Computer Fundamentals Index

Computer Introduction Types of computer Characteristics of computer Uses of computer History of Computers

Computer Languages

Low Level language Middle level Language High level language

Computer Generation

Generation of Computers First Generation of Computer Second generation of Computers Third generation of Computers Fourth generation of Computers Fifth generation of Computers Sixth Generation of Computer

Peripheral Devices

Input devices Output device


Block diagram and basic components Control processing unit (CPU) Software Hardware


Computer Memory Registers Memory Hierarchy RAM Vs ROM Understanding file sizes (Bytes, KB, MB, GB, TB, PB, EB, ZB, YB)

Computer Network

Types of Network Types of Area Networks (LAN, WAN, MAN) TCP Flags

Computer Virus

Computer Virus

Computer Ports

Computer Ports


How to hack a computer How much do Computer Programmers make How does a Computer work How to associate a file with a program How does a computer convert text into binary How does a computer process data into information How to fix a CD-ROM DVD How to fix the no input signal How to install computer memory How to associate a file with a program How to log out of your operating system How do I change my name on Google How to installation or uninstallation Microsoft Paint How to fix a not a valid Win32 application error How to fix missing Microsoft Windows .dll files How to use a computer keyboard How to erase my hard drive and start over How can I test how many words I can write a minute How to shut down a computer How do I open and edit the Windows registry How to edit the registry from the command line How to restart Microsoft Windows How to install a computer processor How to open Microsoft Paint How to fix problems in Windows after installing new software How to enable or disable the preview pane of Microsoft Outlook How to open a Microsoft .wps or Works file in Word How to view the HTML source code in Microsoft Word How to View or Change the Screen Resolution of a Monitor How to Connect and Install a Computer Keyboard How to Delete Temporary Files in Windows 10 How to determine Which Version of Microsoft Office I'm using How to find out how much hard drive space is available How to Fix PC Stuck on Verifying DMI Pool Data How to choose which items show in the notification area How to find similar images using Search by Image How to fix Low Memory and out of memory errors How To Replace the CMOS Battery How do I Update my Antivirus Program How to fix a general protection fault How to Identify problems in the Windows Device Manager How can the Base be Shown How to test if a Website or Web Page is down How Much is 1 Byte, Kilobyte, Megabyte, Gigabyte, etc How to fix a CMOS checksum error How to Fix a Windows CD-ROM, DVD, or Disc Drive Issue How to Open Safe Mode How to Password Protect Files and Folders in Windows How to Reset CMOS or BIOS Settings How to use Computer Keyboard How to create a text file How to enable or disable DHCP in Windows How to test computer memory to determine if its bad How do double space or change line spacing in Microsoft Word How do I know if I have Windows Administrator Rights How many cores does my computer have How to Create a Directory or Folder How to Enter and Exit the BIOS or CMOS Setup How to change Windows Compatibility mode How to clear your internet browser history How to Connect Computer Speakers How to Copy a Web Page Link or URL How to install a Hard Drive or SSD How to Open the Windows Control Panel How to split a screen in Windows How to copy text from a scanned PDF


Who invented Computer What are the advantages of the Internet? What are the disadvantages of the Internet? Is my computer 64 bit? What is Edge Computing? What is a Router? What is Monitor What is Printer What is a Web Browser What is Microphone What is a Webcam What is PC What is Keyboard What is Motherboard What is WAP What is URL What is a Digital Assistant When was the first Computer Invented What is Modem What is Firmware What is Imperative Programming What is Protocol What is Safe Mode What is Device Driver What is Hybrid Topology What is Mesh Topology What is Procedural language What is a hyperlink What is a Username Who invented the Internet What is Video Card What is Sound Card What is Binary What does Alt+B do What does Alt+D do What does Alt+E do What does Alt+Esc do What does Alt+R do What does ALT + Q do What does Alt + Tab do What is Data Manipulation What is a touch screen What is Back Panel What is Analog Monitor What is AR lens What is an ATX Style Connector What is a File System What is Hard Disk Drive (HDD) What is a boot device What is accessibility What is Line In What is network Interface card (NIC) What is Optical Disk Where can I ask questions on the internet What is Auto Rotate What is CAD (Computer-aided design) What is Cable Modem What is Home Page What is boot menu What is braille reader What is flash memory What is Windows What is Clipboard What is Cyber Warfare What is Myspace Why has my IP address changed What is Jacquard Loom My computer is running slow, what steps can I do to fix it What is a Kensington Lock What is a multicore processor What is automation Are smartphones and tablets computers What is a Login Script What is a Loosely Typed Language What is Multitasking? Why my computer monitor shows no display or black screen What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is the Pg Dn Key (Page Down Key) What is the Pg up Key (Page up Key) What is Palmtop Computer What is a Processing Device What is a Print Preview What is the Print Screen Key What can I do if my computer or laptop is lost or stolen What is a Model Number What are the currently available antivirus programs What are Toggle keys What is a Case fan What is a Silicon Chip What is a Slate PC What is a TAB stop What is an Octothorpe What is Task Pane What is Task View What is the svchost.exe file used for in Windows Where can I find free online virus scanners Why am I unable to increase the resolution in Windows What is Autofill When I click my mouse, it sometimes double-clicks What is Scratch What is UDIMM What is MsConfig What is an Expansion Card What is an Executable File What is an Elevated Command Prompt What is an AC Adapter What is AIMBOT What is a Software Suite What is a LED Monitor What does Alt + X do What does alt + space do What does Alt + O do Now that I’ve got a Computer, what can i do What is a Punch Card What is RDIMM What is Select All What is Serial number What is Thermos flask What programs can I use for speech recognition What are the Advantages of Computers What are the Disadvantages of Computers What does Alt + T do What Hardware Device Drivers should be Updated What is a Desktop What is a Ring Topology What is CMOS What is a Directory What is a Mechanical Mouse What is a Plotter What is a Variable What is an Icon What is Data What is HDMI What is Remote What is Right-Click What is SMPS Why does my Laptop not turn on What is a Copyright What is a Cordless Mouse What is a CSV file What is a Joystick What is a Start Button What is a Taskbar What is an Alignment What is an Output Device What is Cat 5 What is Google Chrome What is Post What are Recordable DVD Drives What Does Alt + F4 Do What Does Alt + L Do What is a bit (Binary Digit) What is a cable What is a Calculator What is a capacitor What is a Cold Boot What is a Dialog Box What is a Dual-boot What is a Slide What is A4 What is AM What is Barcode Reader What is EHCI What is a Header What is a Joystick What is a Secondary Storage Device What is Access Time What is Account Sharing What is an Asterisk What is Asynchronous DRAM What is Back Quote What is BIOS What is Borderless Printing What is Case Badge What is CD-ROM What is Chat Slang What is Composite What is RJ Cable What Are Bottom Row Keys What is SAN What is Tray What is VDU What Does Alt + M Do What Does Alt + P Do What is a Cell What is a Command Key What is a key Combination What is a Menu Bar What is a Startup What is a T What is Chat What are the F1 through F12 keys What does Alt + Enter do What Does Alt + Home DO What does Alt + R do What does Ctrl + B do What Does Ctrl + Enter Do What Does Ctrl + R Do What does Ctrl + G do What does Ctrl + 9 do What does Ctrl + End do What does Ctrl + O do What Does Ctrl + P do What Does Ctrl + Q do What is a Colon What is a Core What is Apple Touch Icon What is Clock What is Code What is Computer Crime What is Ctrl What is DAT What is Data diddling What is Date Why won't my computer turn on What Does Alt + N Do What does ctrl + 2 do What does ctrl + space do What does Ctrl + W do What does Ctrl + T Do What Does Ctrl + 2 do What does Ctrl + 5 Do What are the most common file types and file extensions What are Sticky keys What Does Ctrl + Shift + Esc Do What is Settings What is Task Manager What is Taskbar What is a DNS Resolver What does ctrl + 1 do What does ctrl + 0 do How to install software What is a Folder What is a Legend What is a MAC Address What is a Path What is a Ruler What is a Toolbar What is an Intranet Meaning and Differences with Internet What is an SSD What is Inheritance What is Tablet What is Depth What is Docking Station What is Double Click What is a Solid Ink Printer What is a Temporary File What is Backup and Restore What is Electronic Payment Systems Eps What is Marshalling


Difference between hardware and software Difference between multiprocessor and distributed systems Difference between Desktop and Laptop Difference between File and folder Difference between Hard Copy and Soft Copy Open Source Programs vs Closed Source Programs Difference between Optical Fibre and Coaxial Cable Difference between Website and Webpage Difference between Classes and Objects Input VS Output Difference between Primary and Secondary Storage with Examples


Quantum Computing Computer Software Autoexec.bat and config.sys info Update an Antivirus Use of Internet Advantages and disadvantages of Email Computing Power Internet Explorer Shortcut Keys Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) Augmented Reality Infrastructure Readiness Check Top 10 Internet tips and tricks Introduction and Features of FoxPro Features of Multimedia Top 10 online services and applications Receiving S.M.A.R.T. status bad backup and replacing error Version Control System Uninstalling Software or Apps in Windows Data Warehouse Increase or decrease font size in Word using keyboard shortcuts Mouse not detected or working in Windows Computer Cleaning Information and Steps Function Keys on Keyboard Windows 7 Alt+Tab won’t stay on top or stick 10 Essential Examples of Web Browsers Binary Subtraction using 2’s Complement Case Sensitive Languages Computer Pioneers and people who are CEO Microsoft Word Shortcut Keys Parts of Computers Names, Definitions and Images ROM and its Types Basics of Information Technology Characteristics of a Good Software Design Characteristics of Management Information System Classification of Management Information System Implementation of MIS Input Devices of Computer Definition Limitations of Management Information System 3 Types Of Network in Computer Block Diagram Of Control Unit

What is a Web Browser?

Web browser is a powerful software that enables the user to efficiently access the world wide web. It allows the user to access the data and information available on the internet. There are all kinds of information available on the world wide web ranging from texts, images, and videos. The user can explore and retrieve that information easily by using the web browser. The word browser is derived from the word browse, which means searching or navigating. The word browser was not initially used for the web browser. Rather, it refers to the user interface that allows users to surf the web. The web browser is the collection of numerous web pages linked together using hyperlinks. They are a means to establish a client-server network on the internet, where the client requests the information provided to it by the webserver. Protocols govern the web browser to perform various functions on the world wide web.

History of the Web Browser

What Is A Web Browser

Tim Berners-Lee developed the first browser to access the world wide web in 1990. This was called WorldWideWeb. The name was confusing, so it was renamed Nexus. In 1992, another browser called Lynx was developed, but this browser did not support graphical content and could only be used to navigate text-based data. Mosaic was the first web page with a graphical interface developed in 1993.

Due to the user interface, this web browser became quite popular. In 1995, Microsoft developed its web browser, the internet explorer. Then, Apple followed Microsoft to develop its web browser known as Safari. Google Chrome, one of the most popular web browsers, was developed in 2008. The Internet Explorer of Microsoft was quite slow compared to the other web browsers available. So, Microsoft launched the Edge browser in 2015.

Features Common to all Web Browsers

  • Home Page: The home page is defined by the web developer when the web pages are developed. Generally, it is the first introductory page of the website. This button redirects the user to that page.
  • Refresh: When refreshing the browser, the entire web page is reloaded again from scratch. All the cache memory is lost, which increases the browser's speed. Any update made on the web page after the initialization of the browser will be lost.
  • Web Address Bar: This bar is available at the top of the website; it displays the current web page's address. The user can also input a web address to directly redirect to the particular website.
  • Back and Forward website: As the name suggests, these websites enable users to visit the last page or the next page.
  • Stop: It terminates all the loading processes performed on the current webpage. The communication is abruptly interrupted between the world wide web and the system.
  • Bookmarks: This enables the user to store the address of some websites for easy retrieval of the site. The user can store frequently used websites.
  • Tabs: This will display the number of websites currently open in the browser. On clicking the tabs, it will show the list of open websites.
  • Plug-ins: These are the extensions to the features of the current browser. They can be installed on the browser to add functionality to it. They can be used to increase security.
What Is A Web Browser

Working on the Web Browser

Any website on the world wide web follows the client-server architecture. The web browser is available at the client-end. Using the web browser user requests the server for information. The server provides the requested information to the browser, which is then interpreted and displayed to the user. A web browser consists of several modules that are interconnected and work simultaneously. It provides a graphical user interface at the view level of the application. It is the part visible to the end-user. The browser engine sends the request to the rendering engine, which then accepts the request and renders the requested result to the browser.

The web pages are usually HTML or XML documents interpreted by the engine. Networking is responsible for the communication between various devices on the network; it also ensures that the network established is secure for sharing information. It also has additional storage for storing the bookmarks, and cookies. This layer is called the persistence layer.

Some of the Popular Web-Browser

What Is A Web Browser

Google Chrome: Currently, the most used web browser is Google Chrome, with approximately a market share. Sixty-two per cent, which means every 6 out of 10 internet users access the world wide web using the Chrome web browser.

Safari: It is the second most popular web browser exclusively available to Apple product users. It comprises almost 20 per cent of the global market.

Firefox and Microsoft Edge: They are the next two popular web browsers. They comprise a 4 per cent share each in the global market. The Microsoft Edge comes pre-installed on all Windows computers and the Microsoft Office Suite.

Flock: It is an advanced web browser exclusively optimized to efficiently use social media and blogging tools.

Components of a Web Browser

Certain components are essential for the proper working of a web browser:

  • User Interface: This defines the view available to the end-user. It may also vary from user to user. It contains all the features that are essential to the user. The user interface should be easy for a browser to be popular. It may include features such as bookmarks, cookies and recommendations. The working of the user interface should be as simple as possible. 
  • Browser interface: It acts as a bridge between the front-end and the back-end of the website. The browser interface is a medium between the external view and the engine responsible for rendering the services to the user. It translates the enquiry done by the user into query language that the engine can understand.
  • Rendering Engine: It is the part that handles the back-end operations in the web browser, which includes searching and displaying the content. It answers the request of the user. Its functions include the translation of website languages such as HTML, CSS, and XML that describe the structure and representation of the website. It also defines the layout of the website and the view of the website visited by the user. It can also be used with extensions and plugins.

Web browsing engines used by the various websites:

  • Chrome uses different extensions for different operating systems, is Webkit for iPhone and Blink for the rest operating systems. 
  • Mozilla browsers use Gecko.
  • Networking: This component deals with the connection and the protocols that each party on the internet need to abide by to access the internet. This component is responsible for retrieving the resource locations in a web browser. To retrieve the URL of a website, it uses protocols such as HTTP or FTP. It can increase the security and speed of the internet. The frequently visited document can be added to the cache to reduce the load on the network.
  • JavaScript Interpreter: It is a scripting language responsible for the responsiveness and functionality of the browser. It cannot be translated along with HTML and CSS using a rendering engine; to translate and execute the JavaScript code, its interpreter is separately installed in the browser that enables the user to operate on the website during the runtime. The output of the code is passed to the rendering engine, which then displays the result on the website. 
  • UI Backend: Unlike the user-specific user interface, the interface at the back-end level is generic. It includes the widgets and basic drop-down menus and draws basic combo boxes.
  • Data Storage: This allows the user to store the data in the local memory that is managed by the browser itself. This layer is used as a persistence layer. The cookies, session and autofill form all these features are possible because of the presence of a persistence layer in the web browser. Different web browsers use different data management systems to store the data. The data is stored in the system's local drive that is accessible by the browser. It is responsible for managing the saved data, cookies, bookmarks and recommendations.
What Is A Web Browser

Address of a Website

The address of the webpage enables the user to locate the specific webpage using the web browser. We refer to this address as the Uniform Resource Location of the webpage. It addresses the resource and is unique to that particular resource only. Just by knowing the address of the webpage, we can determine various features of the webpage, such as:

  • The protocol is used to access the webpage.
  • The website's domain name can tell the nature of the scope of the website.
  • The exact location of the file in the server and the location of the server itself.

Various Web Browsers

Google Chrome: It is currently the most popular web browser. It is an open-source web browser developed by Google in 2008. The reason behind its popularity is its user-friendly design and optimum performance. It was the first browser that combined the search and address bar. It is a reliable and secure web browser. 

The link to the website to download Google Chrome is given below:

Opera: It was primarily designed as a web browser for desktop systems, but the mobile version of the web browser became more popular than the one for desktops. It uses the blink browsing engine to determine the layout of the web pages. Opera Software purchased it from the Telenor Company.

The download link for Opera is provided below:

Safari: It was launched by Apple in 2003. It is currently the second most popular web browser and comes pre-installed on all Apple devices. It uses the Webkit browsing engine that determines the website's structure, design, and responsiveness.

To download the Safari browser for your system, type the link given below: