# Quantum Computing

*Topics Covered*

*What is Quantum Computing**Applications of Quantum Computing**How Quantum Computing works**Difference between classical computers and Quantum Computers*

### What is Quantum Computing?

We all know that quantum physics is based on atoms' concepts and its fundamental particles like electrons and photons. It is known to be one of the most successful modern science inventions that describes the mode our world works at the most fundamental level. The quantum computing theory is based only on the science of quantum physics.

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”.Quantum computing technology operates by controlling the behavior of certain particles in a way that is entirely different from our usual computers and solves complex computer problems. It advances the quantum-mechanical phenomena such as superposition and entanglement and aims to deliver incredible lift in computational power

Many people misunderstand the concept of quantum computers as a powerful and upgrade version of our current computers. But this is so no true. For example, we cannot consider the electric bulb's invention as a powerful version of candles. Of course, both ignite and emit light, but both work with a different mechanism. One cannot create an electric bulb by assembling more or more candles of better quality. The electric bulb is a different technology enrooted with in-depth scientific knowledge. Unlike the electric bulb have completed transformed the society and has shown it the value of light even in the darkest and remote areas. Similarly, in the coming years, quantum computers can influence so many aspects of our lives, including our security needs, healthcare, Internet, and other sectors.

### Applications of Quantum Computing

Human’s drive to explore has opened the door to new possibilities. There is a new wave in computer technology names as ‘Quantum Computing’ being quietly developed in basement labs and offices. Companies like Google, Microsoft, and IBM are investing proficiently in developing quantum computers in recent years. Indeed, it is faster, safer, and better at solving various levels and industries' problems. Below given is the application where quantum computing can interfere to enhance their performance:

__Security__

__Security__

Quantum Computing technology is used to create private keys for encrypting messages sent from one location to another. Quantum theory possesses uncertainty that blocks the path for hackers to copy the private key and breach the security secretly. It requires hackers to break the laws of quantum physics to hack the key. Quantum mechanics is reinventing the aspects of security though the unbreakable encryption.

__Healthcare & Medicine Industry__

__Healthcare & Medicine Industry__

Secondly, quantum technologies have an enormous scope to amend the healthcare and medicine industry's laws and behavior. Medicines and chemicals are made by the brief study, analysis, and development of various drugs. It is an incredibly difficult and challenging aspect to compute and calculate all the properties of an atom and molecule involved and usually takes our drug scientist a reasonable timespan in its creation.

The acknowledgment of Quantum Computing will benefit from simplifying those areas and can help operate its quantum properties as atoms and molecules. Different organizations are trying to develop a future involving large-scale quantum simulations for drug development. Thus, it could perhaps help treat diseases like Alzheimer's, Cancer, which endangers thousands of lives.

__Teleport Technology__

__Teleport Technology__

The third quantum application is the teleportation of information from one place to another without using any physical medium to transmit it. In other words, you can relate to **‘sci-fi.’** This teleportation is feasible because the quantum particles' fluid identity is capable enough to entangle through space and time. This whole theory creates a balance so that if you alter something about one particle, the impact could be seen in other particles. Thus, creating a portal for teleportation. Scientists have conducted various research to demonstrate this theory. Even it could be primarily involved in the invention of quantum internet (the future of quantum computing).

__Quantum Cryptography__

__Quantum Cryptography__

The art of protecting information by transferring it into an unreadable format is called quantum cryptography. It uses the fundamental laws of physics and makes encryption stronger. This technology is based on constructing and analyzing protocols that prevent third parties or hackers from reading private data. It uses the concept of the encryption key and decryption key to secure the connections. It firstly converts the readable message to an unreadable form or random numbers and uses a key to encrypt the message through encryption algorithms. It fetches a new value called ciphertext, which is sent to the other communication channel. If somebody tries to discover the message, he won’t decrypt the message without having the proper key to unlock the message. Thus, your message is safe and secure, and nobody could tamper it.

__Quantum Machine Learning & A__I

__Quantum Machine Learning & A__

Artificial learning has its foundations in machines that learn from experience, and in the future, this technology will transform everything. On the other hand, we have quantum computing experiencing rapid growth to solve problems. If we combine both these technologies, a concept will emerge named Quantum machine learning. This learning replaces possibilities of much more sophisticated decision making.

__Financial Industry__

__Financial Industry__

The core of any financial services is to build an investment strategy. Indeed, it involves big risks as its always skeptical whether the investment will make you any returns. But, it is all about decision-making. There are plenty of options to consider, and all that matters is the best judgment to make decisions at the right time. But too many variables make it complicated. For Example: To fetch a 4-digit code, we have 10,000 options, and if we use classical computing methods to look at all those possibilities, it could take months or even years. Thus, quantum computing has inspired computers and enabled fast computing. It looks at all of the millions of options simultaneously and can provide the information in a real-time accelerated way.

### How Quantum Computing works

The classical computers use transistors to operate the information in **Bits**, where each bit represents a combination of 0 or 1. The computer switches on or off, up or down (0 and 1), and translates the information into binary to compute functions and perform its calculation.

__Qubits__

__Qubits__Unlike classical computers have bits, quantum computers have **Qubits**. The quantum qubit state has undefined properties of an object and represents 0 or 1 or can be in any proportions of both states at once. Multiple Qubits are properly aligned in groups to generate incredibly powerful processing systems. It can only possess the properties, unlike **superposition** and **entanglement**, only if the qubit is coupled with another qubit. The qubits are exceedingly small in a structure such as you can place 100 million qubits inside one square centimeter of the chip.

Qubits are made up of semiconducting materials, unlike the outer electron of a phosphorus atom can also be used as a Qubit. They are embedded in a silicon crystal placed next to a tiny transistor. The electron has a magnetic dipole called its spin, which is exceptionally reliable to switch its directions. It has two orientations known as up or down (in computer terms 0 or1), applied to a strong magnetic field.

The electron sits inside a superconducting magnet made up of large coiled solenoid to line up the electron. If the electron spin with its pointer pointing down, it signifies its lowest energy state, and as a result it would gain some energy to put it into the spin-up state but not that much energy. There is not enough thermal energy in the surroundings to flip it the other way now. If you want to write information on to the cube, you can put the electron into the spin-up state by hitting it with a microwave pulse with a specific frequency.

__Superposition__

__Superposition__

The proportion of 0 and 1 together in equal state is known as **Superposition **property. It can also set to be one of these two values. Quantum computers can process more data than classical computers because they can exist in a superposition or a combination of both 0 and 1, with some probability of being 0, and some probability of being one. Thus, an elementary particle can be in multiple states simultaneously.

__Entanglement__

__Entanglement__

Another unintuitive property the qubit pursue is **Entanglement**. It refers to a close connection that enables the qubits to change their property instantaneously if there is any change in the partner qubit no matter how far they are apart. While measuring just one entangled qubit, you can directly modify the properties of its partner without having a look. The current logic gate works by taking a set of binary inputs and generates one definite result. On the contrary, a quantum gate manipulates superpositions' input, rotates its probabilities, and results in another superposition as its output.

**For example**, if you flip a coin game on classical computers, and end up choosing head.

There would be a 50% probability that you may win the game and 50 % probability you may lose. But with Quantum computers, there is a 97% winning chance, and the remaining 3% is losing chance (that is because of computer errors and network problems) because of Superposition. Thus, it is known as Game-Changer.

Quantum computing has the potential to solve all the computational problems that are beyond the reach of classical computers processing the information in bits. It is programmed using the above principles, sophisticated versions that help quantum computers solve difficult problems that are virtually impossible with classical computers. One of the times, a quantum computer uses its entangled quantum states to find the correct liquid with far fewer calculations, they give it this way technologies that are currently running classical computers in science.

### Difference between Classical Computer and Quantum Computers

CLASSICAL COMPUTERS | QUANTUM COMPUTERS |

The classical computers operate the information in Bits, where each bit represents a combination of 0 or 1. | Quantum computers have Qubits which can take either 0 or 1 or both simultaneously in any proportion. |

It uses regular gates or logical operators, unlike Gate, AND, Not, etc., for data processing. They are not reversible. | It uses quantum gates, unlike Hardmard, NOT, CNOT, etc., for its data processing. They are unitary operational, and all are reversible. |

It uses transistors to operate as its data carriers, which switches the gates on and off. | Quantum computers use photons, electrons, and atoms (Ion) to polarize and spin the data carriers and maintain their energy levels. |

Classical Computers have already marked its presence and today are used in almost every sector and have become a part of our lives. | Quantum computers are still alien to many people. They are under development and still taking their proper shape. |

They may take longer timespan for a bulky computation. For example: To fetch the prime factors of a 1999-bit number, it would take a classical computer for millions of years. | They use the quantum superposition advantage to reduce the number of steps required to complete the computation. For example, A quantum computer can find the prime factors of 1999-bit numbers in just minutes. |

They are used for searching, application software development, playing games, storing, and manipulating data, business functionalities, and advanced scientific research as well. | These computers are used for advanced functionalities. Robotics, AI, Machine Learning, quantum cryptography, teleport technology will all be advanced with this technology. |