Computer Fundamentals Index

Computer Introduction Types of computer Characteristics of computer Uses of computer History of Computers

Computer Languages

Low Level language Middle level Language High level language

Computer Generation

Generation of Computers First Generation of Computer Second generation of Computers Third generation of Computers Fourth generation of Computers Fifth generation of Computers Sixth Generation of Computer

Peripheral Devices

Input devices Output device


Block diagram and basic components Control processing unit (CPU) Software Hardware


Computer Memory Registers Memory Hierarchy RAM Vs ROM Understanding file sizes (Bytes, KB, MB, GB, TB, PB, EB, ZB, YB)

Computer Network

Types of Network Types of Area Networks (LAN, WAN, MAN) TCP Flags

Computer Virus

Computer Virus

Computer Ports

Computer Ports


How to hack a computer How much do Computer Programmers make How does a Computer work How to associate a file with a program How does a computer convert text into binary How does a computer process data into information How to fix a CD-ROM DVD How to fix the no input signal How to install computer memory How to associate a file with a program How to log out of your operating system How do I change my name on Google How to installation or uninstallation Microsoft Paint How to fix a not a valid Win32 application error How to fix missing Microsoft Windows .dll files How to use a computer keyboard How to erase my hard drive and start over How can I test how many words I can write a minute How to shut down a computer How do I open and edit the Windows registry How to edit the registry from the command line How to restart Microsoft Windows How to install a computer processor How to open Microsoft Paint How to fix problems in Windows after installing new software How to enable or disable the preview pane of Microsoft Outlook How to open a Microsoft .wps or Works file in Word How to view the HTML source code in Microsoft Word How to View or Change the Screen Resolution of a Monitor How to Connect and Install a Computer Keyboard How to Delete Temporary Files in Windows 10 How to determine Which Version of Microsoft Office I'm using How to find out how much hard drive space is available How to Fix PC Stuck on Verifying DMI Pool Data How to choose which items show in the notification area How to find similar images using Search by Image How to fix Low Memory and out of memory errors How To Replace the CMOS Battery How do I Update my Antivirus Program How to fix a general protection fault How to Identify problems in the Windows Device Manager How can the Base be Shown How to test if a Website or Web Page is down How Much is 1 Byte, Kilobyte, Megabyte, Gigabyte, etc How to fix a CMOS checksum error How to Fix a Windows CD-ROM, DVD, or Disc Drive Issue How to Open Safe Mode How to Password Protect Files and Folders in Windows How to Reset CMOS or BIOS Settings How to use Computer Keyboard How to create a text file How to enable or disable DHCP in Windows How to test computer memory to determine if its bad How do double space or change line spacing in Microsoft Word How do I know if I have Windows Administrator Rights How many cores does my computer have How to Create a Directory or Folder How to Enter and Exit the BIOS or CMOS Setup How to change Windows Compatibility mode How to clear your internet browser history How to Connect Computer Speakers How to Copy a Web Page Link or URL How to install a Hard Drive or SSD How to Open the Windows Control Panel How to split a screen in Windows How to copy text from a scanned PDF


Who invented Computer What are the advantages of the Internet? What are the disadvantages of the Internet? Is my computer 64 bit? What is Edge Computing? What is a Router? What is Monitor What is Printer What is a Web Browser What is Microphone What is a Webcam What is PC What is Keyboard What is Motherboard What is WAP What is URL What is a Digital Assistant When was the first Computer Invented What is Modem What is Firmware What is Imperative Programming What is Protocol What is Safe Mode What is Device Driver What is Hybrid Topology What is Mesh Topology What is Procedural language What is a hyperlink What is a Username Who invented the Internet What is Video Card What is Sound Card What is Binary What does Alt+B do What does Alt+D do What does Alt+E do What does Alt+Esc do What does Alt+R do What does ALT + Q do What does Alt + Tab do What is Data Manipulation What is a touch screen What is Back Panel What is Analog Monitor What is AR lens What is an ATX Style Connector What is a File System What is Hard Disk Drive (HDD) What is a boot device What is accessibility What is Line In What is network Interface card (NIC) What is Optical Disk Where can I ask questions on the internet What is Auto Rotate What is CAD (Computer-aided design) What is Cable Modem What is Home Page What is boot menu What is braille reader What is flash memory What is Windows What is Clipboard What is Cyber Warfare What is Myspace Why has my IP address changed What is Jacquard Loom My computer is running slow, what steps can I do to fix it What is a Kensington Lock What is a multicore processor What is automation Are smartphones and tablets computers What is a Login Script What is a Loosely Typed Language What is Multitasking? Why my computer monitor shows no display or black screen What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is the Pg Dn Key (Page Down Key) What is the Pg up Key (Page up Key) What is Palmtop Computer What is a Processing Device What is a Print Preview What is the Print Screen Key What can I do if my computer or laptop is lost or stolen What is a Model Number What are the currently available antivirus programs What are Toggle keys What is a Case fan What is a Silicon Chip What is a Slate PC What is a TAB stop What is an Octothorpe What is Task Pane What is Task View What is the svchost.exe file used for in Windows Where can I find free online virus scanners Why am I unable to increase the resolution in Windows What is Autofill When I click my mouse, it sometimes double-clicks What is Scratch What is UDIMM What is MsConfig What is an Expansion Card What is an Executable File What is an Elevated Command Prompt What is an AC Adapter What is AIMBOT What is a Software Suite What is a LED Monitor What does Alt + X do What does alt + space do What does Alt + O do Now that I’ve got a Computer, what can i do What is a Punch Card What is RDIMM What is Select All What is Serial number What is Thermos flask What programs can I use for speech recognition What are the Advantages of Computers What are the Disadvantages of Computers What does Alt + T do What Hardware Device Drivers should be Updated What is a Desktop What is a Ring Topology What is CMOS What is a Directory What is a Mechanical Mouse What is a Plotter What is a Variable What is an Icon What is Data What is HDMI What is Remote What is Right-Click What is SMPS Why does my Laptop not turn on What is a Copyright What is a Cordless Mouse What is a CSV file What is a Joystick What is a Start Button What is a Taskbar What is an Alignment What is an Output Device What is Cat 5 What is Google Chrome What is Post What are Recordable DVD Drives What Does Alt + F4 Do What Does Alt + L Do What is a bit (Binary Digit) What is a cable What is a Calculator What is a capacitor What is a Cold Boot What is a Dialog Box What is a Dual-boot What is a Slide What is A4 What is AM What is Barcode Reader What is EHCI What is a Header What is a Joystick What is a Secondary Storage Device What is Access Time What is Account Sharing What is an Asterisk What is Asynchronous DRAM What is Back Quote What is BIOS What is Borderless Printing What is Case Badge What is CD-ROM What is Chat Slang What is Composite What is RJ Cable What Are Bottom Row Keys What is SAN What is Tray What is VDU What Does Alt + M Do What Does Alt + P Do What is a Cell What is a Command Key What is a key Combination What is a Menu Bar What is a Startup What is a T What is Chat What are the F1 through F12 keys What does Alt + Enter do What Does Alt + Home DO What does Alt + R do What does Ctrl + B do What Does Ctrl + Enter Do What Does Ctrl + R Do What does Ctrl + G do What does Ctrl + 9 do What does Ctrl + End do What does Ctrl + O do What Does Ctrl + P do What Does Ctrl + Q do What is a Colon What is a Core What is Apple Touch Icon What is Clock What is Code What is Computer Crime What is Ctrl What is DAT What is Data diddling What is Date Why won't my computer turn on What Does Alt + N Do What does ctrl + 2 do What does ctrl + space do What does Ctrl + W do What does Ctrl + T Do What Does Ctrl + 2 do What does Ctrl + 5 Do What are the most common file types and file extensions What are Sticky keys What Does Ctrl + Shift + Esc Do What is Settings What is Task Manager What is Taskbar What is a DNS Resolver What does ctrl + 1 do What does ctrl + 0 do How to install software What is a Folder What is a Legend What is a MAC Address What is a Path What is a Ruler What is a Toolbar What is an Intranet Meaning and Differences with Internet What is an SSD What is Inheritance What is Tablet What is Depth What is Docking Station What is Double Click What is a Solid Ink Printer What is a Temporary File What is Backup and Restore What is Electronic Payment Systems Eps What is Marshalling


Difference between hardware and software Difference between multiprocessor and distributed systems Difference between Desktop and Laptop Difference between File and folder Difference between Hard Copy and Soft Copy Open Source Programs vs Closed Source Programs Difference between Optical Fibre and Coaxial Cable Difference between Website and Webpage Difference between Classes and Objects Input VS Output Difference between Primary and Secondary Storage with Examples


Quantum Computing Computer Software Autoexec.bat and config.sys info Update an Antivirus Use of Internet Advantages and disadvantages of Email Computing Power Internet Explorer Shortcut Keys Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) Augmented Reality Infrastructure Readiness Check Top 10 Internet tips and tricks Introduction and Features of FoxPro Features of Multimedia Top 10 online services and applications Receiving S.M.A.R.T. status bad backup and replacing error Version Control System Uninstalling Software or Apps in Windows Data Warehouse Increase or decrease font size in Word using keyboard shortcuts Mouse not detected or working in Windows Computer Cleaning Information and Steps Function Keys on Keyboard Windows 7 Alt+Tab won’t stay on top or stick 10 Essential Examples of Web Browsers Binary Subtraction using 2’s Complement Case Sensitive Languages Computer Pioneers and people who are CEO Microsoft Word Shortcut Keys Parts of Computers Names, Definitions and Images ROM and its Types Basics of Information Technology Characteristics of a Good Software Design Characteristics of Management Information System Classification of Management Information System Implementation of MIS Input Devices of Computer Definition Limitations of Management Information System 3 Types Of Network in Computer Block Diagram Of Control Unit Difference Between Computer and Embedded System Difference Between Hard Disk and Floppy Disk Abstraction in OOAD Hardware and Software Devices Optomechanical Mouse CMOS Memory What is a Terminal? What is Graphic Design? What is Load? What is Passcode? What is Reboot? What is Registry? What is Safe Mode? What is Standby? What is SYN (Synchronize)? What is Task Manager? Attribute Computing BPS in Computer Bulletin Board System Light Pen Input Device 3 TYPES OF NETWORK IN COMPUTER Block diagram of control unit What is a Solid Ink Printer? What is a Temporary File? What is an App launcher? What is Backup and Restore? What is a Tab Character? What is the Core i3? What is Paint? What is a Workbook? Advantages and Disadvantages of Online Education What is a String? What is a VDU (Visible Display Unit)? 50 Uses of Computer What is Workspace? What is a Procedural Language? What is VGA (Video Graphics Array)?

Memory Hierarchy

Memory Hierarchy: In computer architecture, the Memory Hierarchy separates computer storage into the hierarchy based response time. It is developed to organize the memory in such a way that it can minimize the access time.

The memory hierarchy affects the performance in computer architectural design, algorithm predictions, and low-level programming constructs the involving locality of reference.

 We can say that the memory unit is the collection of storage units or devices together. It can store binary information in the forms of bits. The memory hierarchy is design into two parts which are given below:

1. External or Secondary Memory

There are several types of external memory that exists, such as magnetic disk, optical disk, magnetic tape, and peripheral storage devices. These devices are accessible by the processor through the I/O module.

2. Internal memory or primary memory

The main memory, cache memory, and CPU registers are existing in the primary or internal memory. This memory is directly accessible by the processor.

Characteristics of Memory Hierarchy

  • Capacity

The capacity is the global volume information of the memory can store. If we move from top to bottom in the hierarchy, the access time increases.

  • Access time

The access time is the time interval between the read /write request and the availability of the data. If we move from top to bottom in the hierarchy, the access time increases.

  • Performance

When the computer system was designed without memory hierarchy design, the speed gap increases between the CPU registers and main memory due to the vast difference in access time.

The result in lower performance of the system and thus, the improvement was required. This improvement was made in the form memory hierarchy design that’s why the performance of the computer system increases. The most significant ways to improve system performance is minimizing how far down the memory hierarchy has to go to manipulate the data.

  • Cost per bit

If we move from bottom to top in the memory hierarchy, the cost per bit is increased. The internal memory is costlier then external memory in the computer system.

Registers in CPU

The processor register is quickly accessible location available to the computer's central processing unit. The registers generally consist of the small amount of fast storage, although some registers have exact hardware functions and may be read-only or write-only. 

Cache Memory

The CPU cache is a hardware cache which is used by the Central Processing Unit of the computer to reduce the average cost to access data from main memory. The Cache is a smaller, faster memory, located closer to the processor core, which stores the copies of data from the frequently used primary memory location.

The Cache memory is also called the CPU memory. It is high - speed static Random Access Memory that the computer microprocessor can access more quickly as compared to regular Random Access Memory.

The Cache is the small-sized type of volatile computer memory which provides high-speed data access to the processor and stores frequently by using the computer programs, applications, and data. It is also the fastest memory in the computer and integrated on to the motherboard and directly embedded in the processor or main Random Access Memory.

Main Memory

The main memory in the computer system is Random Access Memory. This memory is also known as the RAM in short. It is the part of the computer system that stores operating system software, software application and other information for the Central Processing Unit. The CPU has fast and direct access when the user needed to perform the task.

The Ram is one of the fastest types of memory and can allow the data to be read and written. The main memory refers to the computer hardware integrated circuits which store information for the immediate use in the computer system. This memory is synonymous with the term "primary storage."

Disk Cache 

The disk cache is a mechanism to improve the time taken to read from or write to the hard disk. It is included as the part of the hard disk. It can also be the specified portion of Random Access Memory. The disk cache is the cache memory which is used to speed up the process of storing and accessing the data from the host hard disk.

Magnetic Disk

The magnetic storage or magnetic recording is the storage of data on the magnetized medium. It uses different patterns of magnetization in the magnet sable material to store the data. It is a form of non-volatile memory. The information is accessed by using one or more read/write heads.

It is the most common form of secondary storage in the computer system. This memory provides fast access and high storage capacities at a reasonable cost. The magnetic disk drives contain metal disks which are coated on both sides with the iron oxide recording material.

 Magnetic tape

The magnetic tape is the medium of magnetic recording, made from the thin magnetizable coating on the long, narrow strip of plastic film. In 1928, it was developed in Germany. It is based on the magnetic wire recording. It is the type of physical storage media for different kinds of data. The magnetic tape is considered as an analog solution. It is the oldest technology for electronic data storage.

Optical disk

In the computer system, the optical disk is the recording technology. It is flat, a circular disk which can encode the binary data in the form of pits and lands on the special material. It is the computer storage disk that stores the data digitally and uses a laser beam to read and write the data. 

The Optical disk is primarily used as the portable and secondary storage device. This disk can store more data than the previous generation of magnetic storage media. The compact disk, digital versatile or video disk and the Blue-ray disk are the most commonly used form of optical disks. These types of the disk are generally used for:

    1. Distribute the software to customers.

    2. Store a large amount of data in the form of music, images, and videos.

    3. Transfer the data to different computer systems or devices.

    4. Back up the data from the local machine.