Computer Fundamentals Index

Computer Introduction Types of computer Characteristics of computer Uses of computer History of Computers

Computer Languages

Low Level language Middle level Language High level language

Computer Generation

Generation of Computers First Generation of Computer Second generation of Computers Third generation of Computers Fourth generation of Computers Fifth generation of Computers Sixth Generation of Computer

Peripheral Devices

Input devices Output device


Block diagram and basic components Control processing unit (CPU) Software Hardware


Computer Memory Registers Memory Hierarchy RAM Vs ROM Understanding file sizes (Bytes, KB, MB, GB, TB, PB, EB, ZB, YB)

Computer Network

Types of Network Types of Area Networks (LAN, WAN, MAN) TCP Flags

Computer Virus

Computer Virus

Computer Ports

Computer Ports


How to hack a computer How much do Computer Programmers make How does a Computer work How to associate a file with a program How does a computer convert text into binary How does a computer process data into information How to fix a CD-ROM DVD How to fix the no input signal How to install computer memory How to associate a file with a program How to log out of your operating system How do I change my name on Google How to installation or uninstallation Microsoft Paint How to fix a not a valid Win32 application error How to fix missing Microsoft Windows .dll files How to use a computer keyboard How to erase my hard drive and start over How can I test how many words I can write a minute How to shut down a computer How do I open and edit the Windows registry How to edit the registry from the command line How to restart Microsoft Windows How to install a computer processor How to open Microsoft Paint How to fix problems in Windows after installing new software How to enable or disable the preview pane of Microsoft Outlook How to open a Microsoft .wps or Works file in Word How to view the HTML source code in Microsoft Word How to View or Change the Screen Resolution of a Monitor How to Connect and Install a Computer Keyboard How to Delete Temporary Files in Windows 10 How to determine Which Version of Microsoft Office I'm using How to find out how much hard drive space is available How to Fix PC Stuck on Verifying DMI Pool Data How to choose which items show in the notification area How to find similar images using Search by Image How to fix Low Memory and out of memory errors How To Replace the CMOS Battery How do I Update my Antivirus Program How to fix a general protection fault How to Identify problems in the Windows Device Manager How can the Base be Shown How to test if a Website or Web Page is down How Much is 1 Byte, Kilobyte, Megabyte, Gigabyte, etc How to fix a CMOS checksum error How to Fix a Windows CD-ROM, DVD, or Disc Drive Issue How to Open Safe Mode How to Password Protect Files and Folders in Windows How to Reset CMOS or BIOS Settings How to use Computer Keyboard How to create a text file How to enable or disable DHCP in Windows How to test computer memory to determine if its bad How do double space or change line spacing in Microsoft Word How do I know if I have Windows Administrator Rights How many cores does my computer have How to Create a Directory or Folder How to Enter and Exit the BIOS or CMOS Setup How to change Windows Compatibility mode How to clear your internet browser history How to Connect Computer Speakers How to Copy a Web Page Link or URL How to install a Hard Drive or SSD How to Open the Windows Control Panel How to split a screen in Windows How to copy text from a scanned PDF


Who invented Computer What are the advantages of the Internet? What are the disadvantages of the Internet? Is my computer 64 bit? What is Edge Computing? What is a Router? What is Monitor What is Printer What is a Web Browser What is Microphone What is a Webcam What is PC What is Keyboard What is Motherboard What is WAP What is URL What is a Digital Assistant When was the first Computer Invented What is Modem What is Firmware What is Imperative Programming What is Protocol What is Safe Mode What is Device Driver What is Hybrid Topology What is Mesh Topology What is Procedural language What is a hyperlink What is a Username Who invented the Internet What is Video Card What is Sound Card What is Binary What does Alt+B do What does Alt+D do What does Alt+E do What does Alt+Esc do What does Alt+R do What does ALT + Q do What does Alt + Tab do What is Data Manipulation What is a touch screen What is Back Panel What is Analog Monitor What is AR lens What is an ATX Style Connector What is a File System What is Hard Disk Drive (HDD) What is a boot device What is accessibility What is Line In What is network Interface card (NIC) What is Optical Disk Where can I ask questions on the internet What is Auto Rotate What is CAD (Computer-aided design) What is Cable Modem What is Home Page What is boot menu What is braille reader What is flash memory What is Windows What is Clipboard What is Cyber Warfare What is Myspace Why has my IP address changed What is Jacquard Loom My computer is running slow, what steps can I do to fix it What is a Kensington Lock What is a multicore processor What is automation Are smartphones and tablets computers What is a Login Script What is a Loosely Typed Language What is Multitasking? Why my computer monitor shows no display or black screen What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is the Pg Dn Key (Page Down Key) What is the Pg up Key (Page up Key) What is Palmtop Computer What is a Processing Device What is a Print Preview What is the Print Screen Key What can I do if my computer or laptop is lost or stolen What is a Model Number What are the currently available antivirus programs What are Toggle keys What is a Case fan What is a Silicon Chip What is a Slate PC What is a TAB stop What is an Octothorpe What is Task Pane What is Task View What is the svchost.exe file used for in Windows Where can I find free online virus scanners Why am I unable to increase the resolution in Windows What is Autofill When I click my mouse, it sometimes double-clicks What is Scratch What is UDIMM What is MsConfig What is an Expansion Card What is an Executable File What is an Elevated Command Prompt What is an AC Adapter What is AIMBOT What is a Software Suite What is a LED Monitor What does Alt + X do What does alt + space do What does Alt + O do Now that I’ve got a Computer, what can i do What is a Punch Card What is RDIMM What is Select All What is Serial number What is Thermos flask What programs can I use for speech recognition What are the Advantages of Computers What are the Disadvantages of Computers What does Alt + T do What Hardware Device Drivers should be Updated What is a Desktop What is a Ring Topology What is CMOS What is a Directory What is a Mechanical Mouse What is a Plotter What is a Variable What is an Icon What is Data What is HDMI What is Remote What is Right-Click What is SMPS Why does my Laptop not turn on What is a Copyright What is a Cordless Mouse What is a CSV file What is a Joystick What is a Start Button What is a Taskbar What is an Alignment What is an Output Device What is Cat 5 What is Google Chrome What is Post What are Recordable DVD Drives What Does Alt + F4 Do What Does Alt + L Do What is a bit (Binary Digit) What is a cable What is a Calculator What is a capacitor What is a Cold Boot What is a Dialog Box What is a Dual-boot What is a Slide What is A4 What is AM What is Barcode Reader What is EHCI What is a Header What is a Joystick What is a Secondary Storage Device What is Access Time What is Account Sharing What is an Asterisk What is Asynchronous DRAM What is Back Quote What is BIOS What is Borderless Printing What is Case Badge What is CD-ROM What is Chat Slang What is Composite What is RJ Cable What Are Bottom Row Keys What is SAN What is Tray What is VDU What Does Alt + M Do What Does Alt + P Do What is a Cell What is a Command Key What is a key Combination What is a Menu Bar What is a Startup What is a T What is Chat What are the F1 through F12 keys What does Alt + Enter do What Does Alt + Home DO What does Alt + R do What does Ctrl + B do What Does Ctrl + Enter Do What Does Ctrl + R Do What does Ctrl + G do What does Ctrl + 9 do What does Ctrl + End do What does Ctrl + O do What Does Ctrl + P do What Does Ctrl + Q do What is a Colon What is a Core What is Apple Touch Icon What is Clock What is Code What is Computer Crime What is Ctrl What is DAT What is Data diddling What is Date Why won't my computer turn on What Does Alt + N Do What does ctrl + 2 do What does ctrl + space do What does Ctrl + W do What does Ctrl + T Do What Does Ctrl + 2 do What does Ctrl + 5 Do What are the most common file types and file extensions What are Sticky keys What Does Ctrl + Shift + Esc Do What is Settings What is Task Manager What is Taskbar What is a DNS Resolver What does ctrl + 1 do What does ctrl + 0 do How to install software What is a Folder What is a Legend What is a MAC Address What is a Path What is a Ruler What is a Toolbar What is an Intranet Meaning and Differences with Internet What is an SSD What is Inheritance What is Tablet What is Depth What is Docking Station What is Double Click What is a Solid Ink Printer What is a Temporary File What is Backup and Restore What is Electronic Payment Systems Eps What is Marshalling


Difference between hardware and software Difference between multiprocessor and distributed systems Difference between Desktop and Laptop Difference between File and folder Difference between Hard Copy and Soft Copy Open Source Programs vs Closed Source Programs Difference between Optical Fibre and Coaxial Cable Difference between Website and Webpage Difference between Classes and Objects Input VS Output Difference between Primary and Secondary Storage with Examples


Quantum Computing Computer Software Autoexec.bat and config.sys info Update an Antivirus Use of Internet Advantages and disadvantages of Email Computing Power Internet Explorer Shortcut Keys Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) Augmented Reality Infrastructure Readiness Check Top 10 Internet tips and tricks Introduction and Features of FoxPro Features of Multimedia Top 10 online services and applications Receiving S.M.A.R.T. status bad backup and replacing error Version Control System Uninstalling Software or Apps in Windows Data Warehouse Increase or decrease font size in Word using keyboard shortcuts Mouse not detected or working in Windows Computer Cleaning Information and Steps Function Keys on Keyboard Windows 7 Alt+Tab won’t stay on top or stick 10 Essential Examples of Web Browsers Binary Subtraction using 2’s Complement Case Sensitive Languages Computer Pioneers and people who are CEO Microsoft Word Shortcut Keys Parts of Computers Names, Definitions and Images ROM and its Types Basics of Information Technology Characteristics of a Good Software Design Characteristics of Management Information System Classification of Management Information System Implementation of MIS Input Devices of Computer Definition Limitations of Management Information System 3 Types Of Network in Computer Block Diagram Of Control Unit Difference Between Computer and Embedded System Difference Between Hard Disk and Floppy Disk Abstraction in OOAD Hardware and Software Devices Optomechanical Mouse CMOS Memory What is a Terminal? What is Graphic Design? What is Load? What is Passcode? What is Reboot? What is Registry? What is Safe Mode? What is Standby? What is SYN (Synchronize)? What is Task Manager? Attribute Computing BPS in Computer Bulletin Board System Light Pen Input Device 3 TYPES OF NETWORK IN COMPUTER Block diagram of control unit What is a Solid Ink Printer? What is a Temporary File? What is an App launcher? What is Backup and Restore? What is a Tab Character? What is the Core i3? What is Paint? What is a Workbook? Advantages and Disadvantages of Online Education What is a String? What is a VDU (Visible Display Unit)? 50 Uses of Computer What is Workspace? What is a Procedural Language? What is VGA (Video Graphics Array)? Object Linking and Embedding in MS Word Semiconductor Memory Types of Parallel Computing Web Resources Difference between Virus, Worm and Trojan Horse Difference between HQ (High Quality) and HD (High Definition) What is Text Wrapping What is Timestamp? Semiconductor Ram Memory What is a File Attribute? What is a Video Call? Difference between SDRAM and DDR What is ANSI? Difference between DOS and Windows How to Set the Path and Environment Variables in Windows? Mainframe System What is ScanDisk? C drive in Mac Computer Memory Table How to Change the Keyboard Language in Windows? What is a Video Call? What is a Zoom Slider? What is Floppy Disk in Computer What is the most Popular Operating System? OMR in Computer What is a Work Area?

Generation of Computer

History of computer

The abacus was initially used for the mathematical tasks in the history of the computer. It is also known as counting frame and a calculating tool that was used in Europe, China, and Russia a few centuries before.

 The beginning of the computer is related to the 19th century. There was an English mathematics professor named Charles Babbage. He has developed the Analytical Engine. There are five generations of computer history. Every generation is a symbol of the development of significant technology. All five generations of computer are given below:

First Generation

 The period of the first-generation was from 1946 to 1959. J.P.Eckert and J.W.Mauchy developed the first successful electronic computer. The name of the first computer is ENIAC, which, stands for "Electronic Numeric Integrated and Calculator."

These computers used vacuum tubes as circuitry and magnetic drums for memory. These computers are taking up the space of the entire room. These types of computers were inefficient material which produced a lot of heat and sucked a huge amount of electricity.

The first generation of computers used machine language or binary code as the programming language. These computers are limited to solving one problem at a time, and means that they are not multitasking systems.

The ENIAC was not the stored-program computer. It is the collection of electronic adding machines and other arithmetic units which were initially controlled by the web of large electrical cables.

This computer was programmed by the combination of plug board wiring and three portable functions. Every function table has 1200 ten-way switches used for entering the table of numbers.  It was 150 feet wide with the existence of 20 banks of flashlights and about 300 times faster than the Harvard mark1 computer in addition. 

Some examples of first-generation computers

  1. ENIAC Computer
  2. EDVAC Computer
  3. UNIVAC Computer
  4. IBM-701
  5. IBM-650

The computers of the first generation were costly, and only large organizations can afford it. The batch processing operating systems are used in this generation. The punch cards, paper tape, and the magnetic tape were used as input and output devices. The ENIAC computer contains 18,000 vacuum tubes.

generation of computer

                         Fig. Two programmers are working on the ENIAC computer.


  • These computers were capable of calculating the data in few milliseconds.
  • The computer of the first generation use the vacuum tubes, which was the only electronic component available.


  • The computer of this generation is very huge.
  • The weight of these computers was about 30 tones.
  • These are very costly.
  • It could store a small amount of information or data via the presence of magnetic drums.
  • These computers have very less efficiency.
  • A large amount of energy consumption by the first generation of computers.
generation of computer 1

                                   Fig: The Units of ANIAC computer.

  • These computers are not reliable and needed constant maintenance.
  • The punch cards are used to take inputs, and these computers have limited programming capabilities.
  • The first generation of the computer used vacuum tubes, and the vacuum tubes generate a massive amount of heat so, it requires an extensively cooling system.

The output in these computers was displayed on printouts, and the input was based on the paper tape. The UNIVAC Computers was the first commercial computer delivered to the business client, the U.S Census Bureau in 1951. 

UNIVAC Computer

                               The UNIVAC stands for the universal automatic computer. This computer was the first electronic digital computer developed for the use of the business application in the United States.  The inventors of the ENIAC computer invented the UNIVAC computers.

The first UNIVAC computer was established by the United States Census Bureau on 31 March 1951. The main purposes of these computers are business and administrative with fast execution of relatively simple arithmetic and data transport operations.

The UNIVAC computer systems were a massive mainframe computer, and it is operated around 10,000 operations per second. This computer represents the birth of modern computers. The weight of these computers is 15 tons. The UNIVAC computer has 5000 vacuum tubes. The storage in this system was magnetic tape reels that held 1 MB of data at the density of 128 CPI (clocks per instruction). The computers of the first-generation consumed a lot of electricity. These computers supported machine language only.  These computers have slow input/output devices.    

The architecture of UNIVAC Computer

The UNIVAC computers competed directly against punch-card machines. The UNIVAC card to tape converter and the UNIVAC tape to card converter are used to transfer data between cards and UNIVAC magnetic tape. These computers were too expensive for universities.

 The main memory of UNIVAC computers consists of 1000 words. The input/output buffers were 60 words in each, consisting of 12 channels of 10- words mercury wait line registers. There are six channels of 10-word mercury wait line registers as spares with reshaped circuitry.

Seven more channels manage the temperature of the seven mercury tanks in the main memory of the UNIVAC computer. One more channel is used for the ten words "Y" register. There is total 126 mercury channels contained in the seven mercury tanks which are divided into the sections MT, MV, MX, NT, NV, NX, and GV. Every mercury tank is divided into 18 mercury channels.                  

generation of computer 2

                                      Fig. The Architecture of UNIVAC M-460

The instructions were six alpha-numeric characters, and we can bind the two instructions for each word. The time of addition was 525 microseconds and the multiplication time was 2150 microseconds in these computers. A non-standard modification which is known as "Overdrive" that allowed three or four-character instructions per word under some circumstances.

The digits in the UNIVAC computer were represented internally using excess-3 binary coded decimal arithmetic with six bits per digit using the same value as the digits of the alpha-numeric character set, which allows 11 digits signed magnitude numbers. In the case of the exception of one or two machine instructions, the UNIVAC was considered by coders to be a decimal machine.

  The UNISERVO was the first economic computer tape drive. Its data density is 128 bits per inch on the magnetically plated phosphor bronze kind tapes.

generation of computer 3

                                                Fig. Simplified diagram of Unityper

 The binary representation of the characters was unnecessary. When a non-digit character was encountered in the position during an arithmetic operation, the machine passed unchanged output, and the carry into the non-digit was lost. The Unityper was an offline typewriter used by coders for minor data editing.

generation of computer 4

                                            Fig. Simplified diagram of Uniprinter.

The backward and forward tape read and write operations were possible on the UNIVAC printer, and it is overlapped with instruction execution. It is permitted with high system output in typical sort/ merge data processing applications. The large volume of data could be summited as input through magnetic tapes. This type of broad data is created on the offline card to a tape system. The massive data volume made as output through a separate offline tape to printer system.