Computer Fundamentals Index

Computer Introduction Types of computer Characteristics of computer Uses of computer History of Computers

Computer Languages

Low Level language Middle level Language High level language

Computer Generation

Generation of Computers First Generation of Computer Second generation of Computers Third generation of Computers Fourth generation of Computers Fifth generation of Computers Sixth Generation of Computer

Peripheral Devices

Input devices Output device


Block diagram and basic components Control processing unit (CPU) Software Hardware


Computer Memory Registers Memory Hierarchy RAM Vs ROM Understanding file sizes (Bytes, KB, MB, GB, TB, PB, EB, ZB, YB)

Computer Network

Types of Network Types of Area Networks (LAN, WAN, MAN) TCP Flags

Computer Virus

Computer Virus

Computer Ports

Computer Ports


How to hack a computer How much do Computer Programmers make How does a Computer work How to associate a file with a program How does a computer convert text into binary How does a computer process data into information How to fix a CD-ROM DVD How to fix the no input signal How to install computer memory How to associate a file with a program How to log out of your operating system How do I change my name on Google How to installation or uninstallation Microsoft Paint How to fix a not a valid Win32 application error How to fix missing Microsoft Windows .dll files How to use a computer keyboard How to erase my hard drive and start over How can I test how many words I can write a minute How to shut down a computer How do I open and edit the Windows registry How to edit the registry from the command line How to restart Microsoft Windows How to install a computer processor How to open Microsoft Paint How to fix problems in Windows after installing new software How to enable or disable the preview pane of Microsoft Outlook How to open a Microsoft .wps or Works file in Word How to view the HTML source code in Microsoft Word How to View or Change the Screen Resolution of a Monitor How to Connect and Install a Computer Keyboard How to Delete Temporary Files in Windows 10 How to determine Which Version of Microsoft Office I'm using How to find out how much hard drive space is available How to Fix PC Stuck on Verifying DMI Pool Data How to choose which items show in the notification area How to find similar images using Search by Image How to fix Low Memory and out of memory errors How To Replace the CMOS Battery How do I Update my Antivirus Program How to fix a general protection fault How to Identify problems in the Windows Device Manager How can the Base be Shown How to test if a Website or Web Page is down How Much is 1 Byte, Kilobyte, Megabyte, Gigabyte, etc How to fix a CMOS checksum error How to Fix a Windows CD-ROM, DVD, or Disc Drive Issue How to Open Safe Mode How to Password Protect Files and Folders in Windows How to Reset CMOS or BIOS Settings How to use Computer Keyboard How to create a text file How to enable or disable DHCP in Windows How to test computer memory to determine if its bad How do double space or change line spacing in Microsoft Word How do I know if I have Windows Administrator Rights How many cores does my computer have How to Create a Directory or Folder How to Enter and Exit the BIOS or CMOS Setup How to change Windows Compatibility mode How to clear your internet browser history How to Connect Computer Speakers How to Copy a Web Page Link or URL How to install a Hard Drive or SSD How to Open the Windows Control Panel How to split a screen in Windows How to copy text from a scanned PDF


Who invented Computer What are the advantages of the Internet? What are the disadvantages of the Internet? Is my computer 64 bit? What is Edge Computing? What is a Router? What is Monitor What is Printer What is a Web Browser What is Microphone What is a Webcam What is PC What is Keyboard What is Motherboard What is WAP What is URL What is a Digital Assistant When was the first Computer Invented What is Modem What is Firmware What is Imperative Programming What is Protocol What is Safe Mode What is Device Driver What is Hybrid Topology What is Mesh Topology What is Procedural language What is a hyperlink What is a Username Who invented the Internet What is Video Card What is Sound Card What is Binary What does Alt+B do What does Alt+D do What does Alt+E do What does Alt+Esc do What does Alt+R do What does ALT + Q do What does Alt + Tab do What is Data Manipulation What is a touch screen What is Back Panel What is Analog Monitor What is AR lens What is an ATX Style Connector What is a File System What is Hard Disk Drive (HDD) What is a boot device What is accessibility What is Line In What is network Interface card (NIC) What is Optical Disk Where can I ask questions on the internet What is Auto Rotate What is CAD (Computer-aided design) What is Cable Modem What is Home Page What is boot menu What is braille reader What is flash memory What is Windows What is Clipboard What is Cyber Warfare What is Myspace Why has my IP address changed What is Jacquard Loom My computer is running slow, what steps can I do to fix it What is a Kensington Lock What is a multicore processor What is automation Are smartphones and tablets computers What is a Login Script What is a Loosely Typed Language What is Multitasking? Why my computer monitor shows no display or black screen What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is REM What is Parallelization What is Overtype mode What is open with What is Bracket What is an Online Service What is the Pg Dn Key (Page Down Key) What is the Pg up Key (Page up Key) What is Palmtop Computer What is a Processing Device What is a Print Preview What is the Print Screen Key What can I do if my computer or laptop is lost or stolen What is a Model Number What are the currently available antivirus programs What are Toggle keys What is a Case fan What is a Silicon Chip What is a Slate PC What is a TAB stop What is an Octothorpe What is Task Pane What is Task View What is the svchost.exe file used for in Windows Where can I find free online virus scanners Why am I unable to increase the resolution in Windows What is Autofill When I click my mouse, it sometimes double-clicks What is Scratch What is UDIMM What is MsConfig What is an Expansion Card What is an Executable File What is an Elevated Command Prompt What is an AC Adapter What is AIMBOT What is a Software Suite What is a LED Monitor What does Alt + X do What does alt + space do What does Alt + O do Now that I’ve got a Computer, what can i do What is a Punch Card What is RDIMM What is Select All What is Serial number What is Thermos flask What programs can I use for speech recognition What are the Advantages of Computers What are the Disadvantages of Computers What does Alt + T do What Hardware Device Drivers should be Updated What is a Desktop What is a Ring Topology What is CMOS What is a Directory What is a Mechanical Mouse What is a Plotter What is a Variable What is an Icon What is Data What is HDMI What is Remote What is Right-Click What is SMPS Why does my Laptop not turn on What is a Copyright What is a Cordless Mouse What is a CSV file What is a Joystick What is a Start Button What is a Taskbar What is an Alignment What is an Output Device What is Cat 5 What is Google Chrome What is Post What are Recordable DVD Drives What Does Alt + F4 Do What Does Alt + L Do What is a bit (Binary Digit) What is a cable What is a Calculator What is a capacitor What is a Cold Boot What is a Dialog Box What is a Dual-boot What is a Slide What is A4 What is AM What is Barcode Reader What is EHCI What is a Header What is a Joystick What is a Secondary Storage Device What is Access Time What is Account Sharing What is an Asterisk What is Asynchronous DRAM What is Back Quote What is BIOS What is Borderless Printing What is Case Badge What is CD-ROM What is Chat Slang What is Composite What is RJ Cable What Are Bottom Row Keys What is SAN What is Tray What is VDU What Does Alt + M Do What Does Alt + P Do What is a Cell What is a Command Key What is a key Combination What is a Menu Bar What is a Startup What is a T What is Chat What are the F1 through F12 keys What does Alt + Enter do What Does Alt + Home DO What does Alt + R do What does Ctrl + B do What Does Ctrl + Enter Do What Does Ctrl + R Do What does Ctrl + G do What does Ctrl + 9 do What does Ctrl + End do What does Ctrl + O do What Does Ctrl + P do What Does Ctrl + Q do What is a Colon What is a Core What is Apple Touch Icon What is Clock What is Code What is Computer Crime What is Ctrl What is DAT What is Data diddling What is Date Why won't my computer turn on What Does Alt + N Do What does ctrl + 2 do What does ctrl + space do What does Ctrl + W do What does Ctrl + T Do What Does Ctrl + 2 do What does Ctrl + 5 Do What are the most common file types and file extensions What are Sticky keys What Does Ctrl + Shift + Esc Do What is Settings What is Task Manager What is Taskbar What is a DNS Resolver What does ctrl + 1 do What does ctrl + 0 do How to install software What is a Folder What is a Legend What is a MAC Address What is a Path What is a Ruler What is a Toolbar What is an Intranet Meaning and Differences with Internet What is an SSD What is Inheritance What is Tablet What is Depth What is Docking Station What is Double Click What is a Solid Ink Printer What is a Temporary File What is Backup and Restore What is Electronic Payment Systems Eps What is Marshalling


Difference between hardware and software Difference between multiprocessor and distributed systems Difference between Desktop and Laptop Difference between File and folder Difference between Hard Copy and Soft Copy Open Source Programs vs Closed Source Programs Difference between Optical Fibre and Coaxial Cable Difference between Website and Webpage Difference between Classes and Objects Input VS Output Difference between Primary and Secondary Storage with Examples


Quantum Computing Computer Software Autoexec.bat and config.sys info Update an Antivirus Use of Internet Advantages and disadvantages of Email Computing Power Internet Explorer Shortcut Keys Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) Augmented Reality Infrastructure Readiness Check Top 10 Internet tips and tricks Introduction and Features of FoxPro Features of Multimedia Top 10 online services and applications Receiving S.M.A.R.T. status bad backup and replacing error Version Control System Uninstalling Software or Apps in Windows Data Warehouse Increase or decrease font size in Word using keyboard shortcuts Mouse not detected or working in Windows Computer Cleaning Information and Steps Function Keys on Keyboard Windows 7 Alt+Tab won’t stay on top or stick 10 Essential Examples of Web Browsers Binary Subtraction using 2’s Complement Case Sensitive Languages Computer Pioneers and people who are CEO Microsoft Word Shortcut Keys Parts of Computers Names, Definitions and Images ROM and its Types Basics of Information Technology Characteristics of a Good Software Design Characteristics of Management Information System Classification of Management Information System Implementation of MIS Input Devices of Computer Definition Limitations of Management Information System 3 Types Of Network in Computer Block Diagram Of Control Unit Difference Between Computer and Embedded System Difference Between Hard Disk and Floppy Disk Abstraction in OOAD Hardware and Software Devices Optomechanical Mouse CMOS Memory What is a Terminal? What is Graphic Design? What is Load? What is Passcode? What is Reboot? What is Registry? What is Safe Mode? What is Standby? What is SYN (Synchronize)? What is Task Manager? Attribute Computing BPS in Computer Bulletin Board System Light Pen Input Device 3 TYPES OF NETWORK IN COMPUTER Block diagram of control unit What is a Solid Ink Printer? What is a Temporary File? What is an App launcher? What is Backup and Restore? What is a Tab Character? What is the Core i3? What is Paint? What is a Workbook? Advantages and Disadvantages of Online Education What is a String? What is a VDU (Visible Display Unit)? 50 Uses of Computer What is Workspace? What is a Procedural Language? What is VGA (Video Graphics Array)? Object Linking and Embedding in MS Word Semiconductor Memory Types of Parallel Computing Web Resources Difference between Virus, Worm and Trojan Horse Difference between HQ (High Quality) and HD (High Definition) What is Text Wrapping What is Timestamp? Semiconductor Ram Memory What is a File Attribute? What is a Video Call? Difference between SDRAM and DDR What is ANSI? Difference between DOS and Windows How to Set the Path and Environment Variables in Windows? Mainframe System What is ScanDisk? C drive in Mac Computer Memory Table How to Change the Keyboard Language in Windows? What is a Video Call? What is a Zoom Slider? What is Floppy Disk in Computer What is the most Popular Operating System? OMR in Computer What is a Work Area?

What is Electronic Payment Systems (EPS)?

Among the technological advancements that define the 21st century, electronic payment systems (EPS) are emerging as the key thread that binds convenience, security, and efficiency in financial transactions. This study delves into the multifaceted landscape of EPS, explores its historical roots, unpacks its complex mechanisms, and reveals its profound impact on today's economy.

Origins of Electronic Payment Systems

The beginnings of Digital Communication

When the first digital communication models appeared in the middle of the 20th century, the EPS journey began. Cash was replaced with credit cards when they were first introduced in the 1950s. Although these cards' early versions lacked the advanced technology we are accustomed to, they laid the groundwork for the upcoming electronic revolution.

A significant breakthrough came in the 1970s with the introduction of magnetic tape technology. This innovation enabled data to be stored securely on cards, allowing for more advanced electronic payment systems. As magnetic stripe cards became popular, the convenience of not relying solely on cash began to shape consumer behaviour and expectations.

The Birth of Internet Marketing

The advent of the Internet at the end of the 20th century laid the groundwork for a revolution in payment systems. Internet transactions have become possible, creating a huge leap in EPS growth. The first secure online purchase, facilitated by the encryption technology SSL (Secure Sockets Layer), took place in 1994. This pivotal moment demonstrated the potential for secure electronic commerce, the seeds of a digital payment system, and the difficult process we go through today in cultivating.

Key features of an Electronic Payment System

Digital Wallet: Modern Wallet

  • Definition and Application: Digital wallets, commonly referred to as e-wallets, stand as the equivalent of today's traditional wallets. These virtual stores allow users to store payment information securely. They act as an intermediary between the user and financial institutions, facilitating communication through digital connectivity.
  • Special Features: A secure storage: Digital wallets store sensitive information and provide a safe place to store credit card details, bank account details, and even digital currencies.
  • Convenience: Users can easily transact without the need to carry physical cards or cash. Mobile devices are the main focus of payment options.
  • Connecting to mobile devices: Digital wallets are often integrated with smartphones, allowing users to make payments, earn loyalty cards, and manage financial accounts with a few taps.

Credit and Debit Cards: The cornerstone of EPS

Making Plastic Money:

  • Magnetic stripe cards: The introduction of magnetic stripe technology in the 1970s allowed the secure encryption of information on credit and debit cards.
  • Chip cards: In the 2000s, chip cards (EMV cards) added an extra layer of security, reducing the risk of fraud through improved authentication methods.

Non-Negotiable Payments:

  • NFC Technology: Near Field Communication (NFC) technology enables contactless payments. Users can swipe their cards on the POS terminal, adding speed and convenience.

C. Mobile Payments: The rise of smartphone wallets

Definitions and techniques

Transactions carried out via mobile devices utilizing NFC, QR codes, or mobile apps are referred to as mobile payments. This payment method's ease of use and convenience has led to its growing popularity.


  • Enhanced security: Extra security is added by features like biometric authentication (facial or fingerprint recognition, for example).
  • Integration with loyalty programs: To provide users with incentives and savings, a lot of mobile payment apps integrate with loyalty programs.

Online Banking and Electronic Funds Transfer (EFT)

Online Banking: Financial institutions provide online platforms that allow users to access their accounts, transfer funds, and pay electronically.

Automated Clearing House (ACH): A system for transferring electronic funds between banks, facilitating direct deposits, payments, and other transactions.

Electronic Funds Transfer (EFT):

  • Wire transfers: instant electronic transfers of funds between banks typically used for large transactions or international payments.
  • ACH Transfers: ACH transfers, the standard EFT method, are typically used to pay common bills, such as salaries and utility bills.

Procedures for EPS protection


Tokenization Process:

  • Token creation: Unique tokens are used to replace sensitive information, such as card numbers, during a transaction.
  • Secure transmission: Tokens are sent in place of actual card information, reducing the risk of unauthorized access.

Increased Security

Reduced risk of a data breach: Even if blocked, tokens are free with the corresponding encryption key, reducing the impact of a data breach.

Use of Biometric Authentication

Fingerprint Recognition

  • Unique identification: Fingerprint authentication adds a biometric layer of security by using an individual's unique fingerprint as a method of identification.
  • Touch ID and Face ID: Apple's Touch ID and Face ID technology is an example of incorporating biometrics into mobile payment authentication.

Front introduction

  • Security improvements: Facial recognition technology analyzes facial features to verify user authentication, further enhancing the security of electronic communications.

Impact of electronic payment systems on business and society

Financial Instruments

Efficiency and Speed

  • Real-time communication: EPS enables transactions to be processed in real-time, providing instantaneous exchange of goods and services.
  • Global transactions: Cross-border transactions are facilitated, reducing time and costs associated with traditional banking channels.

Financial Inclusions

  • Accessibility: EPS facilitates financial inclusion by providing banking and payment services to individuals who may be geographically distant or unbanked.
  • Micro transactions: Mobile payment solutions empower individuals to make microtransactions, expanding financial opportunities.

Changes in Consumer Behaviour


  • Transactions on the go: Users can easily buy and pay in physical stores or online without the need for physical cash.
  • Integration into daily life: Integration of EPS with daily activities such as traveling, eating, and shopping has become commonplace.

Prioritizing digital platforms:

  • E-commerce boom: Rising EPS is associated with the rise of e-commerce, as consumers increasingly like the convenience of online shopping.
  • Contactless transactions: Contactless payments and mobile wallets are gaining popularity due to their ease of use, cleanliness, and appeal.

Safety Considerations

Fraud Prevention

  • Biometric authentication: The use of biometrics adds a layer of security to ensure that a valid account owner has authorized transactions.
  • Tokenization: Tokenization reduces the impact of a data breach, as the received token is useless without a corresponding encryption key.

Data Privacy Statement

  • Regulatory framework: Governments and policy bodies are adapting to the evolving landscape, implementing policies to protect users' data and privacy.
  • User education: It is important to promote safety practices and awareness of potential hazards among users to maintain the integrity of the EPS.

Challenges and Future Perspectives

Security Challenges

Cyber Security Threats

  • Sophisticated attacks: Cybercriminals are constantly changing their tactics, posing challenges to robust EPS security measures.
  • Phishing and Social Engineering: Users can be vulnerable to phishing attacks and social engineering schemes, emphasizing the need for continued education and awareness.


  • Data protection regulations: The dynamic nature of EPS requires continuous adaptation to evolving data protection regulations, such as GDPR and CCPA.

Technological Advances

Biometric innovations

  • Behavioural biometrics: Advances in behavioural biometrics, such as keystroke dynamics and gait analysis, can further enhance user loyalty.

Delegated Finance (DeFi):

  • Rise of DeFi: DeFi leverages the emergence of platforms, blockchain, and smart contracts, reshaping the financial landscape and affecting traditional EPS.

Communication and Standardization

Global Standards:

  • Operational challenges: Global standards are needed to ensure seamless interoperability across EPS systems and technologies.
  • Integrated policies: Efforts to develop standards can create an integrated system, leading to a more cohesive and efficient financial system.

Continuous Improvement

Innovations in payment methods:

Central Bank Digital Currencies (CBDCs): Some countries are exploring the creation of CBDCs, which could change the perception of national currencies.

Discussion and fellowship:

  • Intersectoral collaboration: Collaboration between financial institutions, technology companies, and regulatory bodies is crucial in addressing challenges and promoting innovation.


From the early days of credit cards to today's sophisticated digital ecosystem, EPS has evolved into many facets, including digital wallets, mobile payments, and advanced security measures.

As we navigate the complex nexus of convenience, security, and innovation, the future of EPS holds both challenges and promise. A serious cybersecurity threat requiring constant is vigilance and flexibility. But advances in biometrics, the rise of decentralized finance, and continued efforts to foster interoperability point the way for EPS towards a future where financial transactions are not only secure but connected to our digital lives with ease of fabric.

In this dynamic environment, collaboration between industry, regulatory agencies, and other technical sectors plays an important role. As EPS continues to evolve, this is not just a technological change but a social one, redefining how we perceive and interact with the commercial and economic foundations. Standing on the precipice of this digital frontier, the journey of EPS is a testament to human intelligence and a beacon to the next era of financial possibilities.