Computer Fundamentals Index

Computer Introduction Types of computer Characteristics of computer Uses of computer History of Computers

Computer Languages

Low Level language Middle level Language High level language

Computer Generation

Generation of Computers First Generation of Computer Second generation of Computers Third generation of Computers Fourth generation of Computers Fifth generation of Computers Sixth Generation of Computer

Peripheral Devices

Input devices Output device


Block diagram and basic components Control processing unit (CPU) Software Hardware


Computer Memory Registers Memory Hierarchy RAM Vs ROM Understanding file sizes (Bytes, KB, MB, GB, TB, PB, EB, ZB, YB)

Computer Network

Types of Network Types of Area Networks (LAN, WAN, MAN) TCP Flags

Computer Virus

Computer Virus

Computer Ports

Computer Ports


How to hack a computer How much do Computer Programmers make How does a Computer work How to associate a file with a program How does a computer convert text into binary How does a computer process data into information How to fix a CD-ROM DVD How to fix the no input signal How to install computer memory How to associate a file with a program How to log out of your operating system How do I change my name on Google How to installation or uninstallation Microsoft Paint How to fix a not a valid Win32 application error How to fix missing Microsoft Windows .dll files How to use a computer keyboard How to erase my hard drive and start over How can I test how many words I can write a minute How to shut down a computer How do I open and edit the Windows registry How to edit the registry from the command line How to restart Microsoft Windows How to install a computer processor How to open Microsoft Paint How to fix problems in Windows after installing new software How to enable or disable the preview pane of Microsoft Outlook How to open a Microsoft .wps or Works file in Word How to view the HTML source code in Microsoft Word How to View or Change the Screen Resolution of a Monitor How to Connect and Install a Computer Keyboard How to Delete Temporary Files in Windows 10 How to determine Which Version of Microsoft Office I'm using How to find out how much hard drive space is available How to Fix PC Stuck on Verifying DMI Pool Data How to choose which items show in the notification area How to find similar images using Search by Image How to fix Low Memory and out of memory errors How To Replace the CMOS Battery How do I Update my Antivirus Program How to fix a general protection fault How to Identify problems in the Windows Device Manager How can the Base be Shown How to test if a Website or Web Page is down How Much is 1 Byte, Kilobyte, Megabyte, Gigabyte, etc How to fix a CMOS checksum error How to Fix a Windows CD-ROM, DVD, or Disc Drive Issue How to Open Safe Mode How to Password Protect Files and Folders in Windows How to Reset CMOS or BIOS Settings How to use Computer Keyboard How to create a text file How to enable or disable DHCP in Windows How to test computer memory to determine if its bad How do double space or change line spacing in Microsoft Word How do I know if I have Windows Administrator Rights How many cores does my computer have How to Create a Directory or Folder How to Enter and Exit the BIOS or CMOS Setup How to change Windows Compatibility mode How to clear your internet browser history How to Connect Computer Speakers How to Copy a Web Page Link or URL How to install a Hard Drive or SSD How to Open the Windows Control Panel How to split a screen in Windows How to copy text from a scanned PDF


Who invented Computer What are the advantages of the Internet? What are the disadvantages of the Internet? Is my computer 64 bit? What is Edge Computing? What is a Router? What is Monitor What is Printer What is a Web Browser What is Microphone What is a Webcam What is PC What is Keyboard What is Motherboard What is WAP What is URL What is a Digital Assistant When was the first Computer Invented What is Modem What is Firmware What is Imperative Programming What is Protocol What is Safe Mode What is Device Driver What is Hybrid Topology What is Mesh Topology What is Procedural language What is a hyperlink What is a Username Who invented the Internet What is Video Card What is Sound Card What is Binary What does Alt+B do What does Alt+D do What does Alt+E do What does Alt+Esc do What does Alt+R do What does ALT + Q do What does Alt + Tab do What is Data Manipulation What is a touch screen What is Back Panel What is Analog Monitor What is AR lens What is an ATX Style Connector What is a File System What is Hard Disk Drive (HDD) What is a boot device What is accessibility What is Line In What is network Interface card (NIC) What is Optical Disk Where can I ask questions on the internet What is Auto Rotate What is CAD (Computer-aided design) What is Cable Modem What is Home Page What is boot menu What is braille reader What is flash memory What is Windows What is Clipboard What is Cyber Warfare What is Myspace Why has my IP address changed What is Jacquard Loom My computer is running slow, what steps can I do to fix it What is a Kensington Lock What is a multicore processor What is automation Are smartphones and tablets computers What is a Login Script What is a Loosely Typed Language What is Multitasking? Why my computer monitor shows no display or black screen What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is the Pg Dn Key (Page Down Key) What is the Pg up Key (Page up Key) What is Palmtop Computer What is a Processing Device What is a Print Preview What is the Print Screen Key What can I do if my computer or laptop is lost or stolen What is a Model Number What are the currently available antivirus programs What are Toggle keys What is a Case fan What is a Silicon Chip What is a Slate PC What is a TAB stop What is an Octothorpe What is Task Pane What is Task View What is the svchost.exe file used for in Windows Where can I find free online virus scanners Why am I unable to increase the resolution in Windows What is Autofill When I click my mouse, it sometimes double-clicks What is Scratch What is UDIMM What is MsConfig What is an Expansion Card What is an Executable File What is an Elevated Command Prompt What is an AC Adapter What is AIMBOT What is a Software Suite What is a LED Monitor What does Alt + X do What does alt + space do What does Alt + O do Now that I’ve got a Computer, what can i do What is a Punch Card What is RDIMM What is Select All What is Serial number What is Thermos flask What programs can I use for speech recognition What are the Advantages of Computers What are the Disadvantages of Computers What does Alt + T do What Hardware Device Drivers should be Updated What is a Desktop What is a Ring Topology What is CMOS What is a Directory What is a Mechanical Mouse What is a Plotter What is a Variable What is an Icon What is Data What is HDMI What is Remote What is Right-Click What is SMPS Why does my Laptop not turn on What is a Copyright What is a Cordless Mouse What is a CSV file What is a Joystick What is a Start Button What is a Taskbar What is an Alignment What is an Output Device What is Cat 5 What is Google Chrome What is Post What are Recordable DVD Drives What Does Alt + F4 Do What Does Alt + L Do What is a bit (Binary Digit) What is a cable What is a Calculator What is a capacitor What is a Cold Boot What is a Dialog Box What is a Dual-boot What is a Slide What is A4 What is AM What is Barcode Reader What is EHCI What is a Header What is a Joystick What is a Secondary Storage Device What is Access Time What is Account Sharing What is an Asterisk What is Asynchronous DRAM What is Back Quote What is BIOS What is Borderless Printing What is Case Badge What is CD-ROM What is Chat Slang What is Composite What is RJ Cable What Are Bottom Row Keys What is SAN What is Tray What is VDU What Does Alt + M Do What Does Alt + P Do What is a Cell What is a Command Key What is a key Combination What is a Menu Bar What is a Startup What is a T What is Chat What are the F1 through F12 keys What does Alt + Enter do What Does Alt + Home DO What does Alt + R do What does Ctrl + B do What Does Ctrl + Enter Do What Does Ctrl + R Do What does Ctrl + G do What does Ctrl + 9 do What does Ctrl + End do What does Ctrl + O do What Does Ctrl + P do What Does Ctrl + Q do What is a Colon What is a Core What is Apple Touch Icon What is Clock What is Code What is Computer Crime What is Ctrl What is DAT What is Data diddling What is Date Why won't my computer turn on What Does Alt + N Do What does ctrl + 2 do What does ctrl + space do What does Ctrl + W do What does Ctrl + T Do What Does Ctrl + 2 do What does Ctrl + 5 Do What are the most common file types and file extensions What are Sticky keys What Does Ctrl + Shift + Esc Do What is Settings What is Task Manager What is Taskbar What is a DNS Resolver What does ctrl + 1 do What does ctrl + 0 do How to install software What is a Folder What is a Legend What is a MAC Address What is a Path What is a Ruler What is a Toolbar What is an Intranet Meaning and Differences with Internet What is an SSD What is Inheritance What is Tablet What is Depth What is Docking Station What is Double Click What is a Solid Ink Printer What is a Temporary File What is Backup and Restore What is Electronic Payment Systems Eps What is Marshalling


Difference between hardware and software Difference between multiprocessor and distributed systems Difference between Desktop and Laptop Difference between File and folder Difference between Hard Copy and Soft Copy Open Source Programs vs Closed Source Programs Difference between Optical Fibre and Coaxial Cable Difference between Website and Webpage Difference between Classes and Objects Input VS Output Difference between Primary and Secondary Storage with Examples


Quantum Computing Computer Software Autoexec.bat and config.sys info Update an Antivirus Use of Internet Advantages and disadvantages of Email Computing Power Internet Explorer Shortcut Keys Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) Augmented Reality Infrastructure Readiness Check Top 10 Internet tips and tricks Introduction and Features of FoxPro Features of Multimedia Top 10 online services and applications Receiving S.M.A.R.T. status bad backup and replacing error Version Control System Uninstalling Software or Apps in Windows Data Warehouse Increase or decrease font size in Word using keyboard shortcuts Mouse not detected or working in Windows Computer Cleaning Information and Steps Function Keys on Keyboard Windows 7 Alt+Tab won’t stay on top or stick 10 Essential Examples of Web Browsers Binary Subtraction using 2’s Complement Case Sensitive Languages Computer Pioneers and people who are CEO Microsoft Word Shortcut Keys Parts of Computers Names, Definitions and Images ROM and its Types Basics of Information Technology Characteristics of a Good Software Design Characteristics of Management Information System Classification of Management Information System Implementation of MIS Input Devices of Computer Definition Limitations of Management Information System 3 Types Of Network in Computer Block Diagram Of Control Unit Difference Between Computer and Embedded System Difference Between Hard Disk and Floppy Disk Abstraction in OOAD Hardware and Software Devices Optomechanical Mouse CMOS Memory What is a Terminal? What is Graphic Design? What is Load? What is Passcode? What is Reboot? What is Registry? What is Safe Mode? What is Standby? What is SYN (Synchronize)? What is Task Manager? Attribute Computing BPS in Computer Bulletin Board System Light Pen Input Device 3 TYPES OF NETWORK IN COMPUTER Block diagram of control unit What is a Solid Ink Printer? What is a Temporary File? What is an App launcher? What is Backup and Restore? What is a Tab Character? What is the Core i3? What is Paint? What is a Workbook? Advantages and Disadvantages of Online Education What is a String? What is a VDU (Visible Display Unit)? 50 Uses of Computer What is Workspace? What is a Procedural Language? What is VGA (Video Graphics Array)? Object Linking and Embedding in MS Word Semiconductor Memory Types of Parallel Computing Web Resources Difference between Virus, Worm and Trojan Horse Difference between HQ (High Quality) and HD (High Definition) What is Text Wrapping What is Timestamp? Semiconductor Ram Memory What is a File Attribute? What is a Video Call? Difference between SDRAM and DDR What is ANSI? Difference between DOS and Windows How to Set the Path and Environment Variables in Windows? Mainframe System What is ScanDisk? C drive in Mac Computer Memory Table How to Change the Keyboard Language in Windows? What is a Video Call? What is a Zoom Slider? What is Floppy Disk in Computer What is the most Popular Operating System? OMR in Computer What is a Work Area?

Computer Cleaning Information and Steps

Clean computing refers to the upkeep of a clean computer, including its hardware and software.

According to one estimate, a computer's average age is five and a half years. During that period, dust may collect inside and outside your device.

It is important to plan clean-ups yearly or monthly, depending on the environment, especially if you have a fuzzy pet.

Computer Cleaning Information and Steps

Why should you clean your computer?

Cleaning your computer's hardware and software is vital for various reasons.

Clean hardware may help you save time and money by extending the life of your computer and improving its performance. Cleaning regularly safeguards both your data and your investment. Cleaning the crumbs from your screen and keyboard increases the operation of your equipment and lowers the probability of it malfunctioning.

The collection of dust and other undesirable particles in your PC's hardware might cause it to suffocate. By wiping the dust out of the fan vents and casing, you may save the system from overheating and irreversibly destroying the internal components of your computer and the data you save on it.

The frequency with which you clean your computer depends on various things. We designed the checklist below to assist you in determining how frequently you should clean your computer. To assist decide how often to clean your computer, check each of the items below that pertain to the characteristics of your computer.

General cleaning tips

The instructions below should be followed while cleaning any computer components or peripherals and advice to help maintain a computer clean.

  1. Never squirt or spray any liquid on a computer component. Spray the liquid onto a cloth if a spray is required.
  2. A vacuum can pick up debris, dust, or hair from around the computer. Consider a battery-powered vacuum or compressed air if you need to vacuum inside your computer. However, please do not use a vacuum inside your computer since it creates static electricity, which might damage it.
  3. Before cleaning a component or the computer, switch it off.
  4. When using cleaning solvents, use caution; some individuals are sensitive to the compounds in cleaning solvents, and some solvents can even harm the case. Use water or a very diluted solvent wherever possible.
  5. When cleaning, do not alter any knobs or controls by accident. Also, if anything is attached to the computer's rear, ensure only to unhook the connectors.
  6. 6) Hold the fan or insert anything between the fan blades to keep it from spinning when cleaning fans, especially smaller ones. Spraying compressed air into a fan or vacuuming may cause damage or produce a back voltage.
  7. Never eat or drink near a computer.
  8. Limit smoking near computers.

Cleaning tools

Although computer cleaning supplies are available, you may also clean your computer and its peripherals with household objects. The following is a list of objects you might need or desire to use while cleaning your computer.

Cloth: Cotton cloth is the ideal instrument for rubbing down computer components. Most hardware may be cleaned with paper towels, but we always suggest using a cloth whenever feasible. However, use a cloth when cleaning components such as the casing, a drive, a mouse, and a keyboard. Do not use a cloth to wipe any electronics, including RAM or the motherboard.

Water or rubbing alcohol: Wet a towel with water or rubbing alcohol recommended. Other solvents may be harmful to the plastics in your computer.

Portable Vacuum: Sucking dust, grime, hair, cigarette particles, and other particles out of a computer is one of the most effective ways to clean it. However, avoid using a vacuum that plugs into the wall since it generates a lot of static electricity, which might damage your computer.

Cotton swabs: Soke with rubbing alcohol or water, cotton swabs are fantastic tools for cleansing hard-to-reach spots on your keyboard, mouse, and other devices.

Foam swabs: Whenever possible, it is better to use nap-free swabs such as foam swabs.

Note: Pure alcohol can be used if the material on a CD cannot be erased with water.

Tools may refer to any of the following:

  1. Regarding software, tools (also known as toolkits) are a collection of fundamental components and accessories that assist software engineers in creating programs more efficiently.
  2. In the case of hardware, tools allow a user to install, uninstall, or conduct other activities on the components of their computer.

Tools to have when working on a computer:

The following tools are listed in order of importance. Ideally, every technician who visits onsite to repair or troubleshoot computers should have the most, if not all of them. Most scenarios, however, only necessitate the use of some of these instruments at the same time. As a result, we've divided the list into parts to assist you in choosing which items you'll need for each project.

Tools for replacing and repairing computer hardware

  • Antistatic rug
  • Set of precision screwdrivers.
  • Air is compressed.
  • Multimeter.
  • Extra components (e.g., power cable, network cable, keyboard, and mouse).
  • Antistatic bags should be empty.
  • A lint-free cloth.
  • Soldering iron with low power, wick, and reel
  • Stripper and wire cutter
  • Tweezers or a components retrieval tool.
  • A postcard.
  • Temperature probe.
  • The heat gun.
  • Spudger.

How frequently should it be done? 

Clean your computer at least one time in a year to avoid stress and heat from reducing its performance and longevity.

Although the ordinary user's computer has a lifespan of many years, thorough cleaning of the hardware and software may result in a few years to the PC's usable life.

Clean software protects your data. Antivirus software and regular application updates help keep viruses, malware, and hackers out of your PC.

You can help ensure that your computer can save your files without unintentionally corrupting them by creating backup copies of your data, removing unwanted programs, and performing maintenance operations such as hard drive defragmentation.

You will surely enjoy a well-kept home. Maintaining order on your computer is also a good idea. For example, having an extra hard drive or employing cloud storage can help you manage your computer while safeguarding vital data.

Cleaning your computer's hardware enhances system performance and extends its life. Regular maintenance safeguards your investment and the crucial data kept inside. Give the screen a good wipe every few days, and clear any crumbs off the keyboard.

Dust can cause computer hardware components to break down quicker, necessitating more frequent component replacements. If not, you must purchase a new PC. Companies and individuals can benefit from saving money by extending the life of their computers by routinely cleaning them.

Step 1: computer cleaning: Hardware

After turning off and unplugging your computer, you should complete a few tasks to keep the hardware in good working order.

1) Clean up your pc

Wipe clean the exterior of your computer with a gentle, dry cloth at least once a week. Remove any fingerprints from the screen. If you wish to employ a cleaning solution, check for one designed specifically for your monitor in a computer store.

The coatings of a monitor screen can be worn away by ordinary household cleansers, causing harm. Instead, gently clean your screen with a soft cloth. This is best accomplished with a microfiber cloth.

To remove tougher smudges, dampen your cloth with purified or filtered water. While filtered or distilled water can help you avoid streaks, ordinary water is typically enough.

If a more thorough cleaning is required, wet a cloth with a 50/50 combination of distilled white vinegar and water and gently scrub your screen clean.

Wring out a clean sponge soaked in mild dish soap and water, and then wipe the interior and exterior of your car laptop case. Gently rub the area.

Before restarting your computer, make sure it is completely dry.

Clear out your keyboard.

Please pick up your keyboard, flip it over, and pat it on the back to remove crumbs, stray hairs, and other minute dirt particles. 

If your keyboard is performing strangely, you may need to open it to "deep clean" it. Gently cleaning the area around the keys can prevent sticking or failure. Consult the documentation with your computer or keyboard for instructions on securely accessing and cleaning this component.

Dust should be removed from the computer's fans, vents, and accessories. Every three to six months, open the exterior casing of your computer using a screwdriver. Clean the dust from the fan and the casing with a compressed air can, which can be purchased at any computer store. Reassemble the case and clean any leftover dirt from the fan vents, little nooks, and crannies outside with cotton swabs.

Consult the manual for instructions on how to clean or open a computer's protective casing.

You may also use the compressed air to clean your keyboard and mouse.

2) Run check disc tool

Microsoft Windows has a Check Disk program that detects hard disk defects before creating further problems. The application will detect and repair issues such as file system faults or damaged sectors. If this is your first time running this scan, perform a comprehensive scan to allow for automated corrections. The operation might last many hours.

3) Check surge protector

Did you know that a single power surge can cause a surge protector to lose its ability to protect? Power surges can severely strain your computer and, in some cases, destroy the power supply and other components. Even if they still appear "on," they could not offer you the security you require. As a result, it's a good idea to examine them regularly, especially after a major power rise.

4) Keep pc ventilated

Maintaining optimal airflow both inside and outside of your computer is crucial. A minimum of three inches on either side of your PC should be clear of obstructions such as other computers, papers, or walls. Check to verify if your space is large or well-ventilated enough to allow for effective ventilation.

Your CPU's fan and blades should also be checked. If your CPU continues to overheat and shut down your computer, you may need to replace it.

Step 2: Cleaning computer: Software

It's time to take care of the software programs that generate and store your critical data. Here's how to care for your computer's "mind" in the same way you care for its "body" to extend its life.

1) Making a backup of your hard disk

It is critical to back up your data, especially vital data. Although a laptop or tablet can be changed, the information on it may differ.

In general, there are two techniques for backing up data:

  • Physically keeping a copy somewhere.
  • USB stick.

Such as on an external hard drive or thumb drive or securely storing a replica online in the "cloud."

Whatever technique you choose, commit to consistently backing up your computer, at the very least once a week and more frequently if you're working on a project or want to save freshly stored images.

2) Get antivirus software to protect yourself against malware

Antivirus software protects your device from viruses and malware that might harm your data or steal information that can be used to commit identity theft. There are both commercial and free antivirus programs available, and the majority of them may be set to run automatically in the background.

3) Update your software and programs

All of your software, especially popular ones like Adobe Reader, Adobe Flash, Chrome, and Windows, should be updated. To keep your computer safe and running swiftly, download and install the latest and recent software versions. Because most updates are designed to safeguard software from threats, outdated software might be infected with viruses.

4) Declutter software program

Check that you are utilizing the applications on your system while completing updates, and consider deleting any apps or data that you no longer require. Cleaning up your space may save your computer from being cluttered with unnecessary data. It also minimizes the number of programs that malware may "hijack" to get access to the machine.

5) Clean your software registry

Keep in mind that your device may perform less efficiently due to this. If you're using Windows, you should also consider cleaning your registry.

Make a backup of your registry to be safe. Your Windows registry is a large database that records everything you do on your computer. Making sure it's clean is something to consider. You must reinstall your operating system if you make a mistake when clearing your registry. But proceed with care.

6) Cleaning software 

You can employ computer cleansing solutions on the software side of the operation.