be used as a Qubit. They are embedded in a silicon crystal placed next to a tiny transistor. The electron has a magnetic dipole called its spin, which is exceptionally reliable to switch its directions. It has two orientations known as up or down (in computer terms 0 or1), applied to a strong magnetic field.

The electron sits inside a superconducting magnet made up of large coiled solenoid to line up the electron. If the electron spin with its pointer pointing down, it signifies its lowest energy state, and as a result it would gain some energy to put it into the spin-up state but not that much energy. There is not enough thermal energy in the surroundings to flip it the other way now. If you want to write information on to the cube, you can put the electron into the spin-up state by hitting it with a microwave pulse with a specific frequency. 



The proportion of 0 and 1 together in equal state is known as Superposition property. It can also set to be one of these two values. Quantum computers can process more data than classical computers because they can exist in a superposition or a combination of both 0 and 1, with some probability of being 0, and some probability of being one. Thus, an elementary particle can be in multiple states simultaneously.



Another unintuitive property the qubit pursue is Entanglement. It refers to a close connection that enables the qubits to change their property instantaneously if there is any change in the partner qubit no matter how far they are apart. While measuring just one entangled qubit, you can directly modify the properties of its partner without having a look.  The current logic gate works by taking a set of binary inputs and generates one definite result. On the contrary, a quantum gate manipulates superpositions' input, rotates its probabilities, and results in another superposition as its output. 

For example, if you flip a coin game on classical computers, and end up choosing head. 

There would be a 50% probability that you may win the game and 50 % probability you may lose. But with Quantum computers, there is a 97% winning chance, and the remaining 3% is losing chance (that is because of computer errors and network problems) because of Superposition. Thus, it is known as Game-Changer.

Quantum computing has the potential to solve all the computational problems that are beyond the reach of classical computers processing the information in bits. It is programmed using the above principles, sophisticated versions that help quantum computers solve difficult problems that are virtually impossible with classical computers. One of the times, a quantum computer uses its entangled quantum states to find the correct liquid with far fewer calculations, they give it this way technologies that are currently running classical computers in science.

Difference between Classical Computer and Quantum Computers

Difference between Classical Computer and Quantum Computers
The classical computers operate the information in Bits, where each bit represents a combination of 0 or 1.Quantum computers have Qubits which can take either 0 or 1 or both simultaneously in any proportion.
It uses regular gates or logical operators, unlike Gate, AND, Not, etc., for data processing. They are not reversible.It uses quantum gates, unlike Hardmard, NOT, CNOT, etc., for its data processing. They are unitary operational, and all are reversible.
It uses transistors to operate as its data carriers, which switches the gates on and off.Quantum computers use photons, electrons, and atoms (Ion) to polarize and spin the data carriers and maintain their energy levels.
Classical Computers have already marked its presence and today are used in almost every sector and have become a part of our lives.Quantum computers are still alien to many people. They are under development and still taking their proper shape.
They may take longer timespan for a bulky computation. For example: To fetch the prime factors of a 1999-bit number, it would take a classical computer for millions of years.They use the quantum superposition advantage to reduce the number of steps required to complete the computation. For example, A quantum computer can find the prime factors of 1999-bit numbers in just minutes.
They are used for searching, application software development, playing games, storing, and manipulating data, business functionalities, and advanced scientific research as well. These computers are used for advanced functionalities. Robotics, AI, Machine Learning, quantum cryptography, teleport technology will all be advanced with this technology.